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THE PORTS OF 

PHILADELPHIA, PA., CAMDEN 

AND GLOUCESTER, N. J. 



PORT SERIES No. 4 

(REVISED 1938) 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 
UNITED STATES ARMY 

AND 

UNITED STATES MARITIME COMMISSION 




h 



t-' 



WAR DEPARTMENT 





CORPS OF F NGINEERS.U.S.ARMY 



JERSEY 



jfH CESTERif ' 




)ELAWARE RIVER 
J'^ON, N.J. TO THE SEA 



SCALE OF UIl£S 



APPROVED: 

'*'^'CI*N Lt.COL^ORPS OF ENGINEERS,!] S A 

DRAWN BY v'^jD 



VKollege pt. 



BURLINGTON* 



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MORRISVILLE \, 



FIEL0SBORO« 
BORDENTOWN*^?^ 



WAR DEPARTMENT 
CORPS OF ENGINEERS. UNITED STATES ARMY 

AND 

UNITED STATES MARITIME COMMISSION 



PORT SERIES No. 4 

(REVISED 1938) 



THE PORTS OF 

PHILADELPHIA, PA., CAMDEN 

AND GLOUCESTER, N. J. 




Prepared by 

THE BOARD OF ENGINEERS FOR RIVERS AND HARBORS 

WAR DEPARTMENT 

AND 

DIVISION OF RESEARCH 
UNITED STATES MARITIME COMMISSION 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1939 



For tale by the Superintendent of Document!. Washington. D. C. ---.-......-.. Price $1.25 



He 



LIST OF REPORTS 

The following is a list of reports prepared under authority of section 500 of the 
Transportation Act and section 8 of the Merchant Marine Act. 

PORT SERIES 

Price 

No. 1 . Portland, Maine (revised 1937) $0. 25 

No. 2. Boston, Mass. (revised 1936) , 30 

No. 3. Mobile, Ala., and Pensacola, Fla.: 

Part 1, Mobile, Ala. (revised 1937) . 30 

Part 2, Pensacola, Fla. (revised 1937) . 20 

No. 4. Philadelphia, Pa., Camden and Gloucester, N. J. (revised 1938).. 1. 25 

No. 6. New Orleans, La. (revised 1938) 1. 00 

No. 6. Galveston, Houston, and Texas City, Tex.: 

Part 1, Galveston, Tex. (revised 1935) .30 

Part 2, Houston, Tex. (revised 1935) .35 

Part 3, Texas City and Corpus Christi, Tex. (revised 1935) - - . .35 

No. 7. Seattle, Wash, (revised 1938) .60 

No. 8. Jacksonville, Fernandina, Miami, Key West, Tampa, and South 

Boca Grande, Fla 1. jq 

Part 1, Jacksonville, Fla. (revised 1936) , 40 

Part 2, Miami and Tampa, Fla. (revised 1936) . 45 

No. 9. Charleston, S. C, and Wilmington, N. C. (revised 1934) . 50 

No. 10. Savannah and Brunswick, Ga. (revised 1935) .40 

No. 11. Portland and Astoria, Oreg., and Vancouver, Wash.: 

Part 1, Portland, Oreg. (revised 1931) .50 

Part 2, Astoria, Oreg., Longview, and Vancouver, Wash. 

(revised 1931) . 30 

No. 12. San Francisco, Oakland, Berkeley, Richmond, Upper San Fran- 
cisco Bay, Santa Cruz, and Monterey, Calif, (revised 1933) . 65 

No. 13. Los Angeles, Long Beach, San Diego, and San Luis Obispo, CaUf.: 

Part 1, Los Angeles and Long Beach, Cahf. (revised 1936) .35 

Part 2, San Diego and San Luis Obispo, Calif, (revised 1936) _ . .30 

No. 14. Port Arthur, Sabine, Beaumont, and Orange, Tex. (revised 1933) _ _ .40 

No. 15. Norfolk, Portsmouth, and Newport News, Va. (revised 1934) .80 

No. 16. Baltimore, Md., Washington, D. C, and Alexandria, Va 1. 10 

Part 1, Baltimore, Md. (revised 1933) .50 

No. 17. Ports of the Territory of Hawaii (revised 1935) .35 

No. 18. Ports of Southern New England (revised 1937) 1, 50 

No. 19. Pascagoula and Gulfport, Miss, (revised 1934) . 20 

No. 20. New York (in three parts, complete) (revised 1932) 2. 25 

No. 21. Ports of Puerto Rico (revised 1935) .25 

No. 22. Panama Canal and Its Ports (revised 1938) .36 

No. 23. Olympia and Port Angeles, Wash . 35 

No. 24. Ports of Northern New England . 35 

No. 25. Ports on the Upper Hudson River . 50 

No. 26. Stockton and Sacramento, Calif . 35 

No. 27. Tacoma, Wash, (revised 1938) .50 

No. 28. Everett, Bellingham, and Grays Harbor, Wash, (revised 1938) . 65 

No. 29. Wilmington, Del. (revised 1938) 

No. 30. Ports on the Delaware River below and above Philadelphia, Pa. 

(revised 1938) 

No. 31. Lake Charles, La .40 

in 



IV LIST OF REPORTS 

LAKE SERIES 

No. 1. Buflfalo, N. Y . 50 

No. 2. Detroit, Mich .45 

No. 3. Milwaukee, Wis . 45 

No. 4. Chicago, 111 .60 

No. 5. Cleveland, Ohio . 50 

No. 6. Duluth-Superior, Minn, and Wis . 50 

No. 7. Toledo, Ohio .45 

No. 8. Sandusky, Huron, and Lorain, Ohio .45 

TRANSPORTATION SERIES 

No. 1. Transportation on the Great Lakes (revised 1937) 1. 75 

No. 2. Transportation in the Mississippi and Ohio Valleys L 25 

No. 3. Transportation Lines on the Great Lakes .30 

No. 4. Transportation Lines on the Mississippi River System . 25 

MISCELLANEOUS SERIES 

No. 1. Port and Terminal Charges at United States Ports (1938 edition).. 1. 00 
No. 2. Shipping Charges at United States and Foreign Ports: Consular 

Services and Charges , 25 

No. 3. Foreign Trade Zones or Free Ports 1. 00 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Part I 
[Prepared by Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors, War Department] 



Port and harbor conditions: 

General description 

Tides 

Tidal currents 

Anchorages 

Weather conditions 

Bridges 

Harbor improvements by the United States 

Harbor improvements by local interests 

Terminal improvements 

Ownership of the water front 

Fuel and supplies: 

Electric current 

Water supply 

Oil bunkering 

Coal bunkering 

Port and harbor facilities: 

Piers, wharves, and docks 

Hoisting facilities 

Grain elevators 

Storage warehouses 

Bulk freight storage 

Drydocks and marine railways 

Marine repair plants 

Floating equipment 

Wrecking and salvage facilities 

Radio stations 

Airports and air lines 

Railroad services and rates: 

Railroads 

Facilities for interchange between rail and water 

Switching 

Car demurrage 

Lighterage and car floatage 

Cartage and drayage 

Diversion and reconsignment 

Transit privileges . 

Miscellaneous charges and allowances 

Rail rates 

Commerce : 

Philadelphia, including Delaware River from Allegheny 
Avenue, Philadelphia, to the sea, and Schuylkill 

River 

Port of Philadelphia 

Schuylkill River 

Port of Camden 

General 



Phila- Cam- Glou- 

delphia den, cester, 

Pa., N. J., N. J., 

page page page 



127 

128 

129- 

133. 

134_ 

137_ 

137- 

138. 

142. 

142 



165. 
192. 
208. 



225 291 



6 


6 


8 


10 


225 


13 


227 


15 


227 


15 


227 


16 


228 



17 


229 


291 


17 


229 


291 


17 


229 


291 


20 


229 


291 


23 


231 


291 


90 


258.. 





96 


263.. 




97 


263-- 




110 


265_. 




112 


265-. 




114 


268-- 




116 


269 


297 


124 


273.- 





124 


273-- 





125 


273_- 





275. 
275. 



275- 



221 



275- 
289- 



VI TAI3LE OF CONTENTS 

Part II 
[Prepared by Division of Researcfi, U. S. Maritime Commission.] 

dSphia. Camden, 
Pa. ^•"'• 
Port customs and regulations: 

Federal services and regulations 303 419 

Treasury Department: 

Customs Service 303 

Public Health Service 303 

Department of Labor — Immigration Service 304 

United States Army^ — Engineer Corps 305 

Department of Commerce — Bureau of Marine Inspection 

and Navigation 305 

Local rules and regulations 305 

Port administration: 

Department of Wharves, Docks, and Ferries 311 

Navigation Commission 314 

South Jersey Port Commission 422 

Board of Commerce and Navigation 423 

Port labor and methods employed in handling cargo: 

Labor 316 424 

Stevedoring contractors 323 

Methods employed in handling cargo 324 424 

Rules for loading grain 327 

Rules for loading sugar 328 

Rules for loading petroleum 330 

Rules for loading and unloading lumber 332 

Port and terminal services and charges: 

Pilotage 332 426 

Towage 334 426 

Dockage 337 426 

Wharfage 338 427 

Loading and unloading 339 427 

Handling charges 340 428 

Stevedoring charges 343 429 

Storage charges, rules, and regulations 345 

Pier or terminal storage 352 

Warehouse storage 352 

Grain elevation and storage 354 

Absorptions 357 

Miscellaneous charges 358 431 

Steamship services, rates, and rate conferences: 

Steamship services 361 433 

Steamship rates and rate practices 369 433 

Export ocean rate conditions 369 

Import ocean rate conditions 371 

Atlantic-Pacific intercoastal trade 372 

Steamship conferences 375 

Territory tributary. _ 392 433 

Index 435 435 



TABLE OF CONTENTS yU 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Location map of Delaware River ports Frontispiece 

Mosaic of the port of Philadelphia 3 

Pennsylvania Railroad coal pier at Greenwich 20 

Reading Co. coal pier at Port Richmond 21 

Delaware Avenue and piers, Race to Kenilworth Streets, Philadelphia 22 

Piers between Allegheny Avenue and Palmer Street 22 

Pier No. 84, South, Philadelphia, sectional elevation 22 

Pier No. 84, South, view of street end 22 

Interior view of pier No. 40, South 24 

View of piers 96, 98, and 100 operated by the Philadelphia Piers, Inc 24 

View of Pennsylvania Railroad Co. Girard Point Terminal, Schuylkill 

River gg 

View of a section of Reading Co. Port Richmond terminal 96 

Map showing railroads serving port of Philadelphia 127 

Graph showing commerce of Delaware River, Philadelphia to the sea, 

1927-36 jgg 

Graph showing commerce of the port of Philadelphia, 1932-36 192 

Graph showing commerce of Schuylkill River, 1927-36 208 

Camden, N. J., water front between Victor Wharf and Camden Coke Co. 

wharf 225 

Camden Marine Terminals at Spruce and Beckett Streets 23 1 

Graph showing commerce of Camden. N. J., 1927-36 276 

Port facilities map of Philadelphia, Pa., including Camden and Gloucester, 



N.J. 



300 



LETTERS OF TRANSMITTAL 

War Department, 
The Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors, 

Washington, June I4, 1938. 
Subject: Report on the ports of Philadelphia, Pa., Camden and 

Gloucester, N. J. 
To: The Chief of Engineers, U. S. Army. 

L There is transmitted herewith a report on the ports of Phila- 
delphia, Pa., Camden and Gloucester, N. J., which is a revision of the 
data published in 1932, and is No. 4 of the Port Series. The present 
report was prepared by this Department and the United States Mari- 
time Commission as a result of the cooperation prescribed by section 
8 of the Merchant Marine Act and in furtherance of the objects en- 
trusted to the War Department by section 500 of the Transportation 
Act of 1920. 

2. In accordance with the agreement for cooperation between the 
two organizations, the report is now presented in two parts, part 1 
of which was compiled by this office and part 2 by the Maritime Com- 
mission. The information in part 1 covers port and harbor condi- 
tions, fuel and suppUes, port and harbor facihties, railroad services 
and rates, and detailed statistics of water-borne commerce for a 
10-year period. Much of this information was suppUed by the dis- 
trict engmeer. United States Engmeer Office, Philadelphia,"^ Pa., and 
the remainder was secured by representatives of the statistical divi- 
sion of this office who made a personal mspection of the facilities at 
the ports. The final report was completed and assembled by the sta- 
tistical division of this office under the supervision of Mr. Warren E. 
Graves, chief statistician of the board, who is in immediate charge of 
the work. 

3. On account of the value of the information to commerce and 
shippmg and to the operation of the American merchant marine, it is 
recommended that the report be printed, with the accompanying 
illustrations. 

For the Board: 

R. A. Wheeler, 
Lieutenant Colonel, Corps oj Engineers, 

Resident Member of the Board. 



X LETTERS OF TRANSMITTAL 

[First endorsement] 

Office of the Chief of Engineers, 

June 15, 1938. 
To the Board of Engineers 

for Rivers and Harbors, 

Washington, D. C. 
Approved. 

John J. Kingman, 
Brigadier General, Acting ChieJ oj Engineers. 

United States Maritime Commission, 

Washington, August 10, 1938. 
To: Alfred H. Haag, Director, Division of Research. 
From: E. P. Cotter, Chief, Trade Routes and Ports Project. 
Subject: Port Series No. 4, The Ports of Philadelphia, Pa., and 
Camden, N. J. 

Section 8 of the Merchant Marine Act of 1920 requires the United 
States Maritime Commission, in cooperation with the Secretary of 
War, to investigate port facilities and the flow of commerce tlirough 
ports in order to encourage their use by vessels engaged in the domestic 
and foreign trades of the United States. 

Under the cooperative arrangement with the Board of Engineers for 
Rivers and Harbors, United States Army, the second revision of this 
volume on the Ports of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Camden, New 
Jersey, which is Port Series No. 4, has been completed. In accordance 
with the arrangement between the War Department and the United 
States Maritime Commission Part II of this volume containing mate- 
rial on port customs and regulations, port labor and procedure em- 
ployed in handling cargo, port and terminal services and charges, 
steamship services, rates and rate conferences and territory tributaiy, 
was prepared in the Trade Routes and Ports Project of this Division 
by George M. Rice. 

Recommendation is made that this material, the manuscript of 
which is transmitted herewith, be approved for publication. 

E. P. Cotter, 
ChieJ, Trade Routes and Ports Project, Division of Research* 

Approved: 

Alfred H. Haag, 
Director, Division of Research . 



INTRODUCTION 

This is a revision of the data on the ports of Pliiladelphia, Pa., 
Camden and Gloucester, N. J., and is published as Port Series No. 4. 
Information covering the ports on the Delaware River above Phila- 
delphia included in the previous edition of the report is now pubUshed 
in Port Series No. 30. The reports in this series cover the principal 
ports of the United States and are prepared to meet the needs of the 
War Department and the United States Maritime Commission in the 
development of harbors and the encouragement and betterment of 
port facilities, with a view to the promotion of water transportation 
and the American merchant marine, and to assist commercial and 
shipping interests in the upbuilding of American trade. 

The War Department is charged by law with the planning and 
improvement of our harbors and navigable channels, and jointly with 
the Maritime Commission is required to undertake investigations of 
ports and terminals and of the territory tributary to ports, and to 
advise with communities regardmg the appropriate location and plan 
of construction of wharves, piers, and water terminals; to investigate 
the practicability and advantages of harbor, river, and port improve- 
ments ; and to investigate any other matter that may tend to promote 
and encourage the use by vessels ol ports adequate to care for the 
freight which would naturally pass through such ports. 

Before establishing shipping agencies the manufacturer must con- 
sider every factor influencing the prompt and economical movement 
of his products. Traffic does not always follow the shortest route 
nor that having the lowest line-haul rate, but it will usually be found 
that there are sound reasons for this seeming disregard of economy. 
Frequently the principal of these reasons is to be found at the port. 
In order to attract business, a port must first provide the facilities 
essential for handling the particular commodities which it is likely 
to be offered, and this requires a detailed study of production and 
consumption within the territory naturally tributary to the port and 
the provision of equipment especially designed to meet the several 
requirements of this traffic. The ships calling, or likely to call, at 
the port must be studied in the endeavor to provide the facilities and 
render the service which wUl permit their more rapid turn around. 
The railroad situation is frequently a controlling element in port 
success. There should be ample trackage serving the terminal or 



XII INTRODUCTION 

terminals, with the most economical interchange both between the 
several railroads entering the port and between these railroads and 
the ship. Not only should the physical characteristics of the ter- 
minal with regard to the coordination between railroad and ship be 
examined, but the railroad rates should be scrutinized, as in various 
instances a commensurate utilization of a port has been rendered 
impracticable by unfavorable rate conditions. 

The absence of an}'^ one essential may prevent what should be an 
economical route or port from securing its tributary business. The 
trouble may be lack of adequate terminals, the absence or inacces- 
sibility of storage facilities, the imposition of excessive switching or 
terminal charges, the absence of repair or docking facilities, the lack 
of well-balanced cargoes and frequent sailings, or other conditions 
affecting the movement of goods through the port and ability of 
vessels to earn a fair revenue. Port coordination and management 
are apt to play a considerable part in the success or failure of the port 
community to attract and hold business. Where possible the control 
of all deep-water frontage by the public, as represented by the State 
or municipality, including the owTiership and operation of a belt-line 
railroad connecting all rail lines and all terminals, is a practical solution 
of the coordination problem and is an effective remedy for many of 
the ills that now exist. 

Ports should not have to depend upon the good will or selfish inter- 
ests of either railroads or steamship lines to develop business. The 
railroads may prefer to have the business go elsewhere, and the water 
carriers could scarcely be expected to undertake extensive operations 
designed to bring goods to a particular port. In other words, the 
development of traffic should be regarded as one of the permanent 
functions of the port itself. Among the important objects, therefore, 
which it is hoped to attain from this series of reports is a more general 
appreciation of the benefits to be derived from the adoption of a com- 
prehensive plan and policy for the development and utilization of the 
port. 

Acknowledgment is made of the cooperation and assistance rendered 
by the city officials and departments of the cities of Philadelphia, 
Camden, and Gloucester, and by various port organizations, shipping 
interests, facility owners, and other local interests in the work of com- 
piling data for inclusion in this report. 



PART I 



PREPARED BY 

THE BOARD OF ENGINEERS FOR RIVERS AND HARBORS 

WAR DEPARTMENT 



WAR DEPARTMENT 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS. U.S. ARMY 




THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



PORT AND HARBOR CONDITIONS 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

Philadelphia, Pa., one of the cliief ports of the United States, is 
located at the junction of the Delaware and the Schuylkill Rivers. 
Its midharbor, at Chestnut Street, is 101.7 miles by water from the 
Atlantic Ocean and 33.7 miles below Trenton, N. J., the present head 
of commercial navigation on the Delaware River. Camden, N. J., an 
important manufacturing city, is on the eastern shore of the Delaware, 
directly opposite Philadelphia. Chester and Marcus Hook, Pa., 
and Wilmington, Del., are located on the right or west bank, 16.9, 
20.5, and 29 miles, respectively, below midharbor Philadelphia. 

The Delaware River flows in a general southerly direction, forming 
the boundary line between the States of New York and New Jersey 
on the east and Pennsylvania and Delaware on the west. The prin- 
cipal shipping activities are concentrated at Pliiladelphia and environs 
on the Delaware River. The Schuylkill River, which flows through 
the city of Philadelphia and empties into the Delaware River near 
the southerly limit of the city and at the western end of League 
Island, is an important arm of the port, and handles approximately 
one-third of the port's water-borne tonnage consisting chiefly of 
petroleum and products. 

The harbor of Philadelphia, as contemplated in this report, embraces 
the Delaware River from Poquessing Creek at the upper limit of the 
city to the site of the lower dock at Hog Island below the mouth of 
the Schuylkill River, a distance of 22.97 statute miles, and the Schuyl- 
kill River from its mouth to Fairmount Dam, a distance of 8.6 miles. 
The main activities of the port are centered along about 9 miles of 
water front on the Delaware River from the railroad terminal yards 
below Greenwich Point, about 4 miles south of Chestnut Street, to 
Lafevre Street, Bridesburg, and along the Schuylkill River from 
Girard Point to Passyunk Avenue. 

Channels. — The approach to the port is by way of Delaware Bay 
and River. The main ship channel extends from deep water in Dela- 
ware Bay, about 8 miles below liston Point, to Allegheny A venue, 

3 



4 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Philadelphia, Pa., a distance of approximately 63 miles. It is 35 
feet deep at mean low water, and 800 feet wide in the straight parts, 
1,200 feet wide at Bulkhead Bar, 1,000 feet wide at the other bends, 
and 1,000 feet wide at Philadelphia Harbor from Horseshoe Bend to 
Allegheny Avenue. The main ship channel, portions ot wliich are 
subject to constant shoaling, is maintained by the United States. 
Controlling depths on the various lighthouse ranges, and related 
information, are set forth in periodical statements issued by the dis- 
trict engineer, United States Engineer Office, Philadelphia, Pa., copies 
of which are furnished all shipping and maritime interests. 

Approved modification of the project provides for a channel 37 feet 
deep from the Philadelphia-Camden Bridge to the Navy Yard, thence 
40 feet deep to deep water in Delaware Bay, 800 feet wide in the 
straight reaches from the bridge to a point in Delaware Bay near 
Ship John Light, thence 1,000 feet wide to deep water in Delaware 
Bay, with 1,200 feet width at Bulkhead Bar and 1,000 feet width at 
other bends and in Philadelphia Harbor, including maintenance of 
existing dikes and other training works and the construction and 
maintenance of such additional dikes and training works as may be 
required in the future and authorized by the Department, provided 
that the cities of Philadelphia and Camden dredge annually from the 
channel 100,000 and 10,000 cubic yards, respectively, in maintaining 
the channel and anchorages in Philadelphia Harbor between Allegheny 
Avenue and the mouth of the Schuylkill River. 

The upper Delaware River channel extends from Allegheny Avenue, 
Philadelphia, to Trenton, N. J., a distance of approximately 30 miles. 
Under the existing project the channel has been recently completed 
to the following dimensions: 28 feet deep and 300 feet wide from 
Allegheny Avenue, Philadelphia, to the Delair Bridge of the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad, thence 25 feet deep and 300 feet wide, with suitable 
widening at bends, to the Municipal Terminal at the lower end of 
Trenton, where the channel is widened to 500 feet for a turning basin 
1,700 feet long. Above the turning basin a 12-foot channel 200 feet 
wide, extending to the Pennsylvania Railroad bridge at Ferry Street, 
Trenton, is maintained for light draft vessels. 

Completed in 1937, an auxiliary channel, 20 feet deep, 200 feet wide, 
and approximately 1.4 miles long extends east of Burlington Island 
from the main ship channel to the United States Pipe and Foundry 
Co.'s plant at East Burlington, N. J., with a turning basin 450 feet 
wide at the upper end. The only uncompleted item of the existing 
project is a short cross channel 200 feet wide and 8 feet deep through 
an artificial island opposite Delanco, N. J., which will provide a 
small boat passage thereto. 

The controlling depths in this section of the Delaware River as of 
June 1937 were: Allegheny Avenue to Delair Bridge, 29.6 feet; Delair 



PORT AND HARBOR CONDITIONS 5 

Bridge to Delanco, 25.9 feet; Delanco to Florence, 24.4 feet; Florence 
to Bordentown, 27.2 feet; Bordentown to upper end of turning basin, 
24.9 feet; and thence to Pennsylvania Railroad bridge, 10.1 feet. 

The Schuylkill River is navigable to Fairmount Dam, about 8.6 
miles from its mouth, and has an improved channel extending from 
Delaware River Channel to University Avenue, a total distance of 
6.5 miles. The project provides for unprovement of a channel 30 
feet deep at mean low water with a minimum width of 400 feet 
from Delaware River channel to Twenty-ninth Street, thence 30 feet 
deep and 300 feet wide to Passyunk Avenue Bridge, thence 26 feet 
deep and 200 feet wide to Gibson's Point, thence 22 feet deep and 200 
feet wide to University Avenue, and for maintenance of the channel 
from the mouth to Passjmnk Avenue Bridge by the United States, 
with the city of Philadelphia removing 300,000 cubic yards annually 
in maintaining the channel above Passyunk Avenue. The project 
has been completed except for the removal of a few rock shoals in 
the channel above Passyunk Avenue. Controlling depths in sections 
of the channel (June 1937) are as follows: Delaware River Channel 
to Girard Point, 30.7 feet; Girard Point to Penrose Ferry Bridge, 
32.2 feet; Penrose Ferry Bridge to Passyunk Avenue, 30 feet; Passyunk 
Avenue to Gibson's Point, 16 feet; Gibson's Point to University Ave- 
nue, 15 feet. (See Harbor Improvements by the United States and 
Harbor Improvements by the State of Pennsylvania and the City of 
Philadelphia, pages 13 and 15.) 

Harbor of Refuge, Delaware Bay. — Delaware Bay Harbor of Refuge 
is at the lower end of the Delaware River, a few miles from the Atlantic 
Ocean, on the Delaware side of the bay. The harbor proper is pro- 
tected by the Delaware breakwater, which has a top length of 7,950 
feet with 15 detached ice piers at the northerly end of the breakwater 
to break up ice floating down the bay. Its location, convenient to 
the shipping lanes, makes it valuable as a haven of refuge and port of 
call for North Atlantic coast shipping. Many vessels are customarily 
sent to this harbor of refuge for orders. (See Anchorages, page 6.) 

TIDES 

The Delaware River is tidal to Trenton, N. J., the mean tidal range 
being 4.3 feet at the Delaware capes, 5.4 feet at Chester, 5.6 feet at 
Philadelphia, and 6 feet at Trenton. The extreme range within the 
harbor varies from about 4 feet below to about 10 feet above mean 
low water. This is occasioned under the influence of heavy and long- 
continued winds. 

The head of navigation for the Schuylkill River is at the Fairmount 
Dam, in the city of Philadelphia, 8.6 miles above the mouth of the 
river. The river is tidal to the dam, the mean tidal range being 5.6 
feet at Penrose Ferry Bridge, and 6 feet at Chestnut Street. 

78920—39 2 



6 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

TIDAL CURRENTS 

Tidal currents never exceed 3 miles per hour and they rarely impede 
navigation. 

ANCHORAGES 

The harbor of Philadelphia has sheltered anchorage areas aggregat- 
ing approximately 611 acres, as follows: 

Mantua Creek anchorage is situated southeast of the channel marked 
by the Mifflin Bar Range Lights, from a line running 0° from Tinicum 
Island Range rear light along the east channel line, approximately 
8,200 feet to Red Gas Buoy 2 F. This area is 164 acres in extent and 
is dredged to a depth of 35 feet at mean low water, the limits of which 
are marked by the following buoys: 

Buoy A, white nun, 825 yards, 55}^° from Mantua Creek anchorage light, mark- 
ing the southwesterly corner of anchorage ground. 

Buoy B, white spar, 1,240 yards, 72° from Mantua Creek anchorage light, 
marking the southerly corner of anchorage ground. 

Buoy C, white spar, 2,320 yards, 229)^° from Block Island Light, marking 
easterly limit of anchorage ground. 

Buoy D, white spar, 1,325 yards, 227° from Block Island Light marking south- 
easterly corner of anchorage ground. 

Small light draft vessels must anchor in the angle marked by Red 
Gas Buoy 2 F and White Spar Buoy D, or above the upper jetty at 
Mantua Creek, east of the anchorage limits. 

League Island anchorage is situated to the eastward of a line running 
173° from the upper side of pier no. 1, navy yard, to a line running 
173° from pier No. 7, navy yard, and north of channel marked by the 
west Horseshoe Range Lights. Depths are from 22 to 34 feet at 
mean low water. This area is 89 acres. Vessels may anchor in this 
area only by special permission of the commandant, navy j^ard, or 
the Navigation Commission of the Delaware River and its navigable 
tributaries. 

Gloucester anchorage having an area ot 66 acres, is situated east of 
the main ship channel, marked by the upper Horseshoe Range Lights, 
southwest from Greenwich anchorage, ^Vliite Spar Buoy No. 1, 
northeast from Red Nun Buoy No. 48, bearing 267° from the north 
end of retaining dike at the mouth of Big Timber Creek, N. J. Depth 
is 30 feet at mean low water. 

Greenwich anchorage is situated east of the main sliip channel, 
south of a line marking the prolongation of Morris Street and marked 
by White Spar Buoy No. 2, which bears 145° from the north side 
of pier No. 55, South Wharves, and 20° from the south side of pier 
No. 78, vSouth Wharves, Philadelphia, and south of Greenwich 
anchorage, ^ATiite Spar Buoy No. 1, bearing 303° from the upper 
comer of the Immigration Building at Gloucester, N. J. Its area is 
172 acres and depths vary from 15 to 39 feet at mean low water. 



FORT AND HARBOR CONDITIONS 7 

The area between pier No. 2, New York Sliipyard and the Mac- 
Andrews & Forbes Co.'s pier, Camden, N. J. is restricted to facilitate 
the movement of carfloats to and from Bulson Street, Camden, N. J. 
Should Greenwich and Gloucester anchorages become so congested 
that vessels are compelled to anchor in the restricted area of Green- 
wich anchorage, they must be moved immediately when another 
berth is available. 

Cooper Point anchorage of about 44 acres, is situated east of the 
main ship channel, between hnes marking the prolongation of Marl- 
borough Street and the south side of pier No. 24, North Wliarves, 
Philadelphia, in such a position as not to interfere with vessels going 
to or from Cooper River, N. J. Depths are from 17 to 25 feet at 
mean lov/ water. 

Port Richmond anchorage is situated south of the main ship channel 
between the upper and lower ends of Pettys Island and covers an 
area of 76 acres. The limits of that portion of tliis area which is 
dredged to a depth of 35 feet mean low water are marked by the 
following buoys: 

Buoy A, white iron spar, 2,750 yards, 8° from Courthoiuje Tower, Camden, 
N. J., marking the southwesterly corner of anchorage area. 

Buoy B, white iron spar, 3,330 yards, 24° from Courthouse Tower, Camden, 
N. J., marking the southerly side of anchorage area. 

Buoy C, white iron spar, 4,000 yards, 35° from Courthouse Tower, Camden, 
N. J., marking the southeasterly corner of anchorage area. 

Buoy D, white iron spar, 4,245 yards, 32^° from Courthouse Tower, Camden, 
N. J., marking the northeasterly corner of anchorage area. 

Other anchorage areas in the Delaware River below the harbor ot 
Philadelphia are as follows: 

Thompsons Point anchorage is situated off Thompsons Point, N. J., 
and directly opposite Essington, Pa. It is used for vessels loading 
explosives only. The area, comprising 87 acres, lies west of a line 
running 0° from Crab Creek, east of a line running 0° from the car- 
float slip at Thompsons Point and south of the channel marked by 
the Tinicum Island Range Lights. Depths are from 10 to 35 feet at 
mean low water. 

Marcus Hook anchorage is situated to the southwestward of the 
channel marked by the Marcus Hook Range Lights, to the eastward 
of a line running 152° from the General Chemical Co.'s stack at Clay- 
mont, Del., to the westward of a line running 329° from the lower 
end of Raccoon Island, N. J. It has a total area of 380 acres. The 
limits of that portion of this area wliich is dredged to a depth of 35 
feet at mean low water, and has an area of 161 acres, are marked 
by the following buoys: 

Marcus Hook Range Buoy 6M, 4,200 yards, 252° from Raccoon Creek Jetty 

Light, marking the southwesterly junction of the anchorage with the main channel. 

Buoy A, a white third-class tall nun with white reflector, 3,750 yards, 247^° 



8 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

from Raccoon Creek Jetty Light, marking the southwesterly corner of anchorage 
ground. 

Buoy D, a white, third-class tall nun with white reflectors, 2,275 yards, 253° 
from Raccoon Creek Jetty Light, marking the northeasterly corner of anchorage 
ground. 

Vessels drawing 25 feet of water or under, and not subject to quar- 
antine inspection, must anchor above the Sinclair Oil Co.'s wharf at 
Marcus Hook and to the southward of the main ship channel. Tliis 
area comprises 219 acres. 

Preferential area. — The area between Imes projected from the north- 
east and southwest boundaries of the United States Quarantine Sta- 
tion at Marcus Hook, Pa., and to the southeastward of the main ship 
channel, has been designated for preferential use of vessels awaiting 
quarantine inspection. This area is marked with the follo^ving buo^^s: 

Quarantine Buoy B, a yellow second-class, special nun, with white reflectors, 
3,410 yards, 248>^° from Raccoon Creek Jetty Light. 

Quarantine Buoy C, a yellow, second-class, special nun, with white reflector, 
3,150 yards, 250°, from Raccoon Creek Jetty Light. 

Should the remainder of the 35-foot Marcus Hook anchorage be in 
use, the said preferential area, when unoccupied, may be used by 
deep draft vessels not subject to quarantine inspection. 

Deepwater Point anchorage is situated off Deepwater Point, N. J., 
opposite Wilmington, Del. It lies to the eastward of the channel 
marked by Cherry Island Range Lights, to the northward of a line 
running 280° from Deepwater Point Range front light, to the south- 
ward of a line running 112° from the Christiana River south jetty. 
Depths are from 20 to 50 feet at mean low water, and the area is 
305 acres. 

Delaware Breakwater is the name generally applied to the entire 
anchorage in the vicinity of the Delaware capes, including the inner 
anchorage (Breakwater Harbor) and the outer anchorage (Harbor of 
Refuge). 

Breakwater Harbor, on the west side of Cape Henlopen, southward 
of the river breakwater, has an anchorage area of about 237 acres and 
depths of from 10 to 30 feet at mean low water. 

The Harbor of Refuge, lying 1 to 2 miles north-northwest of Cape 
Henlopen, is formed by a breakwater extending IK miles south- 
southeast from the southeast end of Shears. Its anchorage area is 
approximately 552 acres, and its depths vary from 24 to 42 feet at 
mean low water. 

WEATHER CONDITIONS 

Open season for navigation.— The channels of this harbor are 
navigable throughout the year. On the upper Delaware River, above 
Bristol, Pa., ice conditions sometimes hamper navigation during 
January and February. 



PORT AND HARBOR CONDITIONS 9 

Prevailing winds. — The prevailing winds are northwest from Octo- 
ber to April and southwest from May to September. They are, how- 
ever, subject to many variations at all seasons. 

Ice. — Ice rarely interferes with navigation along the Atlantic coast, 
but in severe winters may form an obstacle to navigation in the bay 
and river. In ordinary winters there is usually sufficient ice in the bay 
and river to make it necessary for sailing vessels to use care. This ice 
has been known to form early in December between Chester and Phil- 
adelphia, but the heavier ice does not usually begin to run before 
January. The tidal currents keep the ice in motion except where it 
packs in the narrower parts of the river, when it often forms an ob- 
struction that requires the service of tugs and ice boats, of which 
there are a number at Philadelphia. After the first of March ice is 
rarely encountered. 

Fogs. — Fogs are most frequent along this part of the Atlantic coast 
during the months of December, January, and February, but may be 
met at other times during the year. Easterly winds bring them and 
westerly and northerly winds clear them away. In the late fall dense 
fogs are liable to occur and may last during forenoons for two or three 
days in succession. Autumnal fogs nearly always clear up before noon. 
It should be noted, however, that fogs are less prevalent along this 
part of the Atlantic coast than they are farther north. 

The following table shows the average number of hours per month 
from a record of 11 years (July 1926 to June 1937) that fog signals 
were operated in the harbor of Philadelphia. 

Hours of operation of fog signals at Fort Mifflin 



January 61 

February 35 

March 21 

April 5 

May 6 

June 3 

July 3 



August 5 

September 8 

October 18 

November 32 

December 57 



Total 254 



Precipitation. — There is no rainy season. The mean annual pre- 
cipitation covering a period of 66 years is 40.84 inches. 

Temperature. — The mean maximum annual temperature covering 
a period of 57 years is 62.3°, while the mean minimum temperature for 
the same period is 46.6° Fahrenheit. 

The following information has been furnished by the Weather 
Bureau, United States Department of Agriculture. 



10 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 
Meteorological data 



Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dee. 


Annual 


Dally mean maximum temperature, degrees Fahrenheit, for 57 years 


39.9 


40.9 


49.4 


60.7 


72.0 


80.4 


84.7 


82.2 


76.4 


65.3 


52.9 


42.7 


62.3 


Daily mean minimum temperature, degrees Fahrenheit, for 57 years 


26.2 


26.6 


33.5 


43.1 


53.7 


C2.8 


68.2 


66.5 


60.6 


49.5 


39.1 


29.8 


46.6 


Maximum wind velocities and direction for 65 years i 


47 
NE. 


44 

S. 


47 
NW. 


47 

NE. 


68 
NW. 


4S 
NW. 


49 

N. 


43 
NE. 


45 
NE. 


58 
SE. 


47 
E. 


49 
SE. 


68 
NW. 


Prevailing direction of wind for 65 years 


NW. 


NW. 


NW. 


NW. 


SW. 


SW. 


SW. 


SW. 


SW. 


NW. 


NW. 


NW. 


NW. 


Mean precipitation (inches) for 66 years 


3.30 


3.26 


3.38 


3.14 


3.22 


3.36 


4.23 


4.69 


3.38 


2.80 


2.92 


3.16 


40.84 


1 Redu 


ced to 3-( 


'up anen 


.onieter 


standai 


d. 

B] 


RIDGI 


:s 













Nineteen bridges cross the navigable channels of the port. A gen- 
eral description of these bridges is contained in the table hereunder. 
Immediately following the table are printed the rules and regulations, 
prescribed by the Secretary of War, governing the opening of draw- 
bridges. 



PORT AND HARBOR CONDITIONS 



11 






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12 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

RULES AND REGULATIONS TO GOVERN THE OPENING OF THE DRAW SPANS OF DRAW- 
BRIDGES ACROSS THE SCHUYLKILL RIVER, THE DELAWARE RIVER, AND THE 
CHANNEL BETWEEN PETTY ISLAND AND THE NEW JERSEY SHORE, DELAWARE 
RIVER 

1. Signals. — When at any time during the day or night any vessel, tug, or 
other water craft unable to pass under the bridge approaches it with the inten- 
tion of passing through the draw, the signal for the draw to be opened shall be 
three blasts of a whistle or horn blown on the vessel or craft. 

If the draw is ready to be opened immediately when the signal is given on the 
vessel or craft, the signal shall be answered immediately by two blasts of a whistle 
or horn blown on the bridge; and if the draw is not ready to be opened immedi- 
ately on the signal being given on the craft the signal shall be answered imme- 
diately by one blast of a whistle or horn blown on the bridge. 

2. Opening the draw. — Upon hearing or perceiving the prescribed signal, the 
bridge tender shall immediately clear the draw span and open the draw to its 
full extent for the passage of the vessel or other craft: Provided, That the draw 
of a railroad bridge need not be opened when there is a train in the bridge block 
approaching the bridge with the intention of crossing, nor within 5 minutes 
of the known time of passage of a scheduled passenger, mail, or express train; 
but in no event, except in case of break-down of the operating machinery, shall 
the opening of the draw be delayed more than 5 minutes in the case of a high- 
way bridge nor more than 10 minutes in the case of a railroad bridge: And 
provided further, That the draw need not be opened for the passage of a tug or 
other craft equipped with a movable stack or mast which can readily be lowered 
so as to permit its passage under the closed draw, unless such craft has in tow 
a vessel which is unable to pass under the closed draw or by reason of stress of 
weather it is unsafe to lower such stack or mast. 

3. Interference with operation. — Vehicles, street cars, locomotives, and trains 
shall not be stopped on the draw spans, nor shall locomotives or trains be stopped 
in the bridge blocks of railroad bridges in such manner as to delay the operation 
of the draw, except in case of urgent necessity; nor shall vessels be moored to 
the bridge fenders or so maneuvered as to unnecessarily hinder or delay the closing 
of the draw; but all passages over, through, or under the bridges shall be prompt, 
to avoid delay to either land or water traffic. 

4. Hinged stacks and masts. — Each tug, towboat barge, and other small craft 
regularly and habitually navigating the Schuylkill River shall be subject to 
inspection and measurement by the district engineer, United States Engineer 
Department, in charge of the district, to determine the exact height above the 
water surface of its pilot or deck houses, when such vessel is in its ordinary trim; 
and the said district engineer is hereby empowered to decide, in each case, 
whether or not the vessel shall be equipped with hinged or removable stacks, 
masts, and flagpoles, which can be lowered to enable the vessels to pass under 
the closed draw of any or all of the bridges. If the district engineer decides 
that such action should be taken, he shall notify the vessel owner and the bridge 
owner of his decision, specifying a reasonable time for making the alterations; 
and after the expiration of the time specified, the draw need not be opened for 
the passage of such vessel unless it has in tow a vessel unable to pass under the 
closed draw, or by reason of stress of weather it is unsafe to lower such stack 
or mast. 

5. Operating machinery. — All drawbridges to which these regulations apply, 
except the South Street Bridge during the life of the present structure, shall be 
equipped with adequate quick-operating power machinery for opening and closing 
the draw, and this machinery shall at all times be kept in good and effective 
working condition and manned by competent operators. 



PORT AlsB HARBOR CONDITIONS 13 

6. Clearance gages. — The owners of each bridge shall provide and keep in good 
legible condition two board gages painted white with black figures not less than 
6 inches high, to indicate the head-room, clearance under the closed span at all 
stages of the tide. These gages shall be so placed on the ends of the draw-span 
fenders that they will be plainly visible to the navigator of a vessel approaching 
the bridge either up or down stream. 

HARBOR IMPROVEMENTS BY THE UNITED STATES 

The Delaware River, between Philadelphia and the sea, has been 
under improvement since 1836. Early operations were largely con- 
fined to the removal of shoals and bars obstructing navigation. A 
comprehensive program for the permanent and systematic improve- 
ment of the river at Philadelphia and below was commenced in 1885 
and has since been prosecuted continuously under successive projects. 
The existing project, authorized by the river and harbor act of June 
25, 1910, provides for a channel from deep water in Delaware Bay, 
about 8 miles below Liston Point, to Allegheny Avenue, Philadelphia, 
a distance of about 63 miles, having a depth of 35 feet at mean low 
water and a width of 800 feet in the straight parts, 1,200 feet at Bulk- 
head Bar, 1,000 feet at the other bends, and 1,000 feet in Philadelphia 
Harbor; and includes the construction of dikes for the regulation and 
control of the tidal flow. The project was modified by the river and 
harbor act of July 3, 1930, to provide for the dredging of an anchorage 
35 feet deep and 6,400 feet long at Fort Richmond; for straightening 
the channel and extending the 1,000-foot width from Philadelphia 
Harbor to Horseshoe Bend; for an anchorage area 30 feet deep and 
about 3,500 feet long at Gloucester, N. J.; for an anchorage 35 feet 
deep, 7,300 feet long, and 1,000 feet wide in the vicinity of Mantua 
Creek ; and for the maintenance of any areas dredged by local interests 
to a depth of 35 feet between the channel and a line 100 feet channel- 
ward of the pierhead line between Point House Wharf and the Phila- 
delphia Navy Yard, when in the opinion of the Chief of Engineers, 
United States Army, such areas are so located as to be of benefit to 
general navigation. The project was further revised by the Public 
Works Administration September 6, 1933, and later incorporated in 
the River and Harbor Act of August 30, 1935, to provide for an 
anchorage 35 feet deep, 4,500 feet long, and 1,200 feet wdde in the 
vicinity of Marcus Hook, Pa. 

The project was completed in 1934, and was again modified on 
June 20, 1938, to provide for a channel 37 feet deep from the Phila- 
delphia-Camden Bridge to the Navy Yard, thence 40 feet deep, 800 
feet wide in the straight reaches from the bridge to a point in Delaware 
Bay near Ship John Light, thence 1,000 feet wide to deep water in 
Delaware Bay, with 1,200 feet width at Bulkhead Bar, 1,000 feet 
width at other bends and in Philadelphia Harbor, and the construction 
and maintenance of such additional dikes and training works as may 



14 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

be required, provided that the cities of Philadelphia and Camden 
shall agree to dredge not less than 110,000 cubic yards annually in 
maintaining the channel and anchorages in Philadelphia Harbor 
between Allegheny Avenue and the mouth of the Schuylkill River. 

The upper Delaware River, between Pliiladelphia, Pa., and Tren- 
ton, N. J., has been under improvement since 1872. The early efforts 
were mainly directed toward the removal at separate localities of 
shoals and bars obstructing such navigation as was then practicable. 
In 1910 a more comprehensive project was adopted for a channel 12 
feet deep and 200 feet wide from Allegheny Avenue, Pliiladelphia, to 
Trenton, N. J. A later project adopted by the River and Harbor 
Act of March 3, 1925, and modified by subsequent River and Harbor 
acts of July 3, 1930, August 30, 1935, and August 20, 1937, have 
provided for successive increases in channel dimensions and improve- 
ments resulting in the existing project, wliich was essentially com- 
pleted in 1937, except as noted below. 

The existing project provides for a channel 28 feet deep at mean 
low water and 300 feet wide from Allegheny Avenue, Philadelphia, 
to the Delair Bridge of the Pennsylvania Railroad Co., thence 25 
feet deep and 300 feet Vv'ide to the upper end of the Municipal Ter- 
minal at Trenton, N. J. Above Delair the project provides for widen- 
ing the channel at curves and for a turning basin at the upper end 
1,700 feet long and 500 feet wide and for maintaining the channel 
dredged under the previous project to a depth of 12 feet at mean low 
water and a width of 200 feet from the upper end of the 25-foot channel 
to the Pennsylvania Railroad bridge at Ferry Street, Trenton, N. J. 
The project also provides for an auxiliary channel 20 feet deep at 
mean low water and 200 feet wide east of Burlington Island to extend 
from the main channel to the upper end of the United States Pipe & 
Foundry Co.'s property at East Burlington, with a turning basin 450 
feet wide at the upper end, and for the initial excavation only, of a 
cross channel through the artificial island opposite Delanco, N. J., 
200 feet wide and 8 feet deep at mean low water. The existing 
project lias been completed except for the excavation of the cross 
channel opposite Delanco, N. J. 

The Schuylkill River has been improved under previous projects 
dating back to 1870, from its mouth to Chestnut Street Bridge, a 
distance of 7.5 miles. The existing project, adopted by the River and 
Harbor Act of August 8, 1917, and modified by the River and Harbor 
Act of July 3, 1930, provides for a channel 30 feet deep at mean low 
water and 400 feet wide from Delaware River Channel to Twenty- 
ninth Street, thence 30 feet deep and 300 feet wide to Passyunk 
Avenue Bridge, thence 26 feet deep and 200 feet wide to Gibsons 
Point, thence 22 feet deep and 200 feet wide to University Avenue, 
suitably widened at bends. The total length of the improvement is 



PORT AND HARBOR CONDITIONS 15 

approximately 6.5 miles. The channel was practically completed to 
project dimensions in 1923, but considerable shoaling has since taken 
place. The modification of the project in 1930 provides for restora- 
tion of project depths from the mouth of Passyunk Avenue Bridge 
and for maintenance thereof in cooperation with the city of Phila- 
delphia. Restoration to project depths was completed in the spring 
of 1933. The city of PliiJadelpliia is obligated to maintain the channel 
above Pnssyiink Avenue Bridge. 

HARBOR IMPROVEMENTS BY THE STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA AND THE 
CITY OF PHILADELPHIA 

Delaware River. — Prior to adoption of the 35-foot project, work 
on wliich was begun by the United States in 1910, the State of Penn- 
sylvania and the city of Pliiladelphia spent about $1,552,000 in the 
removal of approximately 8,115,000 cubic yards of dredged material 
and 27,000 cubic yards of ledge rock from the Delaware River Channel. 
Since then the State and city have not been called upon to cooperate 
in the improvement of the Delaware River Channel. 

Schuylkill River.— Between 1895 and the adoption in 1917 of the 
existing project for improvement by the United States, the city of 
Philadelphia was engaged in deepening and maintaining the Schuylkill 
River Channel, and spent about $915,000 in the removal of approxi- 
mately 3,066,000 cubic yards of material. Subsequently, mamtenance 
work carried on by the city of Philadelphia resulted in the removal by 
December 1936 of approximately 5,965,360 cubic yards of dredged 
material. Under the terms of the existing project for im.provement 
by the United States, as modified in 1930, the city of Philadelphia is 
obligated to dredge approximately 300,000 cubic yards of material 
annually in maintaining the channel above Passyunk Avenue Bridge 
and in cooperation with the United States in channel maintenance 
below Passyunk Avenue. 

In addition, the city of Philadelphia has a project for constructing 
approximately 48,000 lineal feet of bulkheading on both banks of the 
Schuylkill River, and in December 1936 had completed approximately 
25,812 lineal feet below the upper limit of the Federal project, at a 
cost of about $2,264,500. Another 4,600 lineal feet is completed or 
under construction above Passyunk Avenue. This improvement has 
resulted in the reclamation of large areas of lowland, has increased 
land values, and attracted additional industrial developments on 
Schuylkill River. 

TERMINAL IMPROVEMENTS 

At Philadelph.ia, the municipality has completed piers Nos. 3 and 5, 
North Wharves, known as the Girard Group; pier No. 4, South 
Wharves (Chestnut Street pier); and pier No. 84, South Wharves, of 



16 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



the Moyamensing Group. The Reading Co. has erected at Port 
Richmond a new modern grain elevator with a capacity oi 2,500,000 
bushels, and has replaced its old grain elevator — pier B, Port Rich- 
mond — with a new general cargo pier. At the railroad terminal yards 
below Greenwich Point the Pennsylvania Railroad Co. has completed 
a new modern coal terminal. 

The substructures of piers Nos. 80 and 82, South Wharves, 
belonging to a group known as the Moyamensing Piers, located near 
the foot of Wolf and Jackson Streets, have been completed. Pier 
No. 80 is 330 feet wide by 1,000 feet long and pier No. 82 is 350 feet 
wide by 986 feet long. The substructure is of the "solid fill" type and 
the superstructure will be two-story steel and concrete. Each pier 
will have three depressed railway tracks in the middle, and pier No. 82 
will have, in addition to the middle tracks, a surface track along each 
apron outside the shed. A bulkhead shed 38 feet in width will 
extend for a distance of 168 feet north of pier No. 82, across the head 
of the intermediate dock, 300 feet wide, and to approximately 267 feet 
south of pier No. 84. 



OWNERSHIP OF WATER FRONT 

The port of Philadelphia has a navigable water front of 38.38 miles, 
22.97 of which are on the Delaware River and 15.41 on both banks of 
the Schuylkill River. The limits of this area extend from the lower 
end of Hog Island on the Delaware River to Poquessing Creek, and 
both sides of the Schuylkill River from Spring Garden Street to the 
mouth. Within this section the improvements consist of 191 piers, 
wharves, and docks of aU sizes and types for the accommodation of all 
classes of vessels and traffic. The distribution of the ownersliip of the 
water front of the port is shown in the following table: 



Ownership of water front, port of Philadelphia 






Owned by- 


Delaware River 


Schuylkill River 


Total 


Miles 


Percent 


Miles 


Percent 


Miles 


Percent 


City of Philadelphia 

United States Qovernment - 


6.49 

4.25 

.03 

2.23 
1.70 

.78 


28.26 

18.50 

.13 

9.71 
7.40 
3.40 


4.15 
1.19 


26.93 

7.72 


10.64 

5.44 

.03 

2.59 
1.70 
1.48 
.94 
.01 

4.15 
1.03 
.79 
.34 
.25 
8.99 


27.72 
14,17 




.08 


Railroads: 

Pennsylvania R R 


.36 


2.34 


6.75 




4.43 


Baltimore & Ohio R. R 


.70 
.94 


4.54 
6.10 


3.86 


Philadelphia, Baltimore & Washington R. R. 
Philadelphia Belt Line K R 


2.45 


.01 


.04 


.03 


Private: 


4.15 
.34 
.06 


26.93 

2.21 

.39 


10.81 


Sand, pravel, and stone concerns - 


.69 
.73 
.34 
.21 
5.61 


3.00 

3.18 

1.48 

.91 

23.99 


2.68 


Philadelphia Electric Co .-. 


2.06 




.89 




.04 
3.48 


.26 
22.58 


.65 


Other concerns - 


23.42 


Total .. 


22.97 


100.00 


15.41 


100.00 


38.38 


100.00 







FUEL AND SUPPLIES 

ELECTRIC CURRENT 

The Philadelphia Electric Co. supplies alternating current in 13,200 
volts, 3-phase, 60-cycle, and 2,400 and 115-230 volts, 2-phase, 60- 
cycle. At localities along the Delaware River north of the city, the 
supply is 13,200, 4,000, and 115-230 volts, 3-phase, 60-cycle. 

When the use of commercial current aboard a vessel at a wharf is 
contemplated the type of current available should be checked since 
the characteristics are not necessarily the same at all wharves. At 
municipal piers alternating current of 110-220 volts, single and 3- 
phase, 60-cycle is available. 

Information regarding electric current at the various wharves and 
piers of the port is given in the table showing data relative to piers, 
wharves, and docks. 

WATER SUPPLY 

The supply of pure water for drinking purposes and for use in 
boilers is unlimited. Water for boiler purposes may also be pumped 
from the river anywhere in the harbor. The charge for drinking 
water at some railroad piers is $10 per vessel and at others $20 per 
vessel, regardless of the quantity taken. The charges at private piers 
vary, being a minimum of $10 at some and ranging from 25 cents to 
50 cents per ton at others. The charge at municipal piers is 7 cents 
per ton. The charges for water supplied by water boat are as follows: 

In stream, $1.25 per ton; minimum $37. 50 

Girard Point, $1.50 per ton; minimum 50. 00 

Point Breeze, $1.75 per ton; minimum 62. 50 

Marcus Hook, $2.00 per ton; minimum 62. 50 

OIL BUNKERING 

Bunker fuel oil for vessels is supplied by the Atlantic Refining Co., 
the Gulf Oil Corporation, and the Standard Oil Co. of Pennsylvania, 
all situated on the Schuylkill River. The facilities of the Atlantic 
Refining Co. are situated on both sides of the river in the vicinity of 
the Passyunk Avenue Bridge, with available berthing spaces of 1,960 
feet on the east side and 1,060 feet on the west side. Depths along- 
side are 30 feet at mean low water. Grades kept in stock are Bunker 
A, B, and C and Diesel fuel oil, the normal supply on hand being 

17 



18 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

60,000, 40,000, 170,000, and 30,000 barrels, respectively. The rate of 
delivery is 1,600 barrels an hour at the wharf on the east side of the 
river and 8,000 barrels on the west side. The bunkering plant of the 
Gulf Oil Corporation is situated on the east side of the river below 
Penrose Ferry Bridge and near the mouth of the river. There are 
two wharves with berthing spaces of 475 and 950 feet, having 30 feet 
of water alongside at mean low water. The grades in stock are 
Bunker C, Uglit Diesel, and heavy Diesel luel oils, the normal supply 
being 75,000, 10,000, and 15,000 barrel>, respective!}'', and the rate of 
delivery, 2,000 barrels an hour. The bunker oil station of the Stand- 
ard Oil Co. of Pennsylvania is situated on the west side of the river 
at Powers Lanq and has berthing space of 700 feet, with 30 feet of 
water alongside at mean low water. The normal supply on hand is 
7,224 barrels of fuel oil No. 5, which may be delivered into bunkers 
at the rate of 763 barrels an hour. 

Vessels may also be bunkered at their berths, by means of tank 
barges, by the Atlantic Refining Co. at the rate of 1,000 barrels per 
hour, and by the Gulf Oil Corporation at 2,000 barrels per hour. 

Other fuel oil bunkering facilities in the Delaware River area are 
the plant of the Cities Service OU Co. on Pettys Island in Camden, 
N. J., which is described on page 229 of tliis report, and facilities at 
Chester and Marcus Hook, Pa., which are described in Port Series 
No. 30. 



FUEL AND SUPPLIES 



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20 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

COAL BUNKERING 

Coal for both bunkering and cargo loading is handled at the Green- 
wich Coal Pier of the Pennsylvania Railroad Co., located on the 
lower end of the city water front, and at the Reading Co. terminals 
at Port Richmond, near the upper end. 

The Greenwich Coal Pier, owned by the Pennsylvania Railroad 
Co. and operated by the Northern Contracting Co., is equipped with 
two rotary car dumpers, one on each side of the pier. In the opera- 
tion of these machines the loaded coal car moves by gravit}^ down 
one of two tracks located in the center of the pier, passing between 
the two car dumpers to the Idck-back on the river end of the pier, 
from which it returns on the outer tracks over the disappearing 
haulage car or barney arranged with a swinging arm which rises to 
engage the coupler of the car. The car is then hauled by a wire 
cable attached to the barney up a 15-pcrcent incline to one of the 
rotary dumpers. After the car has been placed and securely clamped 
in the cradle of the dumper, the cradle is rotated and the entire con- 
tents of the car slide into a receiving hopper. The hopper is large 
enough to hold the contents of two cars and is provided with a cut-off 
gate to regulate the flow of the coal on to a belt traveling over a boom 
conveyor. The boom conveyor extends over the sides of the vessel 
to be loaded or bunkered and travels at a speed of 180 feet per minute 
at an angle of 30° with the horizontal. The boom conveyor can be 
raised or lowered and racked in and out so as to place cargo on vessels 
having as much as 64 feet beam and 36 feet height of hatch above 
high water, and at an angle of 30° allows for the maximum capacity 
of tonnage over the conveyor. The boom conveyors can, when 
required, be operated at 45° with the horizontal and in this position 
clear a vessel 49 feet from mean high water to top of hatch. The 
conveyors are fitted on the outer ends with telescopic chutes, equipped 
with mechanical trimmers through which the coal passes to vessels 
and provides for prompt and proper distribution in the hold or 
bunkers. A thawing house for use in freezing weather is situated in 
the rear of the pier and may accommodate 60 cars at one time. 

The coal dumper of the Reading Co. is located on pier No. 18, Port 
Richmond, and is a single machine operating over the lower side of 
the pier. In operation it is similar to the dumpers at the Greenwich 
Coal Pier, except that the coal car is hauled directly to the dumper 
and after being emptied moves by gravity to the kick-back, and in 
dumping, the car is raised and turned over instead of being rotated. 
The conveyor extending from the hopper is also fitted with telescopic 
chute and mechanical trimmer. 

The Reading Co. operates another coaling facility at pier No. 11, 
Port Richmond, at which the coal cars are placed on a trestle extending 




20—1 




20—2 



FUEL AND SUPPLIES 21 

the length of the pier. The coal is released tlirough the bottoms of 
the cars, dropping into hoppers beneath the trestle, from wliich it is 
led through telescopic chutes on both sides of the pier to the holds of 
the vessels. For bunkering, coal is also transferred from the hoppers 
by traveling automatic weigh lorries to the vessel. The Reading Co. 
coal terminal is also equipped with a thawing house, having a capacity 
of 44 cars. 

A facility for the bunkering of harbor craft is located adjacent to 
the Greenwich Coal Pier and is part of that terminal. It is equipped 
with a 300-ton hopper from which coal is led by gravity through a 
telescopic chute to the vessel. 

Vessels may also be supplied with bunker coal while at their berths 
by means of barges, the coal being transferred to the vessel by derrick 
boats. The Delaware River Operating Co. of Camden, N. J., operates 
5 derrick boats for tliis purpose. They are described in the section 
of this report relating to Camden, N. J., on p. 272. 

Details of the coal bunkering facilities at Philadelphia are shown in 
the following table: 



78920—39- 



22 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



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22 4 



PORT AND HARBOR FACILITIES 

PIERS, WHARVES, AND DOCKS 

f The water front of the port of Philadelphia covers a distance of 
38.38 miles on the west side of Delaware River between Hog Island on 
the south and Poquessing Creek on the north, and on both sides of the 
Schuylkill River. Within this area are 191 piers, wharves, and bulk- 
heads, excluding those of the navy yard, with a total berthing capacity 
of about 159,000 lineal feet. 

The docking facilities at the port vary from simple timber bulk- 
heads with solid earth fill to the large piers constructed of timber piles 
supporting timber or concrete relieving platforms, at low water, which 
in turn carry timber or concrete retaining walls and solid fill. For 
brevity, such construction is indicated in the following tables as 
"concrete retaining walls." The ownership of docking facilities at 
the port is divided as follows: City owned, 34; United States, 7; the 
several railroads own or control 66; while the remainder, or 84, are 
privately owned or operated. Of the total number, 39 facilities are 
open to all water carriers on equal terms and 152 are used for the pri- 
vate purposes of their occupants. Over one-half of the facilities have 
rail connections. 

Schuylkill River. — There are 39 piers and bulkheads on this river 
between its mouth and Fairmont Dam. These facilities have a total 
berthing capacity of 20,387 lineal feet. A number of large oil refining 
plants are located along this waterway, as well as numerous other 
industrial plants. The Pennyslvania Railroad has three piers near 
the mouth of the river with depths of 30 feet which are used for the ship- 
ment of grain, the receipt of ores, and the handling of bulk car freight. 

Delaware River above the mouth of Schuylkill River. — There are 
149 piers, wharves, and bulkheads along this section of the Philadel- 
phia water front, not including those at the League Island Navy Yard. 
The combined berthing capacity of these facilities aggregates 136,416 
lineal feet, and the depths of water alongside range up to 40 feet. 
Along this front are located the principal piers used in overseas, coast- 
wise, and inland waterway trade, shipbuilding and repair plants, and 
coal, ore, grain, and sand and gravel handling plants. 

Municipal piers. — The city of Philadelphia has acquired and 
constructed a total of 34 piers, wharves, and bulklieads, of which five 
are located on the Schuylkill River, and 29 on the west front of Dela- 

23 



24 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

ware River. In the construction of its piers the city has taken a 
leading position in providing piers adequate to the needs of modern 
shipping, not only from an architectural point of view, but more par- 
ticularly with respect to practicality and facility for handling freight. 
Because of their advantageous locations and direct connections with 
raU lines, the piers make for a quick "turn-around" of vessels with 
resultant saving to the carriers. The piers owned by the city are 
usually leased to the highest bidders for periods of not exceeding 10 
years. 

The first mimicipal pier encountered on the way up from the sea is 
pier No. 84, south, and is typical of the city-owned piers. It is 390 
feet wide and 861 feet long, and the present depth of 33 feet alongside 
can readily be increased to 35 feet. It provides berths for four 10,000- 
ton ships at one time, and with its two-story transit sheds provides 
nearly half a million square feet of floor space. Five car tracks are 
located upon the pier having a capacity of 84 cars and a service yard 
in the rear can accommodate 350 cars. Freight is handled between 
ship and pier by cargo beams and ship's tackle, and within the transit 
shed by elevators and other modern equipment. Piers Nos. 82 and 
80, next above pier No. 84, are completed except for the transit sheds. 

Railroad terminals. — The Pennsylvania Railroad owns and operates 
three piers at the locality known as Girard Point, which is on the 
Schuylkill River near its mouth. Pier No. 1 is used for handling ore 
by means of two steam ore unloaders with a capcity of 125 tons per 
hour each. This pier is 1,070 feet long and has a depth of 30 feet of 
water alongside. Pier No. 2 is 960 feet long and is used for handling 
bulk car freight in the foreign and coastwise trade. It has a transit 
shed with a total floor area of 36,100 square feet. Pier No. 3 is used 
for handling grain in connection with the Pennsylvania Railroad's 
2,225,000-bushel grain elevator. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad also owns the modern coal-handling 
pier known as the Greenwich Coal Pier, which is located at the lower 
end of the port. It is 1,134 feet long and has a depth of 30 feet of 
water alongside. Coal is loaded by means of electrically-operated 
rotary car dumping machines directly into the hold of the ship. 
Piers Nos. 46, 48, 53, 55, 56, and 57, south wharves, also owned by the 
Peimsylvania Railroad, are used by carriers in the overseas and coast- 
wise freight trade. 

The Reading Co. owns a unit of 24 piers at the northern limit of 
the port, known as Port Richmond. Two of these are coal piers, one 
is a grain pier connected with a 2,500,000-bushel elevator in rear, 
three are used for handling ores or other bulk commodities, and four 
are for the handling of general cargo in foreign and coastwise trade. 
These piers are well equipped with mechanical handling facilities and 
Iiave depths of water alongside up to 35 feet at mean low water. 



PORT AND HARBOR FACILITIES 25 

Fire protection. — The water front is protected by the city fire 
department. All covered piers and a majority of uncovered piers 
have water mains installed and there are city fire plugs in the near 
vicinity of all wharves. The covered piers have chemical fire extin- 
guishers, fire-alarm systems, fire barrels, and the newer piers have 
sprinlder systems. Some private piers used in connection with large 
industries have their own fire protection in addition to that furnished 
by the city. The following fire boats are maintained by the city of 
Philadelphia: Rudolph Blankenburg, J. Hampton Moore, and Edvnn 
S. Stuart. 

The city maintains special high-pressure pumping stations for use 
in case of fires along the water front. 

A detailed description of the various piers, wharves, and docks is 
given in the following table: 



26 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



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700 feet below foot of Oregon Ave. 

United States. 

Philadelphia Piers, Inc. 

Receipt of linseed and molasses; shipment of 

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3 cargo masts. 

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Publicker Commercial Alcohol Co 

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American Export Line. 

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THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



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90 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

HOISTING FACILITIES 

Mechanical facilities for lifting, on the wharves at Philadelphia, 
range from locomotive cranes, with which many of the terminals are 
equipped, to the 100-ton stiff-leg derrick on pier G at Port Richmond. 
Locomotive cranes are usually equipped with booms 45 or 50 feet 
in length, having average capacities of 17 tons at 15-foot radius, 13 tons 
at 20-foot, 10 tons at 25-foot, 8 tons at 30-foot, 6 tons at 35-foot, 
and 4 or 5 tons at 40- to 50-foot radius. 

The Reading Co.'s 100-ton steel stiff -leg derrick on pier G, Port 
Richmond, has a boom 108 feet long and a mast 102 feet high, stepped 
36 feet from the edge of the pier. It will lift 80 tons at a radius of 
100 feet and 100 tons at a radius of 80 teet. The depth of water 
alongside the pier at the derrick is 30 feet at mean low water. There 
is also available at the same pier a traveling revolving gantry crane, 
with capacities ranging from 50 tons at a radius of 45 feet to 30 tons 
at 69 feet. There are three revolving hammerhead cranes on the 
piers of the William Cramp Ship & Engine Building Co., immediately 
below Port Richmond. The largest of these has a capacity of 75 
tons at a radius of 70 feet and 10 tons at 95 feet. 

Among the hoisting facilities afloat are two derrick boats of the 
Philadelphia Derrick & Salvage Corporation which are capable of 
lifting 100 tons. These derricks are equipped with booms 96 feet 
long. 

Details of the more important hoisting facihties ashore and afloat 
are shown in the following tables. 



PORT AND HARBOR FACILITIES 



91 





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more & Ohio 
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Reading Co. 

Plant trackage con- 
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more & Ohio R. 
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Terminal trackage 
connects with 
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Mingo Creek sta- 
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City of Philadel- 
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Nemours & Co., 
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Atlantic Refining 
Co. Wharf. 

Atlantic Refining 
Co., 2G0 South 
Broad St. 

Pier No. 98, south 
wharves. 

Philadelphia Piers, 
Inc., 330 Chestnut 
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THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



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THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



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PORT AND HARBOR FACILITIES 



95 



The crane tracks 
which extend 100 
feet on pier are on 

trestle. 

The crane tracks are 
12 feel from string- 
piece of pier. 

The crane tracks are 
10 feet from string- 
piece of bulkhead. 




Pennsylvania R. R. 
and Philadelphia 
Belt Line R. R. 

Pennsylvania R. R. 
do 


S : 1 i 1 IS 1 ; i s 1 

n i 1 ■ I i 1 1 1 CO 1 


600 

400 

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steam 

...do 

—do 

...do 

...do 

-.do 


1 locomotive crane. . 

do 

do 

2 locomotive cranes. 

1 locomotive crane.. 

2 locomotive cranes. 


No.... 

No..- 
No..- 


Above foot of Tioga 
St. 

Between foot of 
Wheatsheaf Lane 
and Lewis St. 

Between foot of 
Unruh and Diss- 
ton Sts. 


(a) Gas works pier 

(6) Philadelphia Gas 
Works Co., 1401 
Arch St. 

(a) Pier No. 225, north 
Wharves. 

(6) Philadelphia Electric 
Co., 1000 Chestnut 
St. 

(a) Disston's bulkhead.. 

(6) Hrnry Disston & 
Sons, Inc., Unruh 
and Milnor Sts. 


O C-< o 
00 00 o 



96 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Hoisting facilities afloat 



Operator and address 


Avail- 
able to 
public 
(Yes or 
No) 


Number and 
kind 


Power used 


Maxi- 
mum 
lifting 
capa- 
city 
(tons) 


Length 

of boom 

(feet) 


Charge for 
use 


City of Philadelphia, pier No. 4, 
south wharves. 


Yes... 

Yes... 

No.... 
No.... 


2 derrick boats.. 

1 derrick boat... 
do 

-V-'.'.doV.V.'.'.V.'.V. 


Hand 

Stream 

...do 

Hand 

Steam 

...do.. 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 


5 

10 
2 

1 

41.2 

25 
50 

100 
25 

4 

5 

5H 


40 

30 
30 
20 
45 

65 
75 

96 
86 

30 

40 
75 


By arrange- 


Independent Pier Co., pier 31, 
t south wharves. 
Kensington Shipyard & Drydoek 
Corporation, Beach and Palmer 


Do. 
Do. 


f^Sts. 

B. J. Maier, 44 Salmon St 


Yes... 
No..., 

Yes... 

Yes... 
No.... 


do 

do 

2 derrick boats.. 

1 derrick boat... 

2 derrick boats.. 

1 derrick boat... 
do 


Do. 


Northern Metal Co., Inc., pier 
No. 64, south wharves. 

Philadelphia Derrick & Salvage 
Corporation, pier No. 17, north 
wharves. 

Bernard Tucker's Sons, 103 Wal- 
nut St. 

Warner Co., 219 North Broad St... 


Do. 
Do. 

Do. 



GRAIN ELEVATORS 



There are two water-front grain elevators at the port of Philadelphia. 
One, owned by the Pennsylvania Railroad Co. and operated by the 
Western Stevedoring Co., is situated in the rear of pier No. 3, Girard 
Point, on the Schuylldll River, near its mouth. It is a reinforced con- 
crete structure, comprising 177 circular and 143 interstitial bins, hav- 
ing a total capacity of 2,225,000 bushels. A conveyor gallery which 
extends from the elevator to and over the entire length of pier No. 3, 
is equipped with 17 delivery spouts, 12 on the lower side and 5 on the 
upper, permitting delivery to vessels at the rate of 60,000 bushels per 
hour. Grain is transferred from vessel to elevator at the rate of 
10,000 bushels per hour through a pneumatic marine leg. Pier No. 3 
has berthing space of 875 linear feet on the lower side with depths of 
30 feet at mean low water, and 400 feet of berthing space on the upper 
side mth 12 feet of water alongside at mean low water. The elevator 
is equipped with 12 car pits and 24 power shovels, having a total 
receiving capacity of 20 cars of grain per hour. One delivery spout 
provides for the transfer of grain from elevator to cars at the rate of 
24,000 bushels per hour. 

The Port Richmond Grain Elevator, operated by the Readmg Co., 
is situated in the Port Richmond freight terminal yards and is con- 
nected with the Reading Co.'s Pier E by a convej^or gallery extending 
the fulllength of the pier. Pier E is 850 feet long with water depths 
of 35 feet alongside at mean low water. There are 24 delivery spouts 
on the pier gallery, 12 on each side, providing a delivery capacity of 
90,000 bushels of grain per hour from elevator to vessels. The one 
marine leg on the pier transfers grain from vessel to elevator at the 
rate of 8,000 bushels per hour. The elevator is equipped with two 
car dumpers, with provision for the installation of a third, and two 




S6— 2 



PORT AND HARBOR FACILITIES 



97 



auxiliary car pits with four power shovels. Delivery from cars to 
elevator is at the rate of 20 cars per hour. Four delivery spouts are 
provided for the transfer of grain from the elevator bins to cars, which 
may be accomplished at the rate of 6,000 bushels per hour. 

There are three floating elevators in tue port, used for the transfer of 
grain from barge to vessel when it is desired to load at a berth other 
than at the elevator piers. The Pennsylvania Railroad Co. operates 
one of these floating elevators, which has a delivery capacity of 5,000 
bushels per hour, and the Reading Co. has two with capacities of 
10,000 and 12,000 bushels per hour. Both railroad companies 
have barges suitable for the transportation of grain about the harbor. 

Details of the grain elevators are shown in the following table: 



Grain elevators 



Name of number 

Owned by 

Operator 

Address.. 

Location on water front 

Reference number on map.. 
Purpose for which used 

Type of construction 

Berthing space at pier or 
wharf. 

Depth of water in berth 

Storage capacity 

Normal loading and unload- 
ing capacity per hour: 

Car to elevator 

Ship or lighter to eleva- 
tor. 
Elevator to ship or 
lighter. 

Elevator to car 

Equipment for loading: 

To cars... 

To vessels 

Equipment for unloading: 
From cars 

From vessels 

Other equipment... 

Railroad connecting. 

Tracks serving elevator, and 

car capacity. 
Elevation charges.. 



Qirard Point grain elevator 



Pennsylvania R. R. Co 

Western Stevedoring Co 

Broad St. Station Bldg 

Pennsylvania R. R. pier No. 3, 

Girard Point. 

-10 

Receipt, shipment, and storage of 

grain. 
Reinforced concrete, 177 circular and 

143 interstitial bins. 

875 and 400 feet.. 

30 and 12 feet. 

2,225,000 bushels 

20 cars 

10,000 bushels 

60,000 bushels. 

24,000 bushels 

1 spout 

12 spouts on lower side, and 5 on 
upper side of pier. 

12 car pits with 24 power shovels 

1 pneumatic marine leg 

Scales, cleaners, drier, desmutter, 

separator, corn shellers, washer, 

oat clipper, and bagging machines. 

Pennsylvania R. R 

6 house tracks, 14 cars each, and a 

railroad yard of 1 ,400 cars capacitv. 
See I. 0. C. 1452; Pennsylvania R. 

R. TarifT1145-C. 



Port Richmond grain elevator 



Reading Co. 
Do. 

Port Richmond. 

Between foot of Elkhart and Clear- 
field Sts. 

172. 

Receipt, shipment, and storage of 
grain. 

Reinforced concrete, 110 circular and 
8''5 interstitial bins, and 91 bins In 
workhouse. 

850 and 850 feet. 

35 feet. 
2,500,000 bushels. 



20 cars 

7,000 to 8,000 bushels. 

90,000 bushels. 

C,000 bushels. 

4 spouts. 

12 spouts on each sid'„ of pier. 



2 car dumpers and provision for a 
third, and 2 car pits with 4 power 
shovels. 

1 marine leg. 

Scales, cleaners, driers, separators, 
washers, and oat clippers. 

Reading Ry. System. 

4 house tracks and a railroad yard of 

1,232 cars capacity. 
See I. C. 0. 1630. 



STORAGE WAREHOUSES 



The port of Philadelphia ranks high among the ports of the United 
States in the number of storage warehouses and in the excellence of 
their construction and equipment. It is especially well provided 
with warehouses for handling a large import and export business. 
For the purpose of this report only such concerns have been con- 
sidered as are engaged in handling goods to or from shin side. Ware- 



98 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

houses catering to local business, such as the storage of household 
goods, automobiles, etc., and terminal transit sheds, with the excep- 
tion of those operated by the Pliiladelphia Tidewater Terminal at 
pier 98, have been excluded. Among the 48 warehouses listed, 8 are 
for the cold storage of perishable commodities. These warehouses 
have an aggregate of 1,104,590 square feet, or 11,649,870 cubic feet of 
storage space. The remaining 40 warehouses are used for the dry 
storage of commodities, having an aggregate of 5,576,326 square 
feet or 64,229,807 cubic feet of storage space. In addition to the 
warehouses listed the railroads and other shipping concerns own and 
operate transit sheds which partake of the nature of warehouses. 
Information relative to transit sheds will be found in the chapter 
and tables devoted to piers, wharves, and docks. 

The warehouses are generally in close proximity to the water front 
and have connections with the piers by railroads, the city belt line, 
or by motor trucks. They are generally of brick or concrete con- 
struction, and many of them are equipped with automatic sprinkler 
systems, whereby fire hazards are reduced to a minimum and insur- 
ance rates are lowered. 

The rates in effect at the various privately owned and operated 
warehouses vary with the commodities and are influenced by the 
demand for storage space. 

Details regarding storage warehouses available to the public are 
given in the following table: 



PORT AND HARBOR FACILITIES 



99 



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102 



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110 THE POET OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

BULK FREIGHT STORAGE 

Aside from the sand and gravel, ore, coal, and lumber handling 
piers and wharves located on the Delaware and Schuylkill River 
fronts at Philadelphia, there are few special locations for the public 
storage of bulk commodities. 

The Philadelphia Piers, Inc., operates pier No. 96, South Wharves, 
for the handling of lumber and general cargo in foreign and coastwise 
trade. It is equipped with a one-story steel frame metal-covered 
shed, 1,000 by 92 feet, for the storage of kiln-dried lumber. The 
building occupies less than half of the area of the pier and much of 
the remaining space is available for the open storage of lumber and 
other bulk commodities. An open storage area of approximately 25 
acres, operated by the Philadelphia Piers, Inc., is situated on the west 
side of Delaware River to the rear of pier No. 98. The yard has 
track connections with the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad, and the Reading Co. A steel frame metal-covered 
shed, 160 by 80 feet, is available for covered storage. 

Facilities for the open and covered storage of bulk commodities are 
available on piers Nos. 35K and 36, North Wharves, operated by the 
Terminal Warehouse Co. 



PORT AND HARBOR FACILITIES 



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112 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

DRYDOCKS AND MARINE RAILWAYS 

There is one drydock at Philadelphia. It is operated by the 
Kensington Shipyard & Drydock Corporation located at the foot of 
East Palmer Street, and is of the graving type. The dock has a 
length of 420 feet and an entrance width of 55 feet. The depth of 
water on the keel blocks at mean high water is 17K feet. The shipyard 
corporation also operates two marine railways of 300 and 1,500 tons 
lifting capacities. A smaller marine railway of 12 tons capacity is 
operated by the Outboard Boat & Motor Sales Co. at Tacony. 

The drydocks and marine railways located on the Delaware River at 
Camden, N. J., are described on page 265 of this report. Those 
located at Chester, Pa., and Wilmington, Del., are described in Port 
Series Nos. 30 and 29, respectively. 

Details of the facilities at the port of Philadelphia are given in the 
following table: 



PORT AjSTD harbor FACILITIES 



113 






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114 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

MARINE REPAIR PLANTS 

The Kensington Shipyard & Drydock Corporation, located at the 
foot of East Palmer Street, is equipped with a 420-foot graving dry- 
dock and two marine railways for the repair of hulls of vessels, as well 
as shops for the repair of engines, boilers, and electrical installations. 

The Outboard Boat & Motor Sales Co. at Tacony, near the Palmyra 
bridge, is equipped for repairs to small craft and has a 12-ton marine 
railway. 

Other shops on or near the water front are prepared to make general 
repairs to the superstructures of vessels, and to engines, boilers, tur- 
bines, dynamos, etc. 

Detailed information regarding marine repair plants is given in the 
following table: 



POET AjSTD HAEBOE FACILITIES 



115 






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116 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

FLOATING EQUIPMENT 

A variety of floating equipment to meet any requirement is avail- 
able at Philadelphia. There are towboats for river and coastal 
service, open and covered barges, tank barges, and derrick boats. A 
detailed tabidation of these follows: 



PORT AND HARBOR TACILITIES 



117 



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118 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 





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THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



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124 



THE POKT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



WRECKING AND SALVAGE FACILITIES 

The Philadelphia Derrick & Salvage Corporation, located at pier 
No. 17, north wharves, is equipped with floating derricks and other 
equipment for raising and salvaging vessels, as well as with divers and 
diving apparatus. Two of these derricks are capable of lifting 100 
tons each, while the third will lift 25 tons. 

There are other derrick boats at Philadelphia, in addition to the 
above, which may be used in salvage operations, as well as towboats, 
many of which are equipped with pumps. All of these are described 
in the foregoing tables of floating equipment. 



RADIO STATIONS 



In addition to the radio station at the Philadelphia Navy Yard, 
there is one station providing coastal service. Details regarding these 
stations are contained in the following table: 



Call 
letter 



Operator 



Service 



Wave 
length 



Power 



NAT 
WNW 



U. S. Navy 

Tidewater Wireless Telegraph Co. 



Coastal - 
Coastal- 



355 
438, 500 



Watts 
2,000 
750 



Coastal service is a radio communication service carried on by means 
of coastal stations with vessels at sea. 

Station WNW provides a public service, and the hours of operation 
are continuous. 

Signal Stations or the Philadelphia Maritime Exchange on the Delaware 

Bay and River 

Signal stations are operated by the Philadelphia Maritime Exchange 
on Delaware Breakwater at Reedy Island and New Castle, Del. ; and 
at Marcus Hook, Pa. ; and during the ice season an auxiliary station is 
placed in commission at Gloucester, N. J. 

A day and night reporting service is maintained at the Delaware 
Breakwater and at Marcus Hook, but at Reedy Island and New 
Castle only day stations are operated. 

Messages can be exchanged by international code with each of the 
stations during the day and with the Delaware Breakwater station 
by night by means of a flashing lamp and the Morse code. 

Vessels navigating the main ship channel, when passing in or out 
of the Delaware Capes, to insure satisfactory results must display 
their signals day or night between the Overfalls Light Vessel and the 
lighthouse on the southern end of the Harbor of Refuge Breakwater. 
The station will answer all signals with pennant by day and by one 
long flash followed by one short flash at night. 



PORT AND HARBOR FACILITIES 125 

AIRPORTS 

The principal airport serving Philadelphia is the Central Airport 
at Camden, N. J., described on page 273 of this report. 

In addition to the above, there are seven airports and landing fields 
in and about the city, as follows: 

Mustin Field, Navy, at the Philadelphia Navy Yard. Facilities for servicing 
Government aircraft, day and night. 

Boulevard Airport, commercial, 13 miles northeast of center of the city. 
Facilities for servicing aircraft, day and night. 

Northeast Philadelphia Airport, commercial, 12 miles northeast of the center 
of the city. Facilities for servicing aircraft, day only. 

Pitcairn Field, commercial, 18 miles north of city hall. Facilities for servicing 
aircraft, day only. 

Somerton Airport, commercial, 16 miles northeast of city hall. Facilities for 
servicing aircraft, day and night. 

Wings Field, commercial, 13% miles northwest of Philadelphia and 3 miles east 
of Norristown. Facilities for servicing aircraft, day only. 

Crosman Field, private, 13 miles northwest of Philadelphia. Facilities for 
servicing aircraft, day only. 

AIRLINES 

The Philadelphia-Camden metropolitan district is served by the 
American Airlines, Eastern Airlines, United Airlines, and Transcon- 
tinental & Western Air, all of which use the Central Airport at Camden. 
A transport schedule of flights at Central Airport is shown on page 273. 



VJAn DEPARTMENT 




RAILROAD SERVICES AND RATES ' 

RAILROADS 

The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad operates from New York City 
through Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington, D. C, to Cumber- 
land, Md., from which point it operates two main lines to the West, 
one via Pittsburgh, Youngstown, and Akron to Chicago, and the other 
through Cincinnati to St. Louis. Its lines extend to the major 
Great Lakes ports, to Louisville, Ky., and Wheeling, W. Va., on the 
Ohio River, as well as to most of the important points in Central 
Freight Association territory. An affiliated companj^^, the Alton Rail- 
road, operates between Chicago, St. Louis, and Kansas City. A total 
of about 6,000 miles of track is operated. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad operates from New York City through 
Philadelphia and Baltimore to Washington, D. C, and from Phila- 
delphia and Baltimore through Harrisburg to Pittsburgh, Pa., from 
which point it operates two main lines to the West, one via Fort 
Wayne to Chicago and one via Columbus and Indianapolis to St. 
Louis, Mo. Milwaukee, Wis., is served by car ferry across Lake 
Michigan, operating out of Muskegon, Mich. Lateral lines serve the 
States of New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia (including the 
port of Norfolk), Pennsylvania, New York (including the cities of 
Buffalo and Rochester), West Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky, 
Michigan, and Illinois. Approximately 11,000 miles of first main 
track are operated. 

The Reading Railway System operates in eastern Pennsylvania in 
the territory generally bounded by Philadelphia, Bethlehem, Wil- 
liamsport, Shippensburg, Gettysburg, and Columbia, Pa., and Wil- 
mington, Del. It also operates through Trenton, N. J., to Bound 
Brook, N. J., where it connects with an affiliated company, the Central 
Railroad of New Jersey, which operates from New York City through 
Bound Brook to Easton, Bethlehem, Allentown, and Wilkes-Barre to 
Scranton, Pa., and also from New York to points in eastern and south- 
ern New Jersey. A total of about 1,500 miles of first main track is 
operated. 

The Philadelphia Belt Line Railroad extends along the Delaware 
River front between the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad and the Penn- 

1 The terminal charges shown in this section of the report do not reflect the increases authorized by Ex 
Parte I. C. C. 115 or 123. 

127 



128 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

sylvania Railroad terminals at the south on the river front and the 
Reading Railway System at the north, also on the river front. It 
also extends northward from the Port Richmond terminals of the 
Reading Railway System to Bridesburg. 

The company was organized in 1889 for the purpose of conducting 
a belt system along the water front which would always be open to 
all railroads on equal terms. A charter was secured granting to the 
belt line the right to construct a railroad from a point on the Schuyl- 
kill River near Point Breeze, following approximately the course of 
the rivers to a point on the Delaware at Tacony. Fifty-one percent 
of the stock is held in trust for the interest of the city. 

The portions actually constructed are from Allegheny Avenue to 
Bridesburg, 2.66 mOes, and from Vine Street to South Street, 0.88 
mile. These portions are operated by the Reading Railway System 
under a trackage-right agreement and represent less than one-third 
of the length of the franchise right. That portion of the belt-line 
track between Vine and South Streets is also accessible to the use of the 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Co. In May 1892 an agreement was made 
between the Pennsylvania Railroad and the belt line whereby the 
former operates its road extending from Callowhill Street to Tasker 
Street, 2.07 miles, as part of the belt line until the road of the belt line 
is constructed. This privilege has been extended by the belt line to 
both the Reading Co. and the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Co. Since 
the belt line owns neither locomotives nor cars, all movements of cars 
and maintenance of track are handled by the Pennsylvania Railroad, 
and the belt line pays a fixed amount for each car switched. When 
cars are switched for account of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad or 
Reading Railway System, these railroads reimburse the belt line in the 
same amount as the belt line pays the Pennsylvania Railroad for per- 
forming the service. 

The belt line does not make or concur in any through rates to or 
from points on its line, such points being considered as Philadelphia 
deliveries of the carriers serving Philadelpliia as though they were 
their own sidetracks or spurs. 

FACILITIES FOR INTERCHANGE BETWEEN RAIL AND WATER 

All trans-Atlantic and coastwise lines have direct communication 
with one or more of the railroads serving Philadelphia, and many of 
them regularly berth at terminals owned or operated by the rail- 
roads, which give free dockage to steamships taking or discharging 
cargo of which any part passes over rails of the carriers owning or 
operating the terminal. 

An extensive car-float and lighterage system makes it possible to 
deliver export freight, except certain articles which are not lightered, 



RAILROAD SERVICES AND RATES 129 

to vessels docking at any point along the Delaware and Schuylkill 
Kivers within lighterage limits. The limits of free lighterage and car 
floatage vary with the different rail carriers, and are as follows: 

Baltimore & Ohio Railroad.— Delaware River, Pennsylvania side, 
from Allegheny Avenue to Patterson Street; New Jersey side from 
Coopers Creek, including points thereon, to Gloucester, N. J.^ 

Pennsylvania Railroad. — Delaware River, Pennsylvania side, from 
Pennypack Creek to mouth of Schuylkill River, including Fort 
Mifflin; New Jersey side, from mouth of Rancocas Creek to mouth 
of Woodbury Creek, mcluding points on Coopers Creek; Schuylkill 
River from intersection with Delaware River to Spring Garden Street 

Bridge. 

Reading Railway System. — Delaware River, Pennsylvania side, 
from Bristol, Pa., to mouth of Schuylkill River, including Fort 
Mifflin; New Jersey side, from Florence, N. J., to mouth of Woodbury 
Creek, including points on Coopers Creek; Schuylkill River from 
junction with Delaware River to Penrose Ferry Bridge. 

SWITCHING 

In order to convey a clear understanding of the switching situation 
at a large and important port, such as the port of Philadelphia, it 
would be necessary to reproduce a large number of the governing 
tariffs in their entirety. No reciprocal switching charges are published 
by the railroads at Philadelphia applying on water-borne traffic and, 
under existing arrangements, none are necessary since interchange is 
effected at interior points and the traffic generally reaches shipside at 
the port over the rails of the delivering line, provided the rate is as 
stipulated in the governing tariffs — usually 9 cents or more per 100 
pounds, or $1.80 per ton, as rated— and any switching charges are 
included in the rate. In Heu of any general statement on this subject, 
some of the principal charges on local and reconsigned movements of 
the several carriers are discussed in the following paragraphs. 

The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. — The local rates of this railroad 
for movements between its points in Philadelphia are pubHshed in 
many cases on a per-car basis founded on a mileage scale. Tliis in- 
cludes also movements between the several piers of the Baltimore & 
Ohio Railroad and industries located on its rails at Philadelphia. 
Where the rates are pubHshed on a per-car basis they range from $12 
to $23 per car; when on a per- ton basis they range from 38 to 84 
cents per ton of 2,000 pounds; and when on a 100-pound basis they 
range from 2K to 7 cents per 100 pounds. As stated the rates are 
founded upon distance and apply on specific commodities. A rate of 
2K cents per 100 pounds, minimum charge $6.30 per car, apphes for 
movement of all commodities except coal and coke between East Side 



130 THE POKT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

and Park Junction, when the traffic is received from or destined to 
points on the Reading Co. A rate of 5 cents per 100 pounds, minimum 
charge $20 per car, appUes for the movement of all carload traffic 
(except coal), originating beyond Philadelphia and routed thereto via 
coastwise and intercoastal steamers, from piers 62 and 78 and belt- 
line piers south of Callowhill Street to pier 62, Twenty-fourth and 
Race Streets, and League Island. For movement of all traffic (ex- 
cept coal) for export to foreign countries from warehouse sidings on 
the Philadelphia Belt Line south of Callowhill Street or from ware- 
house sidings on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad to piers 62 and 78, 
and belt-line piers south of Callowhill Street, a rate of 5 cents per 100 
pounds applies, with a minimum charge of $15 per car. These rates 
apply largely on commodities moving in volume, such as lumber, 
asphalt, coke, molasses, petroleum and products, potash, pulpwood, 
roofuig, sand, gravel, etc. For movement of fruits and vegetables 
between the perishable-products terminals a rate of $2.70 per car is 
assessed when the movement is made after the original placement. 
The switching charges of this company on reconsigned shipments 
between piers and points on its rails at Philadelphia range from $6.30 
to $11 per car, depending upon the piers or points involved. These 
rates apply on cars of 40,000 pounds and on all carload shipments 
except coal and coke. The rates do not apply on shipments delivered 
to the Baltimore <k Ohio Railroad by connecting lines at Philadelphia 
junctions. Complete information as to the switching arrangements 
of this company on general carload traffic is contained in its tariff, 
I. C. C. 22702. 

The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad provides that the switching charges of 
the Reading Co., lawfully on file with the Interstate Commerce Com 
mission on interstate traffic and with the various State commissions 
on intrastate traffic, will be absorbed in their entirety out of the rates 
to and/or from Baltimore & Ohio Railroad tracks in Philadelphia on 
carload traffic, which originates at or is delivered to tracks or sidings 
of the Reading Co. at Philadelphia and is destined to or shipped from 
points located on or reached via the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad or 
connections east and south of Cherry Run, W. Va., and west of 
Philadelphia (except Hagerstown, Md.), and on traffic from or to 
points on the Norfolk & Western and the Chesapeake & Ohio Rail- 
ways. Tariff authority, Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, I. C. C. 22830. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad. — The switching charges of this railroad 
applicable on general carload traffic at the various Philadelphia 
stations cover wide ranges. Some of the charges are pubUshed on a 
per ton basis and others on a per car or a hundred-pound basis. On 
non-road-haul traffic the charges range from $6.30 to $11 per car, the 
usual charge being $8.10 per car. On road-haul traffic the same gen- 
eral bases are used in assessing the charges. For certain movements 



RAILROAD SER^aCES AND RATES 131 

charges of $6.75 and $18 per car apply and for other published move- 
ments rates of 67 cents per ton of 2,000 pounds, $6.30 and $8.10 per 
car, and 3}^ cents per 100 pounds apply. Intramill switching on line- 
haul trafl&c takes a rate of $2.70 per car and on non-line-haul traffic 
$3.15 per car. The charges of this railroad for reconsigned movements 
range from $4.05 per car for movements within certain groups to 
$16 per car for intergroup movements, depending upon the group 
point concerned. As an illustration, the charge for the movement of 
all commodities from Point Breeze (group 13) to Girard Point (group 
14) is $5.40 per car; from Vine Street (group 19) to Sixtieth Street 
(group 4), the charge on hay, grain, and grain products is $6.75 per 
car and on other traflBc $8.55 per car; and from Broad and Pollock 
Streets (group 15) to points on Wasliington Avenue, East Sixteenth, 
and Broad Streets (group 9) the charge is $6.75 on all commodities. 
On certain other movements of hay and straw consigned to mer- 
chants' warehouses at Front and Berks Streets, when reconsigned to 
private sidings in districts 1 to 4 and 7 to 27, a rate of $2.70 per car 
applies when in original cars. If unloaded, reloaded, and reconsigned 
the rate is $6.30 per car. Complete information is contained in this 
company's tariffs, G. O. Series, I. C. C.'s 14538 and 14539 and plain 
series I. C. C. 1832. 

No absorptions are published by the Pennsylvania Railroad in its 
general absorption tariff, F. D. 100, I. C. C. 1837, applicable specifi- 
cally at Philadelphia. 

Reading Railway System. — A rate of S3. 60 per car applies for 
movements of traffic (except coal, coke, and other low grade commodi- 
ties) between industries and sidings on the Reading Railway and the 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad at Park Junction, when the traffic orig- 
inates at or is destined to sidings or yards located on a line between 
Broad Street, Philadelpliia, and West Falls, Pa. A charge of $6.30 per 
car applies on the same commodities interchanged with the Baltimore 
& Ohio Railroad at Park Junction, when originating at or destined to 
Twenty-second Street Station, Twelfth and York Streets, Ninth and 
Master Streets, Nicetown, Fairliill Junction, Second and Berks Streets, 
Coral Street, Lehigh Avenue, Erie Avenue, and sidings directly inter- 
mediate. On specified commodities delivered to the Pennsylvania 
Railroad at Grays Ferry, when originating at Gibson's Point and 
destined to points beyond on the Pennsylvania Railroad, the charge 
is $4.05 per car. This company's charge for movements of lumber 
between Port Richmond piers and public team tracks and hold yards 
at Port Richmond is $6.30 per car. For movement of carload traffic 
from a specified sugar company at piers 46, 47, and 48 north, to the 
same plants (intraplant), a charge of $3.15 per car applies, and for 
movements from the same sugar company's cooperage plant at Port 
Richmond to its refinery, a charge of $8.10 per car applies. From 



132 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

various other plants and sidings at Port Richmond the charge for 
movements to various published sidings is $6.75 per car when the 
car has been subject to freight charges and $8.10 per car when carriers 
receive no line-haul revenue. A rate of $5 per car applies for move- 
ment of newsprint paper, carloads, from Sixteenth Street stores to 
the Philadelpliia Inquirer Building; this rate includes no handling 
charges. The smtching charges of this company on reconsigned 
movements range from $3.60 to $12.50 per car, depending upon the 
points involved. To illustrate: For movement between Erie Avenue 
and Fairhill Junction the rate is $3.60 per car; between sidings south 
of Reed Street to Pollock Street and Summerdale, the charge is 
$12.50 per car. The last-named rates do not apply on traffic received 
from connecting lines at Pliiladelphia unless the Reading Co. received 
a proportion of a through rate or its regular local rate. Complete 
information is contained in Reading Co. tariffs, I. C. C.'s 616, 1330, 
and 1630. 

The Reading Co. provides that the switching charges of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad at Philadelphia, lawfully on file with the Interstate 
Commerce Commission and the Public Service Commission of Pennsyl- 
vania, applicable on traffic from points west of Buffalo and Pitts- 
burg, will be absorbed on carload and on specified less-carload traffic 
to the published stations and sidings on its tracks in Philadelphia, 
via Belmont. Switcliing charges of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad at 
Philadelphia, as per tariffs lawfully on file with the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission, are absorbed out of rates currently in force to or 
from Philadelphia (Broad Street), on carloads and specified less car- 
loads originating at or destined to specified points in trunk line terri- 
tory, through, to, or from sidings, industries, or freight yards located 
on its tracks in Philadelphia south of Callowhill Street to East Side, 
inclusive, also Delaware branch from the intersection at East Side to 
Reed Street, inclusive. Tariff authority, Reading Co., I. C. C. 1685. 

Switching coal and coke. — x\ll lines at Philadelphia publish separate 
charges on coal and coke, which, in some instances, are the same as or 
similar to the charges on other commodities. The following charges 
are published by the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Reading Co. and 
are representative of the charges of all lines. Rates for the movement 
of anthracite between points in Philadelphia are based upon distance. 
The rate for movements of from 1 to 10 miles is $1.39 per ton of 2,240 
pounds and for distances from 11 to 15 miles, $1.64 per ton. These 
rates apply only where no specific commodity rates are provided 
between the points concerned. For specific movements of anthracite 
and bituminous coal between pubUshed points, not applicable when 
traffic is received from or for delivery to connecting lines, rates are 
$12 per car of 110,000 pounds, $15.50 for cars of 130,000 pounds, and 
$16 for cars of 140,000 pounds. Tariff authorities, Pennsylvania 



RAILROAD SER^nCES AND RATES 133 

Railroad, I. C. C.'s AA-2009 and AA-2161 and Reading Co., I. C. C.'s 
A-217 and A-291. 

Philadelphia Belt Line Railroad. — The switching charge of the 
Philadelphia Belt Line Railroad in the section north of Allegheny 
Avenue for movement from one siding, yard track, or industry to 
another siding, yard track, or industry is $6.30 per car, including the 
return of the empty car. This charge does not apply on cars received 
from or delivered to the Reading Co. Internal swi telling performed by 
carriers' engines in the northern section is assessed $3.15 per car. In 
the section south of Callowhill Street a charge of $6.30 per car applies 
for movement from one siding, yard track, or industry to another 
siding, yard track, or industry, but this charge is not applicable on 
cars received from or delivered to the Reading Co. or the Baltimore 
& Ohio Railroad. These rates are for local switching only, and do not 
apply to any part of an interstate shipment nor to cars which have 
been received from or are to be delivered to any railroad which has 
not complied with the rules and regulations governing the Philadelphia 
Belt Line Railroad. The foregoing rates do not apply on coke, rates 
on which are published in a separate tariff as follows: For local move- 
ments in both the northern and southern sections (except as provided) 
the rate is 80 cents per ton of 2,000 pounds. The exceptions to this 
charge are for movement from the plant of a coke company to the 
plant of an improvement company north of Tioga Street, on which a 
rate of $12 per car applies, and to an industrial plant at Richmond 
and Kennedy Streets (not including cars received from or delivered 
to the Reading Co.), on which the rate is $15 per car. Tariff authority, 
Philadelphia Belt Line Railroad, I. C. C.'s 37 and 49. 

CAR DEMURRAGE 

Domestic all-rail traffic. — The provisions and charges on this class 
of traffic are published for account of all carriers at Philadelphia by 
Agent B. T. Jones in his tariff 4-R I. C. C. 3072. Under this authority 
48 hours' free time is allowed for loading or unloading all commodities, 
except as provided. One day's free time (24 hours) is allowed on cars 
held for reconsignment, diversion, or reshipment, or on cars held in 
transit on orders of the consignor, consignee, or owner. When a car 
is held and is partly unloaded and partly reloaded, 48 hours' free time 
is allowed for the entire transaction. Free time is usually computed 
from the first 7 a. m. after actual or constructive placement, or from 
the first 7 a. m. after notice of arrival is sent or given to consignee, 
exclusive of Sundays and legal holidays. When a holiday falls on 
Sunday the following Monday is excluded. At the expiration of free 
time a charge of $2 per car per day applies for each of the first 4 days 
and a charge of $5 per car per day for each succeeding day until the 

78920—39 10 



134 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

car is released. The foregoing basis for charges applies except where 
the so-called average agreement is in force. Under the terms of this 
agreement the charges are based on a system of debits and credits. 
At the end of each calendar month the total number of credits is 
deducted from the total number of debits and $2 per debit is charged 
for the remainder, if any. If the credits equal or exceed the debits no 
charge is made for the detention of the cars except when a car is held 
beyond the fourth debit day, when a charge of $5 per car per day or 
fraction thereof is made. 

Demurrage on coal and coke held at Port Richmond. — An average 
of 5 days' free time is allowed, except on coke which is allowed 10 da3^s' 
free time when destined beyond the Delaware Capes. Time is com- 
puted from the first 7 a.m. after the day on which notice of arrival is 
sent or given to consignee, exclusive of Sundays and legal holidays. 
Settlement of charges is made on the basis of detention to all cars 
released during each month in the following manner: The date of 
arrival notice is subtacted from the date of release, and from the total 
days' detention to all cars thus obtained, 5 days' free time allowance is 
deducted for each car (except cars containing coke, for which the 
deduction is 10 days). The remainder, if any, is the number of days to 
be charged for at the rate of $2 per car per day. Tariff authorities, 
Readmg Co. I. C. C. 1690, and Pennsylvania Railroad, 471-B, I. C. C. 
635. 

In connection ^^'ith export and domestic traffic for transshipment 
by vessels, see the provisions discussed under the subject "Storage." 

LIGHTERAGE AND CAR FLOATAGE 

All of the railroads operating at Philadelphia publish regulations and 
charges governing lighterage and car floatage of domestic, export, and 
import traffic. In the important details the provisions and rates are 
uniform. The Pennsylvania Railroad appears to provide a more 
extensive service, and for that reason its provisions and charges are 
discussed herein. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad proA^des that all freight for floatage 
ser\dce must be billed to Washington Avenue wharf and carded to 
Green^dch float slips and that all freight for lighterage service must be 
billed and carded to Washington Avenue wharf. The floatage and 
lighterage limits are as follows: 

On the Delaware River (New Jersey side) from the mouth of Rancocas Creek to 
the mouth of Woodbury Creek, including points on Cooper's Creek. 

On the Delaware River (Pennsylvania side) from Pennypack Creek to the mouth 
of Schuylkill River, including Fort Mifflin. 

On the Schuylkill River from the intersection with the Delaware River to 
Spring Garden Street Bridge. 



RAILROAD SERVICES AISTD RATES 135 

Domestic freight by float. — On freight to and from Philadelphia 
wliich pays the Pennsylvania Railroad 9 cents or more per 100 pounds 
or $1.80 per ton, as rated, the rates when in lots of 4 cars or more 
include floatage to or from points within floatage limits. Freight in 
carloads, in lots of less than 4 cars, which pays 9 cents per 100 pounds 
or $1.80 per ton, as rated; freight paying less than 9 cents per 100 
pounds or $1.80 per ton, as rated, when in lots of 4 cars or more, and 
freight in carloads, in lots of less than 4 cars and paymg less than 9 
cents per 100 pounds or $1.80 per ton, as rated, is charged an additional 
3}< cents per 100 pounds or 76 cents per ton, as rated, which must be 
added to the freight rate ; the total rate, however, must not exceed 9 
cents per 100 pounds or $1.80 per ton, as rated. All freight handled 
by car float m.ust be loaded and unloaded by the shipper or consignee. 
The minimum of 4 cars above referred to does not apply on traffic 
floated to or from vessels of regular intercoastal steamship lines or 
coastwise lines operating between Philadelphia and points south of the 
Delaware Capes. On domestic traffic which pays 9 cents per 100 
pounds or more or $1.80 per ton, as rated, the rates include delivery 
of carload freight to alongside vessels within floating or lighterage 
lunits, and such delivery will be made either by lighter, float, team, 
or otherwise at the option of the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

Domestic freight by lighter. — Rates to or from Philadelphia (except 
League Island, Fort Mifflin, and points on the Schuylkill River) 
include lighterage of carload freight, received or delivered by lighter 
within lighterage limits, which pays the Pennsylvania Railroad and its 
rail connections 9 cents or more per 100 pounds or $1.80 per ton, as 
rated, when in lots of 75 tons or more, if received at or destined to one 
point witliin lighterage limits. This traffic when in lots of less than 
75 tons which pays 9 cents per 100 pounds or $1.80 per ton, as rated; 
trafl&c paying less than 9 cents per 100 pounds or $1.80 per ton, as 
rated, in lots of 75 tons or more; and traffic in lots of less than 75 tons 
and paying less than 9 cents per 100 pounds, as rated, is assessed an 
additional charge of 3K cents per 100 pounds or 76 cents per ton, as 
rated, in each case. This charge must be added to the freight rate 
but the total charge must not exceed 9 cents per 100 pounds or $1.80 
per car, as rated. The minimum weight above specified does not apply 
on trafiic lightered from vessels of regular intercoastal steamship lines 
or coastwise lines operating between Philadelphia and points south of 
the Delaware Capes, as the rates on this traffic to and from Philadelphia 
apply regardless of minimum weight, and such deliveries are made 
either by lighter, float, team, or otherwise at the option of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad. On traffic lightered to or from League Island, Fort 
Mifflin, or points on the Schuylkill River separate provisions and 
charges apply as follows: The rates to and from Philadelphia which 
pay the Pennsylvania Railroad and its rail connections 10 cents or 



136 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

more per 100 pounds or $2.02 per ton, as rated, include lighterage 
v/hen in lots of 175 tons or more. When this traffic is handled in lots 
of less than 175 tons but pays 10 cents per 100 pounds or $2.02 per ton, 
or when traffic pays less than 10 cents per 100 pounds or $2.02 per ton 
when handled in lots of 175 tons, or when traffic is handled in lots of 
less than 175 tons and pays less than 10 cents per 100 pounds or $2.02 
per ton, as rated, there is an additional charge in each case of 3K cents 
per 100 pounds or 76 cents per ton, as rated, which must be added to 
the freight rate, but the total charge must not exceed 10 cents per 100 
pounds or $2.02 per ton, as rated. 

Export and import freight. — When this class of traffic is handled by 
lighter, float, team, or otherwise, within the lighterage limits at Phila- 
delphia, the following services are included: 

Export traffic. — Delivery to alongside vessels in floating and light- 
erage limits, such delivery to be made by lighter, float, team, or other- 
wise, at the option of the Pennsylvania Railroad. On this traffic 
when destined by lighter to League Island, Fort Mifflin, and points on 
the Schuylkill River, the minimum weight is 175 tons. 

Import traffic. — Transfer of carload traffic from shipside to cars of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad either by float or lighter is at the option of 
the railroad. On freight received by lighter at League Island, Fort 
Mifflin, and points on the Schuylkill River the minimum weight is 175 
tons. If this service is performed by other than the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, the allowance for such service shall not exceed 3 cents per 
100 pounds or 60 cents per ton, as rated, such allowance in no case to be 
made to the shippers or consignees. On carload traffic from and on 
carload and less-carload traffic to Philadelphia (except traffic handled 
by lighter from or to League Island, Fort Miffiin, and pomts on the 
Schuylkill River), which pays the Pennsylvania Railroad and its 
connections less than 9 cents per 100 pounds or $1.76 per ton, as rated, 
there is an additional charge of 3K cents per 100 pounds or 76 cents per 
ton, as rated, which must be added to the freight rate. The total 
charge, however, must not exceed $1.76 per ton, as rated. Freight 
destined to or received by lighter at League Island, Fort Miffiin, and 
points on the Schuylkill River in lots of less than 175 tons which pays 
9 cents or more per 100 pounds or $1.76 or more per ton, as rated; 
traffic paying less than 9 cents per 100 pounds or $1.76 per ton, as 
rated, when in lots of 175 tons or more; and traffic in lots of less than 
175 tons paying less than 9 cents per 100 pounds of $1.76 per ton, as 
rated, is assessed in each case an additional charge of 3K cents per 100 
pounds or 76 cents per ton, as rated, on the minimum weight of 175 
tons. The total charge, however, must not exceed 9 cents per 100 
pounds or $1.76 per ton, as rated, on the minimum weight of 175 tons. 

Demurrage charges for detention of floats or lighters are assessed as 
follows: Following a free time period of 48 hours, the charge applying 



RAILROAD SERVICES AND RATES 137 

on floats is $15 per day, on closed lighters $22.50 per day, and on deck 
lighters $18 per day. 

The tariff authority for the foregoing provisions and charges is 
Pennsylvania Railroad, 1145-C, I. C. C. 1452. In the important 
detaUs the provisions and charges of the Reading Co. wliich are pub- 
lished in its tariff I. C. C. 1630, and those of the Baltimore & Ohio 
Railroad shown in its I. C. C.'s 22631 and 22821, are the same as those 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

CARTAGE AND DRAYAGE 

Charges for cartage and drayage are usually included in all tlu-ough 
rates via Philadelpliia. ^Vliere no through rates are in effect which 
include transfer charges, the Pennsylvania Railroad publishes a dray- 
age charge for movement from its stations to those of connecting lines 
of 7 cents per 100 pounds, applicable on all eight classes of traffic in 
official classification. If such transfer is made by car, no charge is 
made. Tariff authority, Pennsylvania Railroad, 1 145-C, I. C. C. 1452. 

DIVERSION AND RECONSIGNMENT 

All railroads entering Philadelphia permit the diversion and recon- 
signment of general carload traffic under numerous published rules 
and charges, provided the traffic has not broken bulk. The provisions 
and charges are uniform among the carriers and are usually published 
in individual tariff's. Generally speaking, there is no charge assessed 
for a single diversion or reconsignment if the order is received by the 
local freight agent at the initial billing point before the car leaves the 
yard at such initial bUling point ; nor where a car is placed for delivery 
at destination and an order for dehvery of the contents to other than 
the billed consignee is or has been presented to and accepted by the 
agent at the destination and no additional movement of the car is 
required; nor where a change in route is made necessary by reason of 
an embargo placed against the billed destination or route thereto 
subsequent to acceptance of the car by the carrier at the point of 
origin. Only one change at destination is permitted under the rules. 
Below are given some of the principal charges: 

Change in name of consignor $1. 35 

Diversion or reconsignment in transit 2. 70 

Stopping in transit 2. 70 

Diversion or reconsignment to points outside switching limits : 

On orders given before arrival of car 2. 70 

After arrival and before placement 6. 30 

Diversion or reconsignment to points inside switching limits: 

Before placement and within 24 hours after arrival 2. 70 

Before placement and after 24 hours after arrival 6. 30 

Diversion and reconsignment outside switching limits after placement 
is not subject to diversion and reconsignment rules and charges but 



138 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

to local rates to and from point of reconsignment. Diversion and 
reconsignment within switcliing limits after placement is not subject 
to diversion and reconsignment rules and charges but to the rate for 
local movement in addition to the rate from point of origin to billed 
destination. 

Special rules and charges apply on coal and coke, fresh fruits and 
vegetables, and seeds, which in some cases are the same as or similar 
to the foregoing regulations and charges on general traffic. 

The Reading Co. provides that carload export traffic, originally 
forwarded to Philadelphia and reconsigned after arrival to New York 
for Central Railroad of New Jersey delivery, and exported, is subject 
to a charge of $6.30 per car if reforwarded before being unloaded at 
Philadelphia. If unloaded, reloaded, and reconsigned, it is subject 
to a charge of $6.30 per car plus 50 cents per ton for labor on both 
the inbound and the outbound movements. Tariff authority, Reading 
Co., I. C. C. 1617. The same provisions and charges are published 
by the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad in its tariff, I. C. C. 22886, and by 
the Pennsylvania Railroad in its I. C. C. 1419. 

TRANSIT PRIVILEGES 

There are, at the present time, in excess of 500 commodities upon 
which transit privileges of various kinds, such as the fabrication of 
iron and steel, dressing, grading, sawing, etc., of lumber, and the 
inspection, grading, etc., of grain, are permitted by the railroads at 
points on their lines under published rules and charges. The govern- 
ing provisions and charges in connection with these privileges are 
usually contained in individual tariffs dealing only with a single 
commodity, which makes it impracticable to even list the tariffs or the 
commodities concerned. Only the privileges on commodities which 
move in volume in the water-borne commerce of Philadelphia are dis- 
cussed herein, but in a limited way those shown will indicate the scope 
and value of these privileges to the shipper. 

Lumber and articles taking the same rates, carloads, may be stopped 
off at Philadelphia for creosoting or preservatively treating, kiln 
drying, concentration, grading, assorting, storage, resawing, trimming, 
and various other transit operations, and reforwarded, when originat- 
ing at and destined to territories defined in the governing tariff to 
which through rates are in effect, on the basis of the specified through 
rate plus a transit charge of $6.30 per car on such commodities as are 
preservatively treated. For the other operations the transit charge 
is 2}^ cents per 100 pounds, assessed on the inbound billed weight. 
The time limit is 18 or 24 months, depending upon the operation and 
the commodity concerned. Tariff authority, Pennsylvania Railroad, 
411-D, I. C. C. 1295. 



RAILROAD SERVICES AND RATES 139 

Lumber, carloads, may be stopped, stored, and assorted at Phila- 
delphia and reshipped therefrom for export on the basis of the law- 
fully published export rate in effect at the time of the original ship- 
ment from point of origin, plus a transit charge of $7 per car which is 
in addition to the through rate. The time limit is 12 months from 
the date of delivery at the transit point, as shown on the inbound 
paid freight bill. Tariff authority, Pennsylvania Railroad, 1376-E, 
I. C. C. 1572. 

Various iron and steel articles, carloads, when originating at points 
in trunk-line territory, may be stopped in transit at Philadelphia for 
the purpose of bending, bolting, boring, burning, cutting, drilling, 
riveting, and for various other transit operations, and reshipped in 
carloads in an unfinished state, laiocked down, to defined territory, 
on the basis of the specified through rate from point of origin to final 
destination at the time of shipment from point of origin, plus a transit 
charge of usually Sji cents per 100 pounds. The time limit is 12 
months after receipt at the transit station. Tariff authority, Penn- 
sylvania Railroad, 1086-A, I. C. C. 1231. 

Under authority of Pennsylvania Railroad tariff 1395-C, I. C. C. 
1346, cotton in compressed bales, as per official classification, and 
cotton linters in bales in carload lots of 20,000 pounds or more, orig- 
inating at points west and south of Philadelphia, may be forwarded 
to Philadelphia for storage in warehouses having direct track connec- 
tion with the Pennsylvania Railroad and reforwarded therefrom in 
carloads to points beyond Philadelphia to which tlirough rates are in 
effect from the original point of shipment to the final destination. 
The through rate from point of origin to final destination at the time 
of the initial shipment applies, plus a transit charge of 5 cents per 100 
pounds, which is assessed on the outbound billed freight. The time 
limit is 12 months from the date of delivery at transit stations as 
shown on inbound paid freight bills. 

Dried beans and dried peas, in carloads, may be forwarded to 
Philadelpliia for inspection, weighing, cleaning, and/or sacking, and 
storage in transit, when originating at and destined to defined terri- 
tories to which through rates are in effect, on the basis of the specified 
through rate plus a transit charge of 2 cents per 100 pounds, which is 
assessed on the outbound billed weight. On shipments reforwarded 
to points on the Pennsylvania Railroad or connections south of 
Philadelphia, an additional charge of 4 cents per 100 pounds is as- 
sessed for out-of -route and/or back haul. The time limit is 12 months 
from the date of dehvery at the transit station as shown on the 
inbound paid freight bill. Tariff authority, Pennsylvania Railroad, 
1256-A, I. C. C. 1276. 

Citrus fruits, in packages, carloads, when originating at points in 
the State of Florida, delivered to the Pennsylvania Railroad at 



140 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Potomac Yard and Norfolk, Va., may be forwarded to Philadelphia 
for storage and/or sterilizing in transit at public warehouses and 
reshipment to destinations beyond Philadelphia to which tlirough 
rates are in effect from point of origin to final destination. The 
through rate applies plus a transit charge of 6}^ cents per 100 pounds 
on the outbound billed transit weight. The time limit is 12 months 
from the date of delivery at the transit point as shown on the inbound 
paid freight bill. This privilege applies only where the transit point 
(Philadelpliia) is intermediate from origin to final destination, and 
movement to and from transit point must be made via the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad. The tariff authority is Pennsylvania Railroad, 
1509-E, I. C. C. 588. This same privilege, with the same conditions 
and charge, applies also on citrus fruits originating at points in the 
State of California and delivered to the Pennsylvania Railroad at 
Chicago, Peoria, and East St. Louis, 111., or other junction points in 
the same territory, forwarded to Philadelphia for storage only in 
public warehouses and reshipped to New York, N. Y. Tariff author- 
ity, Pennsylvania Railroad, 1574-A, I. C. C. 589. 

Dressed meats and pacldng-house products, carloads, originating at 
points west of Pittsburgh, Buffalo, and Erie, may be stored in transit 
at Philadelphia and reconsigned for export via Philadelphia or New 
York on the basis of the through rate to final destination in effect at 
the time the traffic left point of origin. When the traffic originates 
at points west of the Mississippi River, the rate applicable is the 
lawfully published local or proportional rate up to the Mississippi 
River crossing through which the traffic moved in transit to Phila- 
delphia, plus the local or proportional rate thereon from said crossing 
to final destination in effect on the date the shipment moved from 
point of origin. The transit charge is $6.30 per car and the time limit 
is 9 months after the date of the freight bill at the transit point. 
Tariff authority, Pennsylvania Railroad, I. C. C. G. O. 14422. 

Various oils, including China wood, coconut, cottonseed, fish, palm, 
peanut, and various others, may be forwarded to Philadelphia for 
refining, solidifying, blending, storing, or packing, on the basis of the 
through rate or import rate, plus a transit charge of 2 cents per 100 
pounds. The time limit is 12 months from the date of the freight 
bill at the transit station. Tariff authority, Pennsylvania Railroad, 
610-C, I. C. C. 1786. 

Wool and mohair and wool and mohair tags, carloads, may be 
stopped in transit at Philadelphia for inspection, weighing, sorting, 
grading, storing, change of ownership, consignee, or destination, when 
originating in defined territory, on the basis of the through rate from 
point of origin to final destination at the time of shipment from point 
or origin, plus a transit charge of $6.30 per car. The time limit is 



KAILROAD SERVICES AND RATES 141 

24 months from the date of deUvery at the transit point. Tariff 
authority, Heading Co., I. C. C. 1115. 

Petroleum lubricating oil and petroleum grease in tank cars, car- 
loads, when originating at stations on the Reading Co. beyond Phila- 
delphia, and points on connecting lines north, west, and south of 
Philadelphia and dehvered to the Reading Co. at regular estabhshed 
junction points and arriving at Philadelpliia via the Reading Co., 
may be stopped in transit at Philadelphia for filtering, mixing, and/or 
blending and packing in barrels, drums, and/or cans in cases and 
exported in carloads through the Reading terminals at Philadelphia, 
on the basis of the through export rate in effect on the date of ship- 
ment from point of origin, plus a transit charge of 2 cents per 100 
pounds assessed on the gross weight (packages and contents) of the 
outbound shipment. The time limit is 12 months from the date of 
delivery at the transit house. Tariff authority, Reading Co., I. C. C. 
1516. 

Sugar, beet and cane, carloads, when from piers or freight stations 
of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad in Philadelphia, may be stored in 
transit at Philadelphia and reshipped therefrom via all-rail, rail-and- 
lake, or rail-lake-rail routes to points on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad 
and its connections beyond Philadelphia, on the basis of the through 
rate plus a storage charge of 5 cents per 100 pounds for the first 30 
days or fraction and 1)^ cents per 100 pounds for each succeeding 15 
days or fraction. This includes handling in and out of storage. The 
time limit is 1 year from the date of the freight bill at the transit 
point. This privilege does not apply on sugar imported from foreign 
countries, including Cuba and the insular possessions of the United 
States. Tariff authority, Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, I. C. C. 22059. 
The Pennsylvania Railroad publishes practically the same provisions 
m its tariff, 499-C, I. C. C. 581. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad provides that canned or preserved food- 
stujffs (not cold-packed fruits and vegetables), in packages, as per 
official classification, in straight or mixed carloads, may be forwarded 
to Philadelphia for storage in transit at public warehouses when 
originating at and destined to defined territory (largely trunk line), 
on the basis of the specified through rate from point of origin to final 
destination via the transit point on the date of shipment from point 
or origin, plus a transit charge of 3 cents per 100 pounds which is 
assessed on the outbound billed transit weight. The time limit is 12 
months from the date of delivery at the transit station as shown on 
the inbound paid freight bill. Tariff authority, Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, 1523-D, I. C. C. 872. 



142 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

MISCELLANEOUS CHARGES AND ALLOWANCES 

A charge of 5 cents per piece or package is made for marking less- 
carload shipments of import freight to conform to the provisions of 
rule 6 of Official Classification, when forwarded in bond. Door-board 
protection for bidk freight will be furnished by the carriers at $1 per 
car. On imported flaxseed moved in carload lots, cars must be Hned 
at the expense of the shippers or owners, but if lined by the railroads 
a charge of $5 per car is made against the property. The railroads 
make the following charges for weigliing cars: On private scales 
located at the industry, the charges on both inbound and outbound 
freight are 32 cents per car when weighed before placement and $1.80 
per car if weighed after placement. On other private scales the charge 
is G3 cents per car plus transportation to and from scales. On rail- 
road-company scales the charges on both inbound and outbound 
traffic range from $1.35 to $3.60 per car, depending upon when the 
car is weighed. Tariff authorities, Pennsylvania Railroad, 1823, 
I. C. C. 1620; Baltimore & Oliio Railroad, I. C. C.'s 22631 and 22821; 
and Reading Co., I. C. C. 1630. 

When carload sliipments of bananas require board protection the 
necessary boards will be furnished by the railroads or, if furnished by 
the shippers, an allowance will be made to the shippers equal to the 
actual cost of such boards but not to exceed 40 cents per car. If 
wooden dunnage and paper lining are furnished and used by the ship- 
pers for safe transportation of sugar, an allowance of $1 .50 will be made 
to the shippers when in lots of 21,000 pounds or more or in lots of 50 or 
more barrels, and 75 cents when cars contain less than 50 barrels. 
When the cars contain less than 21,000 pounds, an allowance of 40 
cents per car is made for paper lining and 75 cents per car for wooden 
dunnage. The railroads will furnish cars lined with paper for shipment 
of green coffee in packages, carloads. If furnished by the shippers an 
allowance of actual cost not to exceed $1 per car is made to the shippers. 
An allowance of 42 cents per ton, as rated, is made by the railroads on 
all freight, except as provided, to the Philadelphia Piers, Inc., for 
services performed at covered piers in connection with import, export, 
intercoastal, and coastwise traffic. On all freight handled at open 
piers, an allowance of 10 cents per ton as rated, is made. Tariff 
authorities, Pennsylvania Railroad, 1145-C and 1823, I. C. C.'s 1452 
and 1620; Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, I. C. C. 22631; and Reading 
Co., I. C. C. 1630. 

RAIL RATES 

In the original report covering the port of Philadelphia, as well as 
in the reissue of 1932, a brief history of the origin and purposes of the 
port differentials was included in the chapter on the freight-rate situa- 
tion. When these reports were being compiled, and for many years 



EAILKOAD SEPtVICES A^^D RATES 143 

prior thereto, the matter of the port differentials was the source of 
controversy and dissatisfaction among the rail carriers serving the 
several groups of ports on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. The matter 
was brought to the attention of the Interstate Commerce Commission 
in many important cases, but that body consistently refused to dis- 
turb the general scheme of the differentials and made no adjustment 
satisfactory to the carriers, especially the carriers serving the southern 
ports. The controversy became so severe that in 1934 the whole 
matter was again considered by this Federal body under I. & S. Docket 
3718 and a decision was rendered in December of that year. The 
territories in dispute from and to which the rates applied were Central 
Freight Association and a part of western trunk-line territories. As 
stated above, the rates from and to these territories on foreign busi- 
ness, and to some extent on domestic traffic, had been unsatisfactory, 
especially to the southern lines. 

The decision of the Interstate Conmierce Commission in 1934 ap- 
pears to have removed the causes of the long-standing controversy, as 
the territories from and to which the rates apply have been definitely 
defined as those which are naturally tributary to each group of ports, 
and long-standing fourth-section departures in the general territory 
have been removed. Since the entire adjustment is now in tariff form 
the portion of the report concerning the port differentials is no longer 
of especial interest, and in lieu thereof there are presented herein rate 
tables covering both class and commodity rates to and from Central 
Freight Association as well as local territories which show very clearly 
the advantage or disadvantage of the port of Philadelphia. 

The port of Philadelphia handles over its facihties a vast amount 
of general water-borne commerce, together with several million tons 
of low-grade bulk commodities. The latest available statistics show 
a total commerce of about 22 miUion tons. The origin or the desti- 
nation of this vast tonnage in the United States, nor what portion of 
the commerce originated in or was destined to the port's extensive 
industrial area, is not definitely known. However, it is believed that 
the rates shown moved a substantial portion of the commerce to and 
from the port. It should be here stated that the rates shown do not 
include the increases authorized by the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission in Ex Parte 115 of 1937. 

Class rates. — -The following tables show the import, export, inter- 
coastal, and coastwise all-rail class rates applying between important 
points in Central Freight Association territory and the Atlantic and 
Gulf ports. Following these tables the lake and rail export and import 
class rates to and from the Atlantic ports are presented. Next in 
order are the class rates applying between Philadelphia and Wilming- 
ton and important producing and consuming points in eastern Penn- 
sylvania and tables containing class rates applying between Phila- 



144 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



delphia and northern and southern pomts via water and rail and all- 
water. So far as traffic moving on class rates is concerned, the posi- 
tion of Philadelphia is at once apparent from an examination of these 
tables. 



Import, inlercoastal, and coastwise all-rail class rates from shipside at North Atlantic, 
South Atlantic, and Gvlf ports to representative points in Central Freight Associa- 
tion territory 

[In cents per 100 pounds; governed by oflScial classification; in effect Feb. 25, 1938] 



To— 



From — 



Classes 



Chicago, 111. 



Cairo, 111. 



Evansville, Ind. 



Louisville, Ky. 



Milwaukee, Wis. 



Boston 

Philadelphia 

Norfolk 

New York 

Baltimore 

Southern ports in: 

Groups 1, 2, 3, and 5 '. 



Boston 

Philadelphia 

Norfolk 

New York 

Baltimore 

Southern ports in: 

Groups 1, 2, and 3 '. 



Group 5 ' 



Boston 

Philadelphia. 

Norfolk 

New York 

Baltimore 

Southern ports in: 

Groups 1, 2, and 31. 

Groups' 



Indianapolis, Ind... 



Boston 

Philadelphia 

Norfolk. 

New York 

Baltimore 

Southern ports in: 
Groups 1, 2, and 3 • 

Group 5 1 



Boston 

Philadelphia 

Norfolk 

New York 

Baltimore 

Southern ports in: 

Groups 1, 2, and 3 '. 

Group 5 ' 



Boston 

Philadelphia 

Norfolk 

New York. 

Baltimore 

Southern ports in: 

Groups 1, 2, and 3 '. 

Group 5 ' 



148 
142 
140 
148 
140 

140 
130 
lfi4 
158 
156 
164 
156 

116 
106 
128 
118 
152 
146 
H4 
152 
144 

128 
118 
128 
118 
136 
130 
128 
136 
128 

128 
118 
128 
118 
140 
134 
132 
140 
132 

116 
106 
116 
106 
152 
146 
144 
152 
144 

144 
134 
144 
144 



127 
121 
119 
127 
119 

119 
109 
141 
135 
133 
141 
133 

99 



130 
124 
122 
130 
122 

109 
99 
109 
99 
117 
111 
109 
117 
109 

109 
99 
109 
99 
120 
114 
112 
120 
112 

99 
89 
99 
89 
129 
123 
121 
129 
121 

121 
111 
121 
121 



101 
99 



89 
112 
110 
109 
112 
109 

81 
72 
90 
81 
104 
102 
101 
104 
101 

90 
81 
90 
81 
93 
91 
90 
93 
90 

90 
81 
90 
81 

95 
93 
92 
95 
92 

81 
72 
81 
72 
105 
103 
102 
105 
102 

102 
93 
102 
102 



42 
40 
39 
42 
39 

39 
36 
46 
44 
43 
48 
43 

32 
29 
35 
32 
43 
41 
40 
43 
40 

35 
33 
35 
32 
38 
36 
35 
38 
35 

35 
32 
35 
32 
39 
37 
36 
39 
36 

32 
29 
32 
29 
42 
40 
39 
42 
39 

39 
36 
39 
39 



See footnotes at end of table. 



RAILKOAD SERVICES AND RATES 



145 



Import, intercoasial, and coastwise all-rail class rates from shipside at North Atlantic, 
South Atlantic, and Gulf ports to representative points in Central Freight Associa- 
tion territory — Continued 



To— 



Peoria, 111- 



St. Louis, Mo. 



Cincinnati, Ohio 



From — 



Boston 

Philadelphia 

Norfolk -._ 

New York 

Baltimore 

Southern ports in: 

Groups 1, 2, and 3 ". 

Group 5 1- .- -. 



Boston 

Philadelphia 

Norfolk 

New York 

Baltimore 

Southern ports in: 

Groups 1, 2, and 3 '. 

Group 5 1 



Boston 

Philadelphia.. 

Norfolk.. 

New York 

Baltimore 

Southern ports in: 

Groups 1, 2, and 3'. 

Groups 1 



Classes 



156 
150 
148 
156 

148 

140 
130 
140 
130 
Ifil 
155 
153 
161 
153 

140 
130 
140 
130 
124 
118 
116 
124 
116 

116 
106 
116 
106 



134 
128 
12G 
134 
126 

119 
109 
119 
109 
138 
132 
130 
138 
130 

119 
109 
119 
109 
107 
101 

99 
107 

99 

99 
89 
99 



107 
105 
104 
107 
104 



110 
108 
107 
110 
107 



1 Group 1 includes New Orleans, Mobile, Gulfport, Pascagoula, and Panama City; group 2 includes Gal- 
veston, Houston, and Texas City; group 3 includes Port Arthur, Beaumont, Orange, and Lake Charles; 
group 5 includes Brunswick, Charleston, Fernandina. Jacksonville, Savannah, and Wilmington. 

Rates shown in line indicated by A apply on traffic from Gulf ports imported from Canal Zone, Cuba, 
insular possessions of the United States, and all origins not located in the United States, Canada, Newfound- 
land, Europe, and Africa. 

Rates shown in line Indicated by B apply on traffic imported from Europe and Africa. 

Rates shown in line indicated by D apply on traffic from South Atlantic ports imported from Canal Zone, 
Cuba, insular possessions of the United States, and all origins not located in the United States, Canada, 
Newfoundland, Europe, and Africa. 

Rates shown in line indicated by E apply on trafBc from South Atlantic ports imported from Europe and 
Africa. 

Tariff authorities: Agent Frank Van Ummersen's 20-B, I. C. C. 250; Agent W. S. Curlett's 79-A, I. C. O. 
639; and Agent K. C. Bogue's 1021-D, I. C. C. 24. 



146 



TPIE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Export, intercoastal, and coastwise all-rail class rates to shipside at North Atlantic, 
Soiith Atlantic, and Gvlf ports from representative points in Central Frcigid 
Association territory 

[In cents per 100 pounds; governed by official classification; in effect Feb. 25, 193SJ 





To- 








Classes 








1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


Chicago, 111 


Boston . 




143 
143 
141 
140 
140 

140 

125 

2021-^ 

140 

125 

159 

159 

157 

158 

156 

116 

101 

178,1,2 

128 

113 

147 

147 

145 

144 

114 

128 

113 

190H 

128 

113 

131 

131 

129 

128 

128 

128 

113 

190K 

128 

113 

135 

135 

133 

132 

132 

116 

101 

178>i 

116 

101 

149 

149 

147 

146 

146 

146 
131 

2083^ 

140 

146 


122 
122 
120 
119 
119 

119 
104 
172 
119 
101 
136 
136 
134 
133 
133 

99 
84 
152 
109 
94 
125 
125 
123 
122 
122 

109 
94 
162 
109 
94 
112 
112 
110 
109 
109 

109 
94 

162 

109 
94 

115 

lis 

113 
112 
112 

99 

84 
152 
99 
84 
127 
127 
125 
124 
124 

124 
109 
177 
124 
124 


101 
101 
99 

98 
98 

98 
89 
142 
98 
89 
112 
112 
110 
109 
109 

81 
72 
125 
90 
81 
104 
104 
102 
101 
101 

90 
81 
134 
90 
81 
93 
93 
91 
90 
90 

90 
81 
134 
90 
81 
95 
95 
93 
92 
92 

81 
72 
125 
81 
72 
105 
105 
103 
102 
102 

102 
93 
146 
102 
102 


73 
73 
71 
70 
70 

70 
65 

10211. 
70' 
65 
81 
81 
79 
78 
78 

68 

53 

9032 

64 

59 

75 

75 

73 

72 

72 

64 

59 

96J'2 

64 

59 

67 

67 

65 

64 

64 

64 

59 

963^ 

64 

59 

69 

69 

67 

66 

66 

68 

63 

903-i 

68 

53 

76 

76 

74 

73 

73 

73 

68 

1051.^ 
73 
73 


52 
C2 
50 
49 
49 

49 
46 
75 
49 
46 
58 
58 
56 
55 
65 

41 
38 
67 
45 
42 
53 
53 
61 
50 
50 

45 
42 
71 
41 
38 
48 
48 
46 
45 
45 

45 
42 
71 
45 
42 
49 
49 
47 
46 
46 

41 
38 
67 
41 
38 
53 
63 
61 
50 
60 

50 
47 
76 
60 
60 


42 








42 




Philadelphia --. 




40 




Baltimore. 




39 








39 




Southern ports in: 

Groups 1, 2, and 3 ' 


A 
B 
C 
D 
E 


39 




Group 4'- - 


36 
61 




Groups' 


39 


Cairo, 111 


Boston 


36 
46 




New York .. . 




46 




Philadelphia 




44 








43 




Norfolk 




43 




Southern parts in: 

Groups 1, 2, and 3 '.. 


A 
B 
C 
D 
E 


32 




Group 4' 


29 
54 




Group 5 ' .. . 


35 




Boston 


32 
43 








43 








41 








40 




Norfolk 




40 




Southern ports in: 
Groups 1, 2, and 3 ' 


A 
B 
C 
D 
E 


35 




Group 4 ' - 


32 
57 




Groups' 


32 


Indianapolis, Ind — 


Boston 


29 
38 


New York .. 




38 








36 




Baltimore 




35 




Norfolk 




35 




Southern ports in: 

Groups 1, 2, and 3 ' 


A 
B 
C 
D 
E 


35 




Group 4 1 


32 

57 






35 


Louisville, Ky 




32 
39 


New York 




39 




Philadelphia 




37 




Baltimore . 




36 




Norfolk 




36 




Southern ports in: 

Groups 1, 2, and 3 • 


A 
B 
C 
D 
E 


32 




Group 4 ' 


29 
54 




Groups' 


32 




Boston .. . 


29 
42 




New York . 




42 




Philadelphia 




40 




Baltimore -- 




39 




Norfolk . -. 




39 




Southern ports in: 

Groups 1, 2, and 3 '. 


A 
B 
C 
D 
E 


39 




Group 4' - 


36 
61 




Group 5 ' 


39 






39 



See footnotes at end of table. 



RAILROAD SERVICES AND RATES 



147 



Export intercoaslal, and coastwise all-rail class rates to shipside at North Atlantic, 
South Atlantic, and Gulf ports from representative points in Central Freight 
Association territory — Continued 



From- 



Peoria, 111. 



To- 



st. Louis, Mo. 



Cincinnati, Ohio. 



Boston 

New York 

Philadelphia 

Baltimore 

Norfolk 

Southern ports in: 
Groups 1, 2, 3 '. 



Group 4 1 
Group 5 '• 



Boston 

New York 

Philadelphia 

Baltimore 

Norfolk 

Southern ports in: 

Groups 1, 2, and 3 L 



Group 4'. 
Group 5 '. 



Boston 

New York 

Philadelphia 

Baltimore 

Norfolk 

Southern ports in: 

Groups 1, 2, and 3 i. 



Group 4 1- 
Group 5 1. 



Classes 



151 
151 
149 
148 
148 

140 

12.5 

2021. 

140 

125 

156 

156 

154 

153 

153 



128 

113 

1901-2 

140 

125 

119 

119 

117 

116 

116 

116 
101 

178K 

116 

101 



129 
129 
127 
126 
126 

119 
104 
172 
119 
104 
133 
133 
131 
130 
130 



162 
119 
104 
102 
102 
100 
99 
99 

99 
84 

152 
99 
84 



107 
107 
105 
104 
104 



142 
98 
89 
110 
110 
108 
107 
107 

90 
81 
134 



82 
81 
81 

81 
72 
125 
81 
72 



77 
77 
75 
74 
74 

70 
65 

102}/2 
70 
65 



78 
77 
77 

64 

59 

961/0 

70 

65 

61 

61 

59 

58 

58 

58 

53 

90i.< 

58 

53 



65 
55 
63 
52 
52 

49 
46 
75 
49 
46 
57 
57 
55 
54 
54 

45 

42 
71 
49 
46 
44 
44 
42 
41 
41 

41 
38 
67 
41 
38 



44 
44 
42 
41 
41 

39 
36 
61 
39 
36 
45 
45 
43 
42 
42 

35 
32 
57 
39 
36 
35 
35 
33 
32 
32 

32 
29 
54 
32 
29 



1 Group 1 includes Gulfport, Mobile, New Orleans and Group, Panama City, Pascagoula, and Pensa- 
colaS 2 includes Galveston, Houston, Texas City, Clinton, Freepqrt, and Brasosport; group 3 includes 
Port Arthur, Orange, Beaumont, and Lake Charles; group 4 includes Miami Port Everglades, Tampa, and 
Port Tampa; group 5 includes Brunswick, Savannah, Charleston, Wilmington, Fernandina, and 

"^^Raterindicated by A apply on traffic to Gulf ports for export to Canal Zone, Cuba insular possession of 
the United States, and all destinations not in the United States, Canada, Newfoundland, Europe, Africa, 

^°Rate's fndica^ed b J B apnrv?o'Gu'lf ports for export to Europe, A frica, and the east coast of South America. 

Rates indicated by C apply on traffic to Florida ports for export to Cuba. ^u • i 

Ratei ndicated by D apply on traffic to South Atlantic ports for export to Canal Zone, Cuba, insular 
possessions of the United States, and all destinations not in the United States, Canada, Newfoundland, 
Europe, Africa, and the east coast of South America. ,. x t. At -^^ ^„a th^ ^„^t- 

Rates indicated by E apply on traffic to South Atlantic ports for export to Europe, Africa, and the east 
coast of South America. 

Tariff authorities: Agent B. T. Jones' 490-A, I. C. C. 2767, and Agent K. C. Rogue's 1016-Q, I. G. C. 10- 

Export lake-and-rail class rates 
|In cents per 100 pounds. In effect Mar. 17, 1938] 





To— 






Classes 






From— 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 




Boston.. 


98 
98 
96 
95 
130 
130 
128 
127 
146 
146 
144 
143 
141 
141 
139 
138 


84 
84 
82 
81 

luyi 

114H 

112,1/2 

lUH 

125 

125 

123 

123 

121 

J 21 

119 

lis 


70 
70 

68 

67 

87^2 

87H 

851 2 

84>'2 

104 

104 

102 

101 

101 

101 
99 
98 


51 
51 
49 
48 
61 
61 
59 
68 
76 
76 
74 
73 
73 
73 
71 
70 


36 
36 
34 
33 

621-i 

621^ 

6032 

49,1 2 

53 

53 

61 

50 

51 

61 

49 

48 


29 






29 




Philadelphia 


27 






26 




Boston 


431^ 






431/i 






4VA 






m/i 






42 






42 






40 






39 




Boston 


41 






41 




Philadelphia 


39 




Baltimore 


38 









Tariff authority: Agent B. T. Jones' 490-A, I. C. C. 2767. 



148 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Import rail-and-lake class rates 
[Rates in cents per 100 pounds. In effect Feb. 26, 1938] 



To— 



Cleveland. 



Detroit. 



Chicago. 



Duluth. 



From- 



Boston - 

New York.. 
Philadelpha. 
Baltimore... 

Boston 

New York.. 
Pliiladelphia 
Baltimore... 

Boston 

New York.. 
Philadelphia 
Baltimore... 

Boston. 

New York.. 
Philadelphia, 
Baltimore 



Class 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


90 


Si'A 


64 


44 


38 


96 


SiVi 


64 


44 


38 


90 


78M 


62 


42 


36 


88 


76H 


61 


41 


35 


103 


91 


em 


48'^ 


41 


103 


91 


693^ 


483 i 


41 


97 


85 


671/2 


463-^ 


39 


95 


83 


663-^ 


453^ 


38 


129 


113.1^ 


853^ 


61 


513^ 


129 


113H 


853^ 


61 


51 3^2 


123 


1071^ 


833^ 


59 


493^ 


121 


105^ 


823^ 


58 


483^ 


129 


113J^ 


853^ 


61 


51M 


129 


113H 


853^ 


61 


5VA 


123 


1073^ 


833^ 


59 


493^ 


121 


1053^ 


823^ 


58 


483^ 



323^ 

32H 

303^ 

293li 

35 

35 

33 

32 

4334 

43}| 

41^ 

40H 

433^ 

43J4 

41}^ 



Governed by official classification. Rates include marine insurance. 
Tariff authority: Agent W. S. Curlett's I. C. C. A-172. 

Domestic class rates between Philadelphia and Wilmington and points in eastern 

Pennsylvania 

fin cents per 100 pounds; governed by oflBcial classification. In effect Mar. 7, 1938] 



From or to— 



AUentown 

Bethlehem 

Birdsboro 

Bloomsburg 

Coatsville... 

Columbia 

Harrisburg 

Lancaster 

Lebanon 

Middletown. 

Newberry 

Pottstown 

Pottsville... 

Reading 

Shamokin 

Shippensburg 

Steelton... 

Sunbury 

Williamsport 

Chadd's Ford Junction... 



To or from- 



Philadelphia 
■\Vilmington. 
Philadelphia 
Wilmington. 
Philadelphia 
Wilmington. 
Philadelphia 
Wilmington. 
Philadelphia 
Wilmington. 
Philadelphia 
M'ilmington. 
Philadelphia 
Wilmin?ton. 
Philadelphia 
Wilmington. 
Philadelphia 
Wilmington. 
Philadelphia 
Wilmington. 
Philadelphia 
Wilmington. 
Philadelphia 
Wilmington. 
Philadelphia 
Wilmington. 
Philndeiphia 
Wilmington. 
Philadelphia 
WMlmington. 
Philadelphia 
Wilmington. 
Philadelphia. 
Wilmington., 
Philadelphia 
Wilmington., 
Philadelphia. 
Wilmington. 
Philadelphia. 
Wilmington. 



Classes 



1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


49 


42 


34 


25 


17 


13 


54 


46 


38 


27 


19 


15 


48 


41 


34 


24 


17 


13 


53 


45 


37 


27 


19 


15 


45 


38 


32 


23 


IS 


12 


48 


41 


34 


24 


17 


13 


67 


57 


47 


34 


23 


18 


69 


59 


48 


35 


24 


19 


42 


36 


29 


21 


15 


12 


39 


33 


27 


20 


14 


11 


64 


46 


38 


27 


19 


15 


51 


43 


36 


26 


18 


14 


60 


51 


42 


30 


21 


17 


56 


48 


39 


28 


20 


15 


52 


44 


36 


26 


18 


14 


48 


41 


34 


24 


17 


13 


55 


47 


39 


28 


19 


15 


55 


47 


39 


28 


19 


15 


58 


49 


41 


29 


20 


16 


54 


46 


38 


27 


19 


15 


73 


62 


51 


37 


26 


20 


73 


62 


51 


37 


26 


20 


43 


37 


30 


22 


15 


12 


48 


41 


34 


24 


17 


13 


56 


48 


39 


28 


20 


15 


58 


49 


41 


29 


20 


16 


48 


41 


34 


24 


17 


13 


51 


43 


36 


26 


18 


14 


64 


54 


45 


32 


22 


18 


66 


56 


46 


33 


23 


18 


64 


54 


45 


32 


22 


18 


66 


56 


46 


33 


23 


18 


58 


49 


41 


29 


20 


16 


56 


48 


39 


28 


20 


15 


67 


57 


47 


34 


23 


18 


67 


57 


47 


34 


23 


18 


73 


62 


51 


37 


26 


20 


73 


62 


51 


37 


26 


20 


39 


33 


27 


20 


14 


11 


33 


28 


23 


17 


12 


9 



RAILROAD SERVICES AND RATES 



149 



Domestic class rates between Philadelphia and Wilmington and points in eastern 

Pennsylvania — Continued 

[In cents per 100 pounds; governed by official classiflcatlon. In effect May 7, 1938] 



From or to— 



Lenape 

Embreeville... 
Downingtown 
Wagontown... 
Elberson 



To or from- 



Philadelphia 
Wilmington. 
Philadelphia 
Wilmington. 
Philadelphia 
Wilmington. 
Philadelphia 
Wilmington. 
Philadelphia 
Wilmington. 



Classes 



Tariff authorities: Philadelphia rates. Agent W. S. Curlett's I. O. O. A-334 and Wilmington rates, Agent 
W. S. Curlett's I. C. C. A-337. 

Water and rail class rates from Philadelphia to points in New England via the 
Merchants & Miners Transportation Co. to Boston or Providence, thence rail lines 
beyond 

[In cents per 100 pounds; governed by oflScial classification; in effect Mar. 2, 1938] 



From Philadelphia to— 



Classes 



1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


104 


88 


73 


52 


36 


29 


96 


82 


67 


48 


34 


26 


84 


71 


69 


42 


29 


23 


94 


80 


66 


47 


33 


26 


92 


78 


64 


46 


32 


25 


89 


76 


62 


45 


31 


24 


116 


99 


81 


58 


41 


32 


92 


78 


64 


46 


32 


25 


114 


97 


80 


57 


40 


31 


101 


86 


71 


61 


35 


28 


89 


76 


62 


45 


31 


24 


92 


78 


64 


46 


32 


26 


110 


94 


77 


55 


39 


30 


82 


70 


67 


41 


29 


23 


96 


82 


67 


48 


34 


26 


99 


84 


69 


60 


35 


27 


96 


82 


67 


48 


34 


26 


89 


76 


62 


45 


31 


24 


89 


76 


62 


45 


31 


24 


94 


80 


66 


47 


33 


26 


92 


78 


64 


46 


32 


25 


94 


80 


66 


47 


33 


26 


94 


80 


66 


47 


33 


26 


92 


78 


64 


46 


32 


25 


94 


80 


66 


47 


33 


26 


87 


74 


61 


44 


30 


24 


109 


93 


76 


65 


38 


30 


82 


70 


57 


41 


29 


23 


92 


78 


64 


46 


32 


25 


87 


74 


61 


44 


30 


24 


105 


89 


74 


53 


37 


29 


87 


74 


61 


44 


30 


24 



Alton Bay, N. H... 

Amesbury, Mass 

Amherst, Mass 

Andover, Mass 

Ashburnham, Mass. 

Attleboro, Mass 

Augusta, Maine 

Bellows Falls, Vt... 

Berlin, N. H 

Biddeford, Maine... 

Brattleboro. Vt 

Brockton, Mass 

Brunswick, Maine.. 

Chicopee, Mass 

Concord, N. H 

Durham, N. H 

Exeter, N. H 

Fall River, Ma.ss... 

Fitchburg, Mass 

Lawrence, Mass 

Lowell, Mass 

Manchester, N. H.. 
New Bedford, Mass. 

Newport, R. I 

Portland, Maine 

Providence, R. I 

St. Johnsbury, Vt.. 
Springfield, Mass... 

Taunton. Mass 

Turners Falls, Mass 

Wells River, Vt 

Worcester, Mass 



Tariff authority: Merchants & Miners Transportation Co., I. C. C. 1284. 



78920—39- 



-11 



150 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Water and rail class rates from Philadelphia to points in southern territory 
[In cents per 100 pounds; governed by southern classification: in effect Mar. 18, 1938] 



From Philadelphia to— 


Classes 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


Atlanta Ga . 


182 
204 
183 
204 
179 
196 
237 
237 
222 
221 
245 
222 
179 
183 
188 
179 
220 


155 
173 
156 
173 
152 
167 
201 
201 
189 
188 
208 
189 
152 
156 
160 
152 
187 


127 
143 
128 
143 
125 
137 
166 
166 
155 
155 
172 
155 
125 
128 
132 
125 
154 


100 
112 
101 
112 

98 
108 
130 
130 
122 
122 
135 
122 

98 
101 
103 

98 
121 


82 
92 
82 
92 
81 
88 
107 
107 
100 
99 
110 
100 
81 
82 
85 
81 
99 


72 




81 




73 




82 


Fitzuerald Ga .. 


72 


Gadsden Ala 


78 




95 




95 




89 


Memphis Tenn 


88 




98 




89 


Quitman. Qa --- 


72 




73 


Thomasville, Oa 


75 


Valdosta, Ga 


72 


York, Ala -- 


88 







Tariff authority: Agent W. S. Curlett's 44-F, I. G. C. A-533. 

Proportional class rates between Philadelphia and southern ports 

mates include marine insurance, are stated in cents per 100 pounds, and are governed by southern classifi- 
cation; in effect Mar. 2, 1938] 





Rates between Philadelphia 


and"— 


Classes 


Jacksonville 


Savannah 


Miami and port of 
Palm Beach 




A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


1 


133 
113 
93 
73 
59 
48 
47 
40 
33 
30 
27 
23 


80 
68 
56 
44 
36 
32 
28 
24 
20 
20 
20 
20 


116 
99 
81 
73 
59 
48 
47 
40 
33 
30 
27 
23 


72 
61 
50 
44 
36 
32 
28 
24 
20 
20 
20 
20 


166 
141 
116 
91 
75 
66 
58 
60 
43 
37 
33 
29 


138 


2 


117 


3 


97 


4 


76 


5 


62 


6 - 


55 


7 


48 


8 


41 


9 


35 


10 


31 


11 


28 


12 . 


24 







• Rates shown under columns A apply on traffic originating at or destined to all points in Connecticut, 
Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, 
Rhode Island. Vermont, District of Columbia. Virginia, and Canada. Rates shown under columns B 
apply on all traffic originating or destined to all points except as provided under A. 

Tariff authority: Merchants & Miners Transportation Co., I. C. 0. 1445. 

Commodity rates. — A large part of the water-borne commerce of 
Philadelphia consists of commodities which usually move to and from 
ports on commodity rates. The commodity rates are considerably 
lower than class rates and are justified because of frequent movements 
to and from the port in volume. The tables which follow show the 
import and export all-rail specific commodity rates on selected com- 
modities between the ports and important points in Central Freight 
Association territory and import commodity rates to other territories. 
It will be observed that Philadelphia has an advantage in connection 
with these rates to central territory as it has in connection with the 



RAILROAD SERVICES AND RATES 



151 



class rates. Domestic commodity rates to the several territories are 
also quoted. Where pubhshed, rates from or to Wilmington and 
Camden are shown for comparative purposes. 

All-rail import commodity rates, carloads, to important points in Central Freight 

Association territory 
[In cents per 100 pounds; in effect Mar. 18, 1938] 





From— 








To— 








Commodities 


Chi- 
cago 


Cin- 
cin- 
nati 


Cleve- 
land 


Co- 
lum- 
bus 


Louis- 
ville 


Cairo 


In- 
dian- 
apolis 


St. 
Louis 


Bagging, burlap, gunny, 
or jute. 


Philadelphia 

Norfolk 


46H 

45 

481/2 

453-^ 

4SH 

361-^ 

3oH 

38^ 

353^ 

381^ 

Slhi 

SOH 

831/2 

801^ 

83H 

35 

34 

37 

34 

37 

32 

31 

34 

31 

34 

S5H 


403,^ 

39 

42^ 

391/2 

42H 

31^ 

303^ 

33H 

301/^ 

331^ 

80 


36^ 
3534 
381^ 
35H 


36^ 
353^^ 
3834 

Z5yn 
3834 


46J^ 

45 

48^ 

4534 

48H 

3514 

3834 

35^ 

3854 

8I34 

803^ 

83}^ 

80^ 

833^ 

35 

34 

37 

34 

37 

32 

31 

34 

31 

34 

8534 


561^ 
65 
58H 
551^ 

58H 

44 

43 

46 

43 

46 

98 

97 
100 

97 
100 

42 

41 

44 

41 

44 

3834 

373^ 

4034 

3714 

40J^ 


43 
42 
45 
42 
45 
34 
33 
36 
' 33 
36 
8134 
80^ 
8334 
803^ 
8354 
32^ 
31^ 
3434 
3134 
3434 
2914 
28^ 
3134 
2834 

3134 

85K 


4654 
4534 


New York. 


5654 
453^ 






565-2 


... 


Philadelphia 


43 




28 


29^ 


42 




New York 


45 








42 






31 
65 


32H 
71M 


45 




Philadelphia 

Norfolk 


955-^ 




9454 




New York - 


82 

79 

82 

303^ 

29^ 

32}^ 

29^ 

323-^ 

27^ 

263i 

29^ 

263^ 

29^ 


67 

64 

67 

303^ 

2934 

3234 

29H 

32K 


7314 
7034 
73^ 
30H 
2934 
323.$ 
29M 
32>^ 


971^, 
945I 




Boston 


975i 


Ciialk, crude 


Philadelphia 

Norfolk -- 


41 
40 




New York 


43 
40 






43 


Clay, ball or china. - 


Philadelphia - 

Norfolk 


373^$ 


21K 


2314 


3654 




New York 


395^-3 








3654 










3914 


, , 


Philadelphia 

Norfolk 




















New York 


87H 
841^ 
S7H 
40 
39 
343^ 
39 
34M 
36M 
35H 
381/^ 
35^ 
ZSH 
34 
33 
36 
33 
35 
53^ 
521/^ 
55^ 
52^ 
55^^ 
481^ 
47^ 
50^ 
47^ 
503^ 
39 
38 
41 
38 
41 
36 
35 
38 
35 
38 
1 








87}^ 
8434 
8734 

40 
39 


"Is" 

47 


87^ 

841/^ 

8734 

40 

39 




























Philadelphia 


40 
39 

'"39"" 

""31^ 
30H 
331^ 
303'$ 
331^^ 
293-^ 
28H 
31}^ 
28^ 
303-^ 
463^ 
45 
4834 
45H 
48H 
42 
41 
44 
41 
44 
34 
33 
36 
33 
36 
30 
29 
32 
29 
32 






47 








46 




New York 


25 










39 


47 


39 


46 






25 








Philadelphia 

Norfolk 




36H 

353-^ 

3834 

3534 

38H 

34 

33 

36 

33 

35 

5334 

S234 

5534 

52H 

55H 

48^ 

47^ 

50^ 

4734 

6034 

39 

38 

41 

38 

41 

36 

35 

38 

35 

38 


44 

43 

46 

43 

46 

41 

40 

43 

40 

42 

6434 

6334 

66^ 

6334 

6634 

58V4 

5714 

6034 

5754 

6034 

46 
49 
46 
49 
44 
43 
46 
43 
46 


34 
33 
36 
33 
36 
3134 
3034 
331/^ 
30H 
32H 
49H 
4854 
5134 
481,^ 
5154 
45 
44 
47 
44 
47 
3634 
355^ 
381^ 
355.^ 
. 3834 
32 
31 
34 
31 
34 


43 




28 


29^2 


42 




Now York 


45 








42 






31 

293-^ 

28^ 

313-^ 

28 V^ 

30^^ 

46^ 

45 

483^^ 

45H 

48M 


3234 

2934 

28H 

3134 

2834 

3034 

4634 

45 

483-^ 

453^ 

4834 


45 




Philadelphia 

Norfolk . . 


40 




39 




New York 


41 
39 




Boston 


41 




Philadelphia 

Norfolk 


63 




615^ 




New York.. 

Baltimore- -. 

Boston . .- 


65 
62 
65 




Philadelphia 

Norfolk --. 


57 




37 


41 


56 




New York 


69 








56 






40 


44 


59 


Soda, various forms 


Philadelphia 

Norfolk 


455^ 


30 


3134 


4454 




New York 


473-^ 








4414 




Boston .. 


33 

2634 
25M 
281/ 
25V^ 
281-^ 


34H 
26M 
2534 
28H 
25V^ 
28}^ 


4754 


Woodpulp, as per oflBcial 
classification. 


Philadelphia 

Norfolk 


43 

42 


New York... 


45 
42 






45 









Tarifl authority for Boston rates shown, Agent Frank Van Ummersen's 26-C, I. C. O. 311; for all other, 
rates. Agent W. S. Curlett's 43-D, I. C. C. A-546. 



152 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



All-rail export commodity rates, carloads, from important producing points in Central 
Freight Association territory to North Atlantic ports 

[In cents per 100 pounds; in effect Mar. 9, 1938] 





To- 


From— 


Commodity 


Chi- 
cago 


Cin- 
cin- 
nati' 


Cleve- 
land 

34 

35M 
36 
36 

33 
38 
40 
40 
40 

37 
22 
23 
24 
24 

21 
35 
37 
37 
37 

34 


Co- 
lum- 
bus 


Louis- 
ville 


Cairo 


In- 
dian- 
apolis 


St. 
Louis 


Packing-house products, 
including cooked, cured, 
or preserved meats, 
lards, etc. 


Philadelphia 

Norfolk 


47 
46 
49 
49 

46 

54}^ 

531^ 

56}^ 

66H 

53>^ 

31 

30 

33 

33 

30 

503^ 
49H 

52J^ 

491/^ 


38 
36H 
43 
43 

36Ji 

"27"' 
23 
29 
29 

23 
44 
43 
46 
46 

43 


36H 

38H 
38}/2 

35H 

401/2 

mi 

431^ 

40H 

24 

23 

26 

26 

23 
38 
37 
40 
40 

37 


47 
46 
49 
49 

46 

54^ 

53}^ 

56H 

56}^ 

53H 

31 

30 

33 

33 

30 

mi 

491/2 
52^ 
52^ 

49H 


56 
55 

58 
58 

55 
66 
65 
68 
68 

65 
37 
36 
39 
39 

36 
60 
59 
62 
62 

59 


44 
43 

46 
46 

43 

50H 
49^2 
52H 
521^ 

49H 

29 

28 

31 

31 

28 

461^ 

45^ 

4SH 

48H 


5414 
63^ 
56).$ 
56H 

53H 

64 

63 


New York 

Boston and Port- 
land. 
Baltimore. 


Automobiles, freight or 
passenger, boxed, also 
chassis, bodies, and 
parts. Carload mini- 
mum 30,000 pounds. 


Philadelphia 

Norfolk 


New York 

Boston and Port- 
land. 
Baltimore 


66 
66 

63 


Sodas, various; ammonia. 


Philadelphia 

Norfolk 


36^ 
35>4 
38H 

^m 

35^ 
58H 
57J4 
601^ 

^A 

57A 


chemicals. 


New York 

Boston and Port- 
land. 
Baltimore 


Agricultural implements, 
various, as per official 
classiflcation. Carload 
minimum: 30,000 
pounds. 


Philadelphia 

Norfolk 


New York 

Boston and Port- 
land. 
Baltimore 















'All rates shown from Cincinnati are proportional rates except the rate of 43 cents to Baltimore, which 
applies from Cincinnati proper. 
Tariff authority. Agent B. T. Jones' 218-K, I. C. C. 3028. 

On commodities other than those shown in the table showing all-rail 
export commodity rates, when for export and actually exported, the 
domestic rates apply, and Philadelphia has an advantage of 2 cents 
mider the New York rates on all traffic. 

Proportional export and domestic * carload reshipping rates on grain and flour from 
Central Freight Association territory to Atlantic ports 

[In cents per 100 pounds; in effect Mar. 7, 1938] 



To- 



Rate from 


Rate from 


Rate from 


Chicago on— 


St. Louis on— 


Cairo 


on — 


Grain 


Flour 


Grain 


Flour 


Grain 


Flour 


51H 


52 


55^ 


66 


64 


64H 


23'^ 


253^ 


27H 


29^ 


28M 


31 


60'^ 


51 


64>^ 


55 


63 


63H 


22H 


24H 


26H 


281^ 


27>^ 


30 


38 


38H 


42 


42^ 


50H 


51 


22H 


24H 


26H 


28M 


271^ 


30 


30 


30H 


34 


34^ 


421^ 


43 


2\A 


22M 


25H 


26}^ 


26H 


28 


26H 


27 


3OK2 


31 


31}^ 


32 


22^ 


24M 


20H 


2SA 


27H 


30 


26H 


27 


30'.^ 


31 


31H 


32 


22H 


24H 


26H 


28^ 


273^ 


30 


24^ 


25 


283^ 


29 


293^ 


30 


22H 


24H 


26>^ 


28H 


27A 


30 


221^ 


23 


26^ 


27 


TiA 


28 


21H 


22H 


25A 


26H 


2ejA 


28 


21^ 


22 


25H 


26 


26A 


27 


21 


21 J^ 


25 


25V2 


26 


27 



Halifax, Nova Scotia: 

Domestic 

Export- 

St. John, New Brunswick: 

Domestic 

Export 

Quebec, Quebec: 

Domestic 

Export.-- -- 

Montreal, Quebec: 

Domestic.-. 

Export 

Portland, Maine (Grand Trunk Ry.): 

Domestic.- .-- - 

Export 

Boston, Mass.: 

Domestic 

Export - 

New York, N. Y.: 

Domestic 

Export - 

Philadelphia, Pa.: 

Domestic--- 

Export 

Baltimore, Md.: 

Domestic 

Export 



I The domestic rates to United States ports expire June 30, 1938, unless sooner canceled, changed, or 
extended. 
Tariff authorities: Agent B. T. Jones' 351-A, I. C. C. 3047, and 245-E, I. C. C. 3055. 



KAILROAD SERVICES AND RATES 



153 



Export ex-lake rates on grain, carloads, to North Atlantic ports > 
[In cents per 100 pounds; in effect Mar. 4, 1938] 





Kind of grain 


Rate to— 


From— 


Phila- 
delphia 


Nor- 
folk 


New 
York 


Boston 


Balti- 
more 




Barley 


12M 

13 

12H 

13 

14H 

123^ 

13 

12H 

13 

u'A 
Vi>A 

13 

12H 

13 


18 

15H 

16 

\^Vi 

16 

14^ 

15H 

13 

12J^ 

13 

14>^ 

12H 

13 

12H 

13 


\9>Vi 

16 

16H 

16 

16^ 

19H 

16 

nVi 

17 

17^ 
19>^ 
17 

nVi 

17 

17H 


18^ 

16 

16M 

16 

36^ 

19H 

16 

17H 

17 

17M 

19H 

17 

17^ 

17 

17M 


14^ 




Corn . . . 


12H 




Oats 


13 




Rve 


12J^ 




Wheat 


13 




Barley 


14H 




Corn . .. 


12K 




Oats -- 


13 




Rve - 


12>^ 




Wheat--. 


13 


Sandusky, Toledo, and Ironville, Ohio. .. 


Barley 


uyi 


Corn 


nVi 




Oats 

Rve 


13 
12^ 




Wheat 


13 









« Rates shown do not include any elevator charges or services. 
Tariff authority: Agent B. T. Jones' 245-E, I. C. C. 3055. 



Export and domestic rates on various iron and steel articles, carloads, from Central 
Freight Association territory to North Atlantic ports 



[In effect Mar. 18, 1938] 



To— 



From- 



Chi- 
cago 



Cincin- 
nati ' 



Cleve- 
land 



Colum- 
bus 



Louis- 
ville 



Cairo 



Indian- 
apolis 



St. 
Louis 



Billets, blooms, ingots, bars, plates, manganese ore, scrap iron and 
steel and various other articles (in cents per ton, as rated) 



Philadelphia: 
Domestic. 
Export... 

Norfolk: 

Domestic. 
Export... 

New York: 
Domestic 
Export... 

Boston : 

Domestic 
Export... 

Baltimore: 
Domestic 
Export... 



Philadelphia: 

Domestic. 

Export 

Norfolk: 

Domestic, 

Export 

New York: 

Domestic. 

Export 

Boston: 

Domestic. 

Export 

Baltimore: 

Domestic. 

Export 



930 
660 


810 
570 


650 
460 


710 
500 


930 
660 


1,120 
800 


860 
610 


1,090 
780 


910 
640 


790 

550 


690 
480 


690 
480 


910 
640 


1,100 
780 


840 
690 


1,070 
760 


970 
700 


850 
610 


690 
500 


750 
540 


970 
700 


1,160 
840 


900 
650 


1,130 
820 


1,010 
700 


890 
610 


730 
500 


790 
540 


1,010 

700 


1,200 
840 


940 
650 


1,170 
820 


eio 

640 


790 
550 


630 
440 


690 
480 


910 
640 


1,100 
780 


840 
690 


1,070 
760 


Pig iroi 
spilli 


1, ingot I 
Dgs and 


noulds, 
various c 


mill cine 
ther arti 


er, pig n 
cles (in c 


loulds, p 
ents per 


yrites or 
ton, as r 


e cinder, 
ited) 


8S9 
660 


772 
570 


628 
460 


682 
500 


889 
660 


1,069 
800 


826 
610 


1,042 
780 


869 
640 


752 
550 


662 
480 


662 

480 


869 
640 


1,049 

780 


806 
690 


1,022 
760 


929 
700 


812 
610 


668 
600 


722 
540 


929 
700 


1,109 
840 


866 
650 


1,082 
820 


969 
700 


852 
610 


708 
500 


762 
640 


969 
700 


1,149 
840 


906 
660 


1,122 
820 


869 
640 


752 
550 


608 
440 


662 
480 


869 
640 


1,049 
780 


806 
690 


1,022 
760 



' Proportional rates. 



154 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Export and domestic rates on various iron and steel articles, carloads, from Central 
Freight Association territory to North Atlantic ports — Continued 



To- 



From— 



Chi- 
cago 



Cincin- 
nati 


Cleve- 
land 


Colum- 
bus 


Louis- 
ville 


Cairo 


Indian- 
apolis 



St. 
Louis 



Manufactured iron and steel articles, including architectural and 
structural steel, frames, tees, zees, angles, bars, etc. (in cents per 
100 pounds) 



Philadelphia: 

ig( Domestic. 
Export... 

Norfolk: 

Domestic- 
Export... 

New York: 

K Domestic. 

" Export... 

Boston: 

Domestic. 
Export... 

Baltimore: 
Domestic- 
Export 



46 


41 


36 


38 


45 


61 


43 


33 


28M 


23 


25 


33 


40 


30H 


49 


41 


41 


40 


45 


52 


45 


32 


27H 


24 


24 


32 


39 


29H 


48 


43 


38 


40 


47 


64 


45 


35 


30H 


25 


27 


35 


42 


32H 


51 


48 


41 


45 


52 


68 


49 


35 


301^ 


25 


27 


35 


42 


32H 


44 


38 


34 


35 


42 


49 


41 


32 


27H 


22 


24 


32 


39 


29H 



Tariff authorities: Domestic rates on manufactured iron and steel, Agent B. T. Jones' 469, 1. C. C. 2266; 
export rates on manufactured iron and steel, Agent B. T Jones' 349-F, I. C. C. 2896; domestic and export 
rates on other iron and steel, Agent B. T. Jones' 349-F, I. C. C. 2896. 

Export rates on iron and steel articles, carloads, from producing points to Atlantic 

ports 

[In effect Mar. 19, 1938] 



From — 



Cumberland, Md... 

Johnstown, Pa 

Latrobe, Pa 

Connellsville, Pa... 
Punxsutawney, Pa_ 

Bessemer, Pa 

Homestead, Pa 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Du(iuesne, Pa 

Erie, Pa 

Buffalo, N. Y 



Rate in cents per ton of 2,240 pounds on — 



Billets, blooms, etc. 



Boston 
and 
New 

York 



400 
1400 

430 

390 



Phila- 
delphia 



360 
360 

390 

390 



Balti- 
more 



340 
340 

370 

390 



Pig iron 



Boston 
and 
New 

York 



400 
370 

430 

390 



Phila- 
delphia 



360 
280 

390 

390 



Balti- 
more 



340 

280 

370 
390 



Rate in cents per 100 
pounds on manufac- 
turing iron and steel 
articles 



Boston 
and 
New 

York 


Phila- 
delphia 


20 


18 


20 


18 


211^ 


^O'A 


IdVi 


mi 



Balti- 
more 



17 
17 

18H 
19^ 



' This rate does not apply to Boston. 

Tariff authority, Pennsylvania R. R. 1895, 1. C. C. 1808. 



RAILKOAD SERVICES AND RATES 



155 



Export rates on new iron and steel rails and crossties 
[In cents per ton of 2,240 pounds; in eflect Mar. 19, 1938] 



From— 


To— 


Philadelphia 


Wilmington 


Baltimore 




154 
250 
165 
250 


209 
250 
165 
250 


250 




250 




165 




250 







Tariff authority: Reading Co., I. C. C. 1818. 

Domestic rates on iron and steel, carloads, from Pennsylvania points to Philadelphia, 
Wilmington, and Baltimore 

[Rates on pig iron are in cents per ton, as rated; on manufactured iron and steel, in cents per 100 pounds, 
and on billets, and blooms, in cents per ton of 2,240 pounds; in effect Mar. 18, 1938] 





Rate to— 




Philadelphia 


Wilmington 


Sparrows Point, 
Baltimore 


From Pennsylvania points 


Pig 
iron 


Manu- 
fac- 
tured 
iron 
and 
steel 


Billets 

and 
blooms 


Pig 
iron 


Manu- 
fac- 
tured 
iron 
and 
steel 


Billets 

and 
blooms 


Pig 
iron 


Manu- 
fac- 
tured 
iron 
and 
steel 


Billets 

and 
blooms 


Allentown 


110 
99 

88 


9 

m 

12}^ 

6J2 

9 

912 

9 

9 

9}2 

12M 

9Vo 

12^2 

141-2 

12H 


154 
132 

no 

220 
110 
165 
187 
165 
165 
187 
220 
110 
165 
132 
220 
250 
187 
220 
220 


187 
187 
88 

88' 

'"""132" 
132 
132 
132 

"""132' 
165 
110 

""'132' 


iiH 
11;^ 

7} -2 
12.V^ 

914 

9^-2 
9H 

12^-2 
9 

9^2 

9 

12.4 
144 

91<3 

124 

1212 


198 
198 
110 
250 
88 
165 
187 
165 
165 
187 
250 
132 
165 
132 
250 
250 
187 
250 
250 


220 

2?n 

198 

i32' 

""'132' 

i32" 

"'"'198' 
220 
198 


123 2 
12,' 2 
104 
1232 

93-2 
103i 

93-2 

103--0 


250 


Bethlehem .- ..- 


250 


Birdsboro 


209 


Bloomsburg .. 




Coatesville . 


88 


187 




165 


Harrisburg 


132 
132 
132 
132 


187 






Lebanon 


103-2 
103-2 
124 

103 ■; 
123 2 
103-2 


187 


Middletown 


187 


Newberry. 


250 


Pottstown . 


88 
132 

88 


209 


Pottsville 


250 


Reading 


209 




250 












Steelton 


132 




93^ 
124 
123^ 


187 


Sunbury... 


250 


Wllliamsport . . . 


187 


250 







Tariff authority: Reading Co., I. C. C. 1818. 

Rates on pig iron and articles taking same rates, carloads, from Philadelphia 
[In cents per ton as rated; in eflect Mar. 30, 1938] 



To Pennsylvania points 



Alburtis 

Auburn 

Allentown. 

Bethlehem 

Birdsboro 

Bloomsburg 

Boyertown 

Carlisle 

Chester 

Coatesville 

Columbia. 

Conshohocken 

Cornwall 

Danville 

Doylestown 

Eddystone 

Fort Washington 

Harrisburg 

Lancaster 



Rate 



153 
180 
180 
180 
124 
247 
139 
272 
111 
124 
180 
111 
180 
247 
153 
84 
124 
180 
180 



To Pennsylvania points 



Lebanon 

Lewisburg 

Middletown..., 

Milton 

Mount Carmel 

Muncy 

Newberry 

PhoenixviUe... 

Pottstown 

Pottsville 

Quakertown... 

Reading 

Shamokin 

Shippensburg.. 

Steelton 

Swedeland 

Tamaqua 

WOliamsport.. 



Rate 



180 
247 
180 
247 
222 
247 
259 
111 
124 
180 
139 
124 
222 
272 
180 
111 
208 
259 



Note.— To Trenton, N. J., and Wilmington, Del., the rate is 124 cents per ton, as rated. 
Tariff authority: Reading Co., I. C. C. 1637. 



156 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Rates on ore from Philadelphia to points in Pennsylvania and New Jersey 
[In cents per ton of 2,240 pounds; in effect Mar. 18, 1938] 



To— 



Rate on- 



Chrome 
ore 



Manga- 
nese ore 



Iron ore 



Alburtis, Pa... 

Allen town, Pa.. 

Bethlehem, Pa. 

Birdsboro, Pa 

Camden, N. J 

Chester, Pa.. 

Coatesville, Pa 

Columbia, Pa 

Conshohocken, Pa 

Cornwall, Pa 

Danville, Pa 

Harrisburg, Pa 

Hog Island, Pa 

Lancaster, Pa 

Lebanon, Pa 

Marcus Hook, Pa 

Middletown, Pa 

Milton, Pa 

Newberry, Pa 

Phoenixville, Pa. 

Plymouth Meeting, Pa. 

Pottstown, Pa 

Pottsville, Pa 

Reading, Pa - 

Royersford, Pa 

Sheridan, Pa 

Steelton, Pa 

Swedeland, Pa. — . 

Temple, Pa... 

Williamsport, Pa 

Weston, N. J 



126H 



1051-i 

no 



122 
122 
111 
105' 



117 
106 

90}4 



9VA 



9134 



91K 
126>4 



231J 
105H 
913-2 
110 

1263^ 



1263^ 



200 



913^ 
1053-^ 
132 

74 
132 
179 
132 

95 
132 
132 

9132 
132 
179 
2313-^2 

95 

91H 

95 
132 
122 

95 
122 
132 

74 
122 
231}2 



9fi3-3 
96H 

127 
863^ 

127 



127 



127 
128 



128 
1673^ 
1973-^ 
96H 
863^ 

mii 

128 
117 

983^ 
127 
127 

8634 
117 
19714 



Tariff authority: Reading Co., I. C. C. 1612. 

Rates on bituminous or cannel coal, carloads, from producing regions to Atlantic 

ports for transhipment to vessels 

[Rates include dumping, are stated in cents per ton of 2,240 pounds,|and were in effect on Mar. 19, 1938] 



Originating regions and groups 



Group No. 1 (Preston) 

Cumberland-Piedmont region 

Meyersdale 

Group No. 2 (B. & O. R. R.) 

Group No. 3 (B. & O. R. R.) 

Group No. 4 (B. & O. R. R.) 

Group No. 5 (Montour)... 

Group No. 6 (Pennsylvania & West Vir- 
ginia) — 

Pittsburgh, Youghiogheny, Finleyville, 
and West Virginia regions... 

Klondike region 

Ohio River 

Group No. 9 (B. & O. R. R.) 

Groups Nos. 11 and 12 (B. & O. R. R.) ... 

Gauley region 

Group No. 10 (B. & O. R. R.) 

Reynoldsville region 



To— 



Baltimore coal 
piers (Curtis 
Bay) 



When 
destined 
inside 
Chesa- 
peake 
Capes 



267 
257 



282 

297 
297 
312 



When 
destined 
outside 
Chesa- 
peake 
Capes 



246 
236 



261 

276 
276 
291 



Dela- 
ware 
coal 
piers, 
Wil- 
ming- 
ton, 
Del. 



267 
257 



282 



312 
257 



Philadelphia coal 
piers, Port 
Richmond 



When 
destined 
inside 
Dela- 
ware 
Capes 



267 
257 



282 



297 



312 
257 



When 
destined 
outside 
Dela- 
ware 
Capes 



253 
243 



268 



283 



298 
257 



Port 

Reading 
coal 
piers, 
N.J. 



267 
278 



303 



318 



333 

278 



Tariff authority: Baltimore & Ohio R. R., I. C. C. Coal and Coke 2821. 



RAILROAD SERVICES AND RATES 



157 



Rates on bituminous coal, carloads, to Atlantic ports for track delivery 
[In cents per ton of 2,240 pounds; in effect Mar. 18, 1938] 



From regions 



Cumberland... 

Piedmont --- 

Meyersdale 

Fairmont No. 1 

Opelika 

Moundsville 

Fairmont No. 2 

Clarksburg 

Monongah 

Short Line 

Belington.. 

Roaring Creek 

Upshur - 

Klondike.- 

Connellsville 

Fairchance 

Mount Braddock 

Scott Haven... 

Finleyville. 

Montour Railroad points. 

West Side Belt. 

Ohio River 

Oauley 



To— 



Philadel- 
phia 



282 



307 



322 
322 



Baltimore 



332 



357 



372 
372 



Wilmington, 

Marcus 

Hook, and 

Chester 



282 



307 



322 
322 



New York 

Lighterage 

Station, 

N.J. 



333 



358 



373 



Tariff authority: Baltimore & Ohio R. R., Coal and Coke I. C. O. 2810. 



Rates on anthracite coal, carloads, to Greenwich coal piers, Philadelphia, Pa., /. o. 6. 

vessels 

[In cents per ton of 2,240 pounds; In effect Mar. 18, 1938) 





When destined to points outside the 
Delaware Capes 


When destined to points in- 
side the Delaware Capes » 


From group '— 


Pre- 
pared 
sizes 


Pea 


Buck- 
wheat 
No. 1 


Smaller 
than 
buck- 
wheat 
No. 1 


Pre- 
pared 
sizes 


Pea 


Buck- 
wheat 
No. 1 

and 
smaller 

sizes 


1 


222 
222 
209 
222 
222 
209 


202 
202 
189 
202 
202 
189 


202 
202 
189 
202 
189 
189 


189 
189 
176 
189 
176 
176 


179 
179 
166 
179 
179 
166 


179 
179 
166 
179 
179 
1G6 


202 


2 


202 


3 


189 


4 


202 


5 


189 


6 


189 







1 Group 1 includes Carbondale, Olyphant, Dickson, Scranton, Pittston, Hudson, Wilkes-Barre, and 
Kingston, Pa., and various collieries; group 2 includes Alden, Colliery, Scrauton, Wyoming, Luzerne, 
Plymouth, Schickshinny, Hicks Ferry, and Nay Aug, Pa., and various mines and collieries; group 3 in- 
cludes Colonial Colliery, Pa.; group 4 includes Nanticoke, Buttonwood, Hudson, Wilkes-Barre, Susque- 
hanna, and Collieries Co., Pa., and various companies and points; group 5 includes Catawissa, South Dan- 
ville, Scotch Valley, Summit, and Lehigh Colliery, Pa., and various other collieries and points; group 6 
includes Sunbury, Northumberland, New Boston, Pottsville, Shamokin Colonial Breaker, and Colliery, 
Mount Carmel, Lykens, Harrisburg, and York Haven, Pa., and various collieries and points. 

« Rates expire by limitation on June 30, 1938, unless changed, canceled, or extended. 

Tariff authority, Pennsylvania Railroad, I. C. C. A-A-2324. 



158 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

The Heading Co. publishes rates on anthracite coal moving from 
various Pennsylvania origin points to coal piers at Port Richmond, 
Philadelphia, for transshipment. The following rates were in effect 
on March 18, 1938, and unless sooner canceled, changed, or extended 
will expire March 18, 1939: Rateincents 

per ton of 
1,240 pounds 

Prepared sizes 209 

Pea 189 

Buckwheat No. 1 214 

Buckwheat No. 2 and smaller 214 

These rates include dumping. Upon evidence that the coal has been 
dumped over piers to vessels destined to points in Pliiladelphia Harbor 
or points inside the Delaware Capes, the rates on prepared sizes and 
pea coal will be reduced to 166 cents and on buckwheat No. 1 and 
buckwheat No. 2 and smaller to 189 cents per ton of 2,240 pounds. 
Upon satisfactory evidence that the coal has been dumped to vessels 
destined outside the Delaware Capes, the rate on buckwheat No. 1 
will be reduced to 189 cents and the rate on buckwheat No. 2 and 
smaller to 176 cents per ton of 2,240 pounds. No reduction will be 
made on pea coal or prepared sizes destined outside the Delaware 
Capes. The rates shown above apply on coal originating at points 
in groups designated A to I, as follows: 

Group A includes Excelsior, Locust Gap, Summit, Mount Carmel, Natalie, 
and other Pennsylvania points. 

Group B includes Ashland, Barry, Gordon, Mahanoy City, and other Pennsyl- 
vania points. 

Group C includes Frankville, New Philadelphia, Saint Claire, Tamaqua, and 
other Pennsylvania points. 

Group D includes Forestville, Minersville, Pottsville, Schuylkill Haven, and 
other Pennsylvania points. 

Group E includes Brookside, Goodspring, Newtown, and other Pennsylvania 
points. 

Group F includes Herndon, Hunter, Kneass, Otto, and other Pennsylvania 
points. 

Group G includes Arters, Dciblers, Sunbury, Paxinos, and other Pennsylvania 
points. 

Group H includes Exmoor, Greenpoint, Inwood, Lickdale, and other Pennsyl- 
vania points. 

Group I includes Auburn, Berne, Hamburg, Stony Creek, and other Pennsyl- 
vania points. 

Tariff authority, Readmg Co., I. C. C. A-300. 



RAILROAD SERVICES AND RATES 



159 



Rates on petroleum and various petroleum products, carloads, in tank cars, from 
Philadelphia to interstate points 

[In cents per 100 pounds: in effect Mar. 18, 1938] 



To- 



Allentown, Pa. 

Ambler, Pa 

Berwick, Pa 

Birdsboro, Pa 

Bloomsburg, Pa 

Barrington, N. J 

Bridgeport, Pa 

Boyertown, Pa 

Bethlehem, Pa 

Columbia, Pa , 

Carlisle, Pa 

Collingswood, N. J.. 
Conshohocken, Pa... 
Chambersburg, Pa.. 

Dunmore, Pa 

Downingtown, Pa.. 

Doylestown, Pa 

Exton, Pa 

Elkins Park, Pa 

Gettysburg, Pa 

Haddon fleiehts, N. 
Haddonfield, N. J.. 

narrisburg. Pa 

Hagerstown, Md 



Rate on- 



Petro- 
leum 
prod- 
ucts ' 



133 2 

732 

19 
10 
19 



12 

nvi 

153i 
143i 

63''i 

6 
19 
19 
10 
10 
10 



153 2 
22 



Crude 
oil, gas 
oil, fuel 
oil, petro- 
leum gas 



1314 

732 
19 

9 
19 

83-^ 

6 
12 
10 
12 
143-2 

632 

6 

1532 

19 



153-^ 
18 



To- 



Kingston, Pa 

Langhorne, Pa 

Luzerne, Pa 

Lebanon, Pa 

Lemoyne, Pa 

Landsdale, Pa 

Monocacy, Pa 

Norristown, Pa... 

Oxford, Pa 

Palmerton, Pa 

Pottsville, Pa 

Quakertown, Pa.. 

Reading, Pa. 

Scranton, Pa 

Swedeland, Pa 

Steelton, Pa 

Shawmont, Pa 

Sunbury, Pa 

Shamokin, Pa 

Trenton, N. J 

Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 
West Pittston, Pa 
Wilmington, Del.. 
York, Pa 



Rate on — 



Petro- 
leum 
prod- 
ucts ' 



19 

8 
19 

15H 
13 

83^ 
10 

6 

lOM 
13K 
13 

1034 
12 
19 

6 
15K 

53^ 
17 
17 

8 
19 
19 

eVi 
i5H 



Crude 
oil, gas 
oil, fuel 
oil, petro- 
leum gas 



19 

19 

13 

9 
6 

mi 

13 

103^ 
12 

19 

6 
153^ 

53i 
17 
17 

7H 
19 
19 

6H 
15J4 



' As per oflBcial classification. 

Tariff authority, Reading Co., I. C. C. 1579. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad also publishes rates on petroleum 
products to the same general territory shown in the preceding table, 
but the rates are not identical with those of the Reading Co. Refer- 
ence should be made to Pennsylvania Railroad tariff 1427-D, I. C. C. 
1899. 



Rates on petroleum and petroleum products, carloads, from Port Richmond to Phila- 
delphia local points 

[In dollars per car and in effect Mar. 31, 1938] 



To— 



Rate 



Bell Rd., Gibsons Point, or Tenth and Berks Sts 

Broad St., Erie Ave., Frankford, Lehigh Ave., Nicetown, Olney, Tidewater Terminals, 2d and 
Berks Sts., 31st St., 22d St. Station, and Wharton Lane Yard 

East Falls, Oermantown, Grays Ferry, Pencoyd, 12th and York Sts., 23d and Arch Sts., and 
Wayne Junction ,.. 

Willow and Noble Sts... 



Tariff authority, Reading Co., I. C. C. 1829. 



160 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Rates on lumber and articles taking same rates, carloads, from Philadelphia to 

interstate points 
[In cents per 100 pounds and in effect Feb. 18, 1938] 



To— 



Ardmore, Pa 

Altoona, Pa 

Aberdeen, Md - 

Arlington, Pa 

AUentown, Pa 

Belvidere, N. J 

Birdsboro, Pa - 

Bellefonte, Pa.. 

Buffalo, N. Y.... 

Baltimore, Md 

Butler, Pa 

Binghampton, N. Y 

Bethlehem, Pa.. 

Coatesville, Pa... 

Columbia, Pa 

Conshohocken, Pa 

Cumberland, Md 

Clearfield, Pa 

Chester, Pa 

Chadds Ford Junction, Pa. 

Chambersburg, Pa 

Downingtown, Pa 

Duncannon, Pa 

Dover, Del 

Eddington, Pa 

Emporium, Pa 

Erie, Pa.. 

Eddystone, Pa 

Elkton, Md- ..-. 

Elmira. N. Y.. 

Foxcroft, Pa 



Rate 



9H 
22 
14 

9 
10 

12 

22 

23H 

16 

15 

21 

10 

12 

14H 

9 
22 
23 

9 
11 
19 
11 
181. 
15 
10 

23,1$ 
23.1 2 

9 
12 
21L 

932 



To— 



nighspire, Pa... 

Harrisburg, Pa 

Hanover, Pa 

nagerstown, Md 

Lykens, Pa 

Manunka Chunk, N. 

Middletown, Pa 

Marcus Ilook, Pa 

Millersburg, Pa 

Mercersburg, Pa 

Newberry, Pa 

Nanticoke, Pa 

New Freedom, Pa 

Pittston, Pa.... 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Pottstown, Pa 

Pottsville, Pa 

Punxsutawney, Pa... 

Royersford, Pa 

Reading, Pa.. 

Rochester, N. Y 

Swedeland, Pa.. 

Selinsgrove, Pa 

Stroudsburg, Pa 

Sunbury, Pa 

Scranton, Pa 

Trenton, N.J 

Williamsport, Pa 

Wilmington, Del 

Waynesboro, Pa 



Rate 



16 
16 
16 
19 

18 

14H 
9 
16 
20 
16 

la 

17 

16 

23H 

12 

15 

231^ 

11 

13 

21K3 

10 

16 

16 

16 

16 

12 

16 

11 

19 



Tariff authority, Pennsylvania Railroad 1557-A, I. C. C. 1280. 

Rates on lumber and articles taking same rates, carloads, from Port Richmond to 
local Philadelphia points, applicable on traffic received from water lines 
[In effect Mar. 31, 1938. Rates do not include any charges fori oading, unloading, or lighterage) 



To— 



Rate per 
car 



Bell Road, Cedar Grove, Crescentville, Eastwicks, Frankford, Germantown, Gibson's Point, 
Grays Ferry, Laurel HQl, Nicetown, Olney, Sears, Summerdale, 10th and Berks Sts., 12th 
and York Sts., 22d St. Station, 23rd and Arch Sts., Wayne Junction, and Wyoming Ave 

Broad St., Intercoastal Lumber Corporation (pier 38), Lehigh Ave., Tidewater Terminal (Phila- 
delphia piers), and Willow and Noblle Sts 

East Falls, Manayunk, Pencoyd, and Wissahickon.. 

Erie Ave., Oreenmont, Reynolds St. Yard, 2d and Berks Sts., 2d and Master Sts., Tabor, and 
31st St.- 

Wharton Lane Yard 



$23 



Tariff authority, Reading Co., I. C. C. 1829. 

Import rates on woodpulp, carloads, from Philadelphia and Wilmington to consuming 

points in New England 
[In cents per 100 pounds; in effect Mar. 31, 1938] 



To— 



Ashland, N. H.i 

Bellows Falls, Vt 

Bennington, N. H 

Brattleboro. Vt 

Brunswick, Maine... 

Burnside, Conn 

Cos Cob, Conn 

East Hartford, Conn- 
East Rygate, Vt 

Emerson, N. H 

Fitchburg, Mass.i 

Fairniount, Mass 

Gardiner, Mass 

Groveton, N. H 

Haverhill, Mass.' 

Holyoke, Mass. 

Lawrence, Mass 



Rate 



27H 

2iy^ 

24J^ 

24 

27 

21M 

171.^ 

2VA 

26,1/2 

25 

24 

24 

271^ 

274 

251$ 

22.1$ 

25 



To- 



Lowell, Mass.i 

Manchester, N. H 

Millers Falls, Mass.i 

Montville, Conn.' 

New Haven, Conn 

North Bennington, Vt 

North Leominster, Mass. 
Northumberland, N. H.L 

Popperell, Mass.i 

Plymouth, N. H.i 

Portland, Maine ' 

Putney, Vt.' 

Sheldon Springs, Vt 

South Manchester, Conn. 

Watcrville, Maine 

Wheelwright, Mass 

Windsor Locks, Conn 



Rate 



25 

25 

24 

24 

19H 

26H 

24 

27H 

25 

27H 

25J4 

24>i 

28 

22 

28 

23M 

22 



1 Rate applies from Philadelphia only. ' Rate from Wilmington is 26}^ cents. 

NOTK. — These rates apply on traffic from all foreign countries handled direct to carriers from shipside. 

Tariff Authority, Reading Co., I. C. C. 1658. 



RAILROAD SERVICES AND RATES 



161 



Import rates on woodpulp, carloads, to points in trunk-line territory 
(In cents per 100 pounds; governed by official classification; in effect Mar. 31, 1938] 



To- 



From- 



Philadelphia Camden Wilmington 



Chester-Marcus Hook, Pa. 

Conshohocken, Pa 

Delaware River Pier, DeL. 

Downington, Pa - 

Elwood, Pa— -- 

Kenmore, Del -.- 

Lancaster, Pa— - 

Miquon, Pa -- 

Montchanin, Del 

Mount Holly Springs, Pa- 
Newbridge, Del - 

New Hope, Pa -.. 

Norristown, Pa 

Pencoyd, Pa.. --. 

Reading, Pa 

Rockland, Del 

Shamokin, Pa 

Swedeland, Pa— 

Trenton, N. J— 

Wilmington, Del. 



9y2 



13 

8 

9H 
15 
9H 



12 
16 






10J4 
11 
11 
13 
14 
11 
13 
9^ 
11 
19 
11 
13 

llH 

13 

11 

16 

11 

11} 

11 



9}4 

«12 
17 



1 Carload minimum 40,000 pounds. 

Tariff authority, Reading Co., I. C. C. 1657. 

Import rates on woodpidp, carloads, from Philadelphia, New York, Baltimore, and 

Norfolk to western points 

[In cents per 100 pounds; governed by oflBcial classification; in effect Apr. 4, 1938] 



To— 



Appleton, Wis. 

Ashland, Wis 

Beloit, Wis 

Cloquet, Wis 

Duluth, Minn 

Euclaire, Wis 

Little Rapids, Wis 

Medina, Wis 

Menasha, Wis 

Minneapolis, Minn 

Neenah, Wis 

Oshkosh, Wis.. 

St. Cloud, Wis 

St. Paul, Minn 

Wisconsin Rapids, Wis 



Philadelphia 



40 
47 
46 
50 
50 

WA 

40 

41 

40 

48J-2 

40 

40 

41 

48H 

41 



New York 



42 

49 

48 

52 

52 

46M 

42 

43 

42 

50^2 

42 

42 

43 

43 



Baltimore 
and Norfolk 



39 

46 

46 

49 

49 

43M 

39 

40 

39 

47H 

39 

39 

40 

47H 

40 



Tariff authority. Agent W. S. Curlett's 43-D, I. C. C. A-646. 

Rates on fertilizer and fertilizer materials, carloads, to interstate points • 
[In cents per ton of 2,000 pounds; in effect Mar. 31, 1938] 





Rate from— 


To— 


Rate (rem— 


To- 


Phila- 
delphia 


Camden 
and Pauls- 
boro, N.J. 


Phila- 
delphia 


Camden 
and Pauls- 
boro, N.J. 


Allentown, Pa— 


190 
200 
290 
190 
160 
190 
190 
150 


205 




190 
190 
160 
150 
150 
190 
160 
160 


205 


Baltimore, Md 


Lebanon, Pa 


205 


Bell Haven, Va... 


2 305 
205 
175 
205 
205 
150 


175 


Bethlehem, Pa 


Newark, N. J 


150 


Birdsboro, Pa 


Perth Amboy, N.J 

Phillipsburg, N. J 

Pottstown, Pa 


150 


Cornwall, Pa 


206 


Easton, Pa. 


175 


Elizabeth. N.J. 


Reading, Pa 


175 











1 Rates expire on June 30, 1938, unless sooner changed or extended. 
' Rate applies from Camden only. 

Tariff authority, Reading Co., I. C. C. 1843. 



162 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Import rates on sugar, beet or cane, carloads, from Atlantic ports to interstate points 
[In cents per 100 pounds; in effect Dec. 21, 1937] 



To— 



From — 



Philadelphia Norfolk New York Baltimore 



Akron, Ohio 

Ann Arbor, Mich 

Ashtabula, Ohio 

Blooniington, 111 

Buffalo, N.Y 

Burlington, Iowa 

Cadillac, Mich 

Cairo, 111--- 

Centralis, 111 

Champaign, 111 

Charleston, W. Va... 

Chicago, 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Cleveland, Ohio. 

Columbus, Ohio 

I)ayton, Ohio 

Decatur, 111.. --- 

Detroit, Mich 

Dubuque, Iowa 

Duluth, Minn 

Erie, Pa --- 

Evansville, Ind 

Fort Wayne, Ind 

Gauley, W. Va 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Indianapolis, Ind 

Logansport, Ind 

Louisville, Ky. 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Minneapolis, Minn_. 

Peoria, 111 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

St. Louis, Mo 

Wheeling, W. Va 



33 

37 

31 

42 

29 

45 

42 

44 

43 

41 

34 

41 

39 

33 

35 

38 

42 

35 

45 

64 

29 

42 

39 

34 

40 

41 

41 

41 

42^^ 

64 

43 

29 

44 

30 



37 


35 


36 


39 


37 


33 


41 


44 


38 


31 


44 


47 


41 


44 


43 


46 


42 


45 


40 


43 


32 


36 


40 


43 


38 


41 


37 


35 


34 


37 


37 


40 


41 


44 


34 


37 


44 


47 


63 


66 


39 


31 


41 


44 


38 


41 


30 


36 


39 


42 


40 


43 


40 


43 


40 


43 


4m 


ii}4 


63 


66 


42 


45 


34 


31 


43 


46 


35 


32 



32 
36 
30 
41 
29 
44 
41 
43 
42 
40 
33 
40 
38 
32 
34 
37 
41 
34 
44 
63 
29 
41 
38 
33 
39 
40 
40 
40 

41H 

63 

42 

28 

43 

29 



Tarifl authority, Agent W. S. Curlett's 93-B, I. C. C. A-557. 

Import, intercoastal and coastwise rates on molasses, blackstrap, including final 
molasses, carloads, to distributing points in Central Freight Association and 
Canadian territories 

[In cents per 100 pounds; in eflEect Apr. 25, 1938] 



From— 



To— 



Alton, 111. (Alton R. R.) 

Akron, Ohio 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Columbus, Ohio -- - 

Cleveland, Ohio. 

Chicago, 111 

Dayton, Ohio 

Detroit (Penna. R. R.), Mich, 

Evansville (Big Four R. R.), Ind 

Fort Wayne (Penna. R. R.), Ind-— 

Findlay, Ohio— 

Indianapolis, Ind , 

Louisville, Ky. 

Newark, Ohio— - 

Peoria (Alton R. R.), Ill -- 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Sandusky, Ohio 

St. Louis, Mo-— --- 

Springneld, 111 - -- --• 

Wheeling, W. Va 

Wausau, Wis -— 

Cedar Rapids, Iowa.- 

Minneapolis-St. Paul. Minn --- -- 

Ayler, Beamsvillo, and Wyoming and group points, 

Ontario, Canada - 

Sault Ste. Marie. Ontario, Canada and group 



Philadelphia New York Baltimore 



Norfolk 



37 
28 
29 
26 
31 
34 
29 
28 
35 
31 
29 
32 
33 
26 
36 



TarifT authorities, Agent W. S. Curlett's 43-D, I. C. C. A-546 and 23-1, 1. C. C. A-STS. 



RAILROAD SERVICES AND RATES 



163 



Domestic rates on molasses, blackstrap, final molasses and refiners^ syrup, carloads, 
in tank cars from Philadelphia and Baltimore to points in trunk line territory 

(In cents per 100 pounds; in effect Dec. 21, 1937] 



To- 



Auburn, N. Y 

Batavia, N. Y 

Bessemer, Pa.' 

Bethlehem Mines, Pa.' 

Binghamton, N. Y 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Butler, Pa 

Fairmont, W. Va.' 

Fairport, N. Y 

Fulton, N. Y 

Harriet. N. Y 



Rate 



To- 



Huntington, W. Va.' 

Ithaca, N. Y 

Kenova, W. Va.' 

Lackawanna, N. Y,. 
Niagara Falla, N. Y. 

Oswego, N. Y 

Owego, N. Y_ 

Pittsburgh, Pa.' 

Rochester, N. Y 

Salamanca, N. Y 

Syracuse, N. Y 



Rate 



28 
19 
28 
22 
22 
21 
19 
22 
22 
22 
20 



1 To these points the rates from Baltimore are 1 cent per 100 pounds lower than the rates shown. 
Tariff authority, Baltimore & Ohio R. R., I. C. O. 22930. 

Rates on coffee, green or roasted, carloads, from Philadelphia to interstate points 
[In cents per 100 pounds; in effect Dec. 19, 1937] 



To— 



Alpena, Mich 

Aurora, 111 

Bloomington, 111.. 
Burlington, Iowa.. 
Cleveland, Ohio... 
Columbus, Ohio.. 

Chicago, 111 

Cadillac, Mich 

Cairo, 111 

Charleston, W. Va 
Connellsville, Pa... 

Dayton, Ohio 

Decatur, Ind. 

Dubuque, Iowa 

Evansville, Ind 



Rate 



43 

44 

44 

47 

31 

32 

41 

41 

47 

32 

27}^ 

34 J^ 

37 

47 

44 



To— 



Erie, Pa. 

Fort Wayne, Ind... 

Henderson, Ky 

Huntington, W. Va 

Kenova, W. Va 

Louisville, Ky 

Mattoon, 111 

Peoria, 111 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Rockford, 111 

St. Louis, Mo , 

Springfield, 111 

Streator, 111 

Youngstown, Ohio. 



Rate 



27>4 

37 

44 

33 

33 

41 

43 

45 

27H 

45 

46 

45 

44 

31 



Tariff authority, Agent W. S. Curlett's No. 99, 1. C. C. A-423. 

Import rates on bananas, carloads, from Philadelphia to points in trunk line and 

New England territories 

[In cents per 100 pounds; in effect Dec. 20, 1937] 



Albany, N. Y 

Altoona, Pa 

Annapolis, Md 

Ansonia, Conn 

Baltimore, Md. 

Barre, Vt 

Binghampton, N. Y. 

Boston, Mass 

Bridgeport, Conn 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Burlington, Vt 

Carbondale, Pa 

Cumberland, Md 

Danbury, Conn 

Easthampton, Mass. 

Elmira, N. Y 

Fitehburg, Mass 

Frederick, Md 

Gettysburg, Pa 

Greenfield, Mass 

Hagerstown, Md 

Harrisburg, Pa 

Hartford, Conn. 

Jersey City, N. J 

Lancaster, Pa 

Manchester, N. H... 

Maynard, Mass 

Meriden, Conn 

Montpelier, Vt 

Nashua, N. H 



Rate 



47H 

^m 

38 

40Ji2 

34 

myi 

47>^ 

50 

40i.ii 

54}^ 

59M 

44 

63M 

403i 

50 

47Jij 

50 

41J^ 

40''^ 

50 

44 

34 

40M 

283i 

32 

51 

60 

40,'2 

69H 

51 



To— 

Newark, N. J 

New Bedford, Mass 

New Britain, Conn 

Newburg, N. Y 

New London, Conn 

Newport, R. I 

New York, N. Y 

Niagara Falls, N. Y 

North Adams, Mass... 

Oneonta, N. Y 

Oswego, N. Y 

Phillipsburg, N. J 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Plattsburg, N. Y 

Portland, Maine 

Providence, R. I 

Rochester, N. Y 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Schenectady, N. Y 

Scranton, Pa 

Springfield, Mass 

Taunton, Mass 

Torrington, Conn 

Thomaston, Conn 

Wallingford, Conn 

Washington, D. C 

Waterbury, Conn 

Wilmington, Del 

Worcester, Mass 

York, Pa 



Rate 



28}^ 

50 

40>^ 

41>^ 

50 

50 

28H 

5iii 

50 

47J^ 

47H 

31 

54H 

59H 

59y3 

50 

47J^ 

473^ 

35 

40'-$ 

50 

40K 

40>^ 

40}^ 

38 

40>4 

21 

50>i 

34 



Tariff authority, Reading Co., I. C. O. 1418. 



164 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Import rates on cocoa beans, carloads, from North Atlantic ports to points in Central 
Freight Association territory 

[In cents per 100 pounds; in effect Apr. 4, 1938] 



To— 



From- 



Philadelphla 




Norfolk and 
Baltimore 



Chicago, 111 

Evansville, Ind— 
Indianapolis, Ind. 

Louisville, Ky 

Milwaukee, Wis.. 
St. Louis, Mo 



35 



Tariff authority, Agent W. S. Curlett's 43-D, I. C. C. A-546. 

Domestic rates on wool in straight carloads, pressed, in bags or in bales 

[In cents per 100 pounds; in effect Mar. 9, 1938] 





From— 


To- 


Chica- 
go 


Cincin- 
nati 


Cleve- 
land 


Colum- 
bus 


Louis- 
ville 


Cairo 


Indian- 
apolis 


St, 
Louis 


Philadelphla 


79 
78 
801^ 

78 


63^ 
61K 
675^ 
73}^ 
731^ 
6iy2 


55H 

60 

67 

61H 

611^ 

64M 


61 

60 

62H 

67 

67 

60 


79 
78 

80H 
84^ 

78 


94 

93H 

96 
100 
100 

93H 


74 

73 

75H 

79^ 

79H 

73 


92 


Norfolk. .. — -- 


91 




931^ 




97hi 




97>i 


B&ltimore - 


91 







Tariff authority. Agent B. T. Jones' 218-K, I. C. C. 3028. 



COMMERCE 

In the absence of other statistical data the port of Philadelphia was 
credited with the traffic reported for the project "Delaware River, 
Philadelphia to the Sea" in the 1932 issue of this report. This com- 
merce consisted of the traffic on the Delaware River from Allegheny 
Avenue, Philadelphia, to the sea and included the traffic of the Schuyl- 
kill River, Camden, and that of other localities below Philadelphia, 
except Wilmington, Del. In order to preserve the continuity of this 
type of report, a similar table. No. 1, has been prepared for the decade 
1927-36. 

Since the statistics in table No. 1 combine the commerce of the 
projects "Delaware River to the Sea" and "SchuylkiU River," and the 
former project extends only to Allegheny Avenue, thereby excluding 
certain tonnages above that point which actually belong to Philadel- 
phia, compilations were begun in 1932 to show the traffic pertaining 
to Philadelphia as contained within the limits set by Poquessing Creek 
on the north and the lower dock at Hog Island, and including Schuyl- 
kill River. This traffic is shown in the table No. 2 for the years 1932- 
36, inclusive. 

Table No. 3 shows, separately, the traffic of the Schuylkill River, 
and the traffic of the port of Camden, N. J., is shown on page 279. 

WATER-BORNE COMMERCE OF PHILADELPHIA, INCLUDING DELAWARE 
RIVER FROM ALLEGHENY AVENUE, PHILADELPHIA, TO THE SEA, AND 
SCHUYLKILL RIVER 

The commerce presented in table No. 1 for the decade 1927-36, 
and as hereinafter discussed, consists of the traffic regularly reported 
for the Federal project "Delaware River, Philadelphia to the Sea," 
which includes the port of Camden, N. J., and other localities on the 
Delaware River below Philadelphia except Wilmington, Del. It is, 
therefore, a continuation of the tabulation shown in the previous issue 
of this report in which the traffic for 1921-30, inclusive, was given. 
The traffic actually handled over the piers and wharves at Philadel- 
phia proper is shown in table No. 2. 

During the 10-year period 1927-36, the average annual traffic 
amounted to 29,290,605 short tons, which included tonnages ranging 
from 25,358,354 tons in 1932 to 34,171,041 tons in 1936. 

The principal commodities included an average of 17,448,219 tons 
of petroleum and products, representing 59.7 percent of the total 

165 
78920—89 12 



166 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



commerce; 2,255,000 tons of coal and coke, or 7.7 percent; 1,847,992 
tons of sand, gravel and stone, or 6.3 percent; 957,630 tons of sugar, 
or 3.2 percent; 632,992 tons of clay, or 2.1 percent; 594,818 tons of 
iron and steel products, or about 2 percent. Commodities in lesser 



AVERAGE ANNUAL COMMERCE OF DELAWARE RIVER, 
PHILADELPHIA TO THE SEA, 1927-1936 

(QUANTITIES EXPRESSED IN SHORT TONS) 
TOTAL-29.290,605 

FOREIGN 

_ PYRITES-144,991 — 3.1^ 

IMPORTS— 4,610.345 — 15.7 > wood pulp — 156.495 — 3.4% 



PETROLEUM a PRODUCTS 

1.610.084 

34.9;t 



SUGAR 

7S4,0EI9 

17.0% 



MOLASSES 

a SYRUP 

490,581 

10.75c 



M 



I — IRON ORE— 128.404 — 2.8 % 

I — FERRO-ALLOYS— 1 2 8.327 - 

8ANANAS-I27.648— 2 



fr 



EXPORTS- 1,725.359 — 5.9 % 



OIL SEEDS a OILS— 98.996 
IRON, STEEL 8 PR ODUCTS — 9 8.395 — 2.1% 
IRON. STEEL a PR DUC TS — 89.573 — 5.2 % 



-2.1% ' I 



ALL OTHER 

842.335 

18.3% 



PETROLEUM PRODUCTS 

1,028.447 

59.6% 




AUTOMOBILES a PARTS — 73,148— 4.2 % - 

FODDERS a FEEDS — 45,664 — 2.6%- 
COAL TAR a PRODUCTS- 36,285- 2.1^ 



DOMESTIC 

COASTWISE RECEIPTS — 12.215,154 — 41.7% coal a C0KE-32e,309-2.7%- 




COASTWISE SHIPMENTS — 4.484,129— 15.3 % 



PETROLEUM PRODUCTS 

2.460.063 

54.9% 



LUMBER — 209.32 
CANNED GOODS 
136.202-3.0% 



126.008— 2.8% 



COAL a COKE 
707.106 
15.8% 



IRON. STEEL a PRODUCT S— 3 00.087 - 6.7 %- 

PAPER a PRODUCTS — 99,746— 2.2" 

INTERNAL RECEIPTS — 2.078.487— 7.1% petroleum products -90,484-4.4%- 





INTERNAL SHIPMENTS — 1.287.519— 4.4% 



COAL TAR a PROOUCTS-40,I86-I.9%- 

SAND a GRAVEL— 30.906— 2.4% , 

SUGAR — 31.699— 2.4%- 



PETHOLEUM PRODUCTS 
564.884 
4 3.9% 



IRON a STEEL- 37,836— 2.9%- 
ASHES a EARTH — 33,012— 2.6%- 

INTRAPORT AND LOCAL— 2,889,612-9.9% chemicals-i04.349-3.6%- 




PETROLEUM PRODUCTS 
972.264 
33.7% 




quantities consisted of molasses, lumber, grains, wood pulp, pyrites, 
iron ore, ferro-alloys, bananas, oil seeds, and vegetable oils. Further 
information regarding these commodities is given below and in the 
tables and graphs following. 



COMMERCE 167 

Imports 

Imports, included in the statistics for the project "Delaware River, 
Philadelphia to the Sea," averaged 4,610,345 short tons for the decade 
1927-36 and represented 15.7 percent of the total traffic. Among the 
commodities imported, petroleum and its products, which included 
1,568,922 tons of crude oil, 21,786 tons of fuel and gas oil, and 13,020 
tons of gasoline, led with an average of 1,610,084 tons and represented 
34.9 percent of the total imports; sugar averaged 784,089 tons, or 17 
percent, of which amount 755,258 tons was raw sugar; molasses and 
sirup averaged 490,581 tons, or 10.7 percent; wood pulp, 156,495 
tons, or 3.4 percent; and other important commodities imported in- 
cluded pyrites, iron ore, ferro-alloys, bananas, oil seeds and oils, iron 
and steel as well as products of these, clays, gypsum, cork, fertilizer 
materials, dyeing and tanning materials, and paper stock. 

Exports 

Exports averaged 1,725,359 tons and represented 5.9 percent of 
the project's water-borne tonnage. Petroleum products led with an 
annual average of 1,028,447 tons, or 59.6 percent of the total exports, 
among which 447,481 tons of gasoline, 333,700 tons of lubricating oils 
and greases, and 154,996 tons of kerosene were included. Grains and 
preparations averaged 178,161 tons, or 10.3 percent; coal and coke, 
145,889 tons, or 8.5 percent; iron and steel products, 89,573 tons, or 
5.2 percent, autos and parts, 73,148 tons, or 4.2 percent, and other 
exported commodities in lesser tonnages consisted of fodders and 
feeds, coal tar and products, chemicals, and sugar. 

Coastwise Receipts 

Coastwise receipts averaged 12,215,154 tons and accounted for 41.7 
percent of the total traffic. Petroleum and its products were received 
in an average amount of 10,721,993 tons during the decade 1927-36, 
representing 87.8 percent of the total traffic. Included in this average 
were 8,583,938 tons of crude oil; 1,084,410 tons of gasoline, 748,481 
tons of fuel and gas oil, and 232,070 tons of lubricating oils and greases. 
Coal and coke followed with an average of 328,309 tons, or 2.7 percent; 
lumber averaged 209,327 tons, or 1.7 percent; and other important 
items, in the order of tonnage, included canned goods, fruits and 
vegetables, fertilizer materials, cotton and manufactures, sulphur, 
iron and steel, naval stores, and paper. 



168 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Coastwise Shipments 

Shipments to Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific coast ports averaged 
4,484,129 tons during the decade 1927-36 and accounted for 15.3 per- 
cent of the traffic. Petroleum products led with an average of 
2,460,063 tons, or 54.9 percent, which included 1,109,029 tons of 
gasoline, 968,395 tons of fuel and gas oil, 171,441 tons of kerosene, 
and 153,393 tons of lubricating oils and greases. Coal and coke 
averaged 707,106 tons, or 15.8 percent; iron and steel, together with 
products of these, averaged 300,087 tons, or 6.7 percent; canned goods, 
136,202 tons, or 3 percent; and other principal sliipments consisted 
of sugar, paper and products, floor coverings, chemicals, automobiles 
and parts, machinery and parts, soaps and soap powders, coal and tar 
products, pigments, paints and varnishes, and wool and manufactures. 

Internal Receipts 

Internal receipts, representing movements to points on the project 
from other sections of the Delaware River and via the Chesapeake and 
Delaware Canal, averaged 2,078,487 tons, or 7.1 percent of the traffic. 
Of this amount sand and gravel, with an average of 1,817,086 tons, 
or 87.4 percent, formed the principal item of traffic; petroleum 
products averaged 90,484 tons, or 4.4 percent, and other important 
items included coal tar and products, chemicals, coal and coke, 
lumber, wood pulp, fertilizer materials, pipes and fittings, and grains. 

Internal Shipments 

Shipments from points on the project to other localities on the Dela- 
ware River and via the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal averaged 
1,287,519 tons, or 4.4 percent of the project's commerce. Petroleum 
products averaged 564,884 tons, or 43.9 percent of the internal ship- 
ments, coal and coke, 430,884 tons, or 33.5 percent, and smaller ton- 
nages, consisting of iron and steel, ashes for fill, sugar, and sand 
and gravel, constituted the remaining traffic. 

Intraport and Local Traffic 

Intraport traffic consists of movements between the Schuylkill 
River and the Philadelphia frontage on the Delaware River. Local 
traffic is such as moves from one point within the confines of the water- 
way to another. Since intraport and local traffic are in a sense 
identical, they have been combined in this report. 

During the 10-year period under discussion, the intraport and local 
traffic averaged 2,889,612 tons and represented 9.9 percent of the total 
commerce. This included 924,748 tons of intraport and 1,964,864 
tons of local traffic. 



COMMERCE 169 

Among the principal commodities composing this form of traffic, 
petroleum products led with an average of 972,264 tons, or 33.7 percent 
of the total. Coal and coke followed with 623,833 tons, or 21.6 per- 
cent; clay, 550,735 tons, or 19.1 percent; ashes, earth and rubbish 
used for making fUls averaged 203,062 tons, or 7 percent; and grams, 
109,048 tons, or 3.8 percent. Other items of lesser unportance were 
chemicals, (largely acids), iron and steel, cork and waste cork, coal tar 
products, sand, gravel and stone, sulphur, and nitrate of soda. 



170 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



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COMMERCE 



171 



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COMMERCE 



191 



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192 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

As previously explained, statistics for the port of Philadelphia, as 
bounded by Poquessing Creek on the north, Hog Island on the south, 
and including Schuylkill River, are available for the 5-year period 
1932-36 only. During this period the average water-borne commerce 
was 20,141,206 short tons. A combination of the more important 
commodities, as assembled under the several lands of traffic, shows 
that petroleum and its products led with a total of 9,745,225 tons, 
representing 48.3 percent of the average tonnage of the port. Coal 
comprised the second largest tonnage, averaging 3,168,576 tons, or 
15.7 percent, followed by sand and gravel with 1,112,292 tons, or 5.5 
percent; sugar, 974,376 tons, or 4.9 percent; iron and steel products, 
427,134 tons, or 2.1 percent; and molasses, 387,350 tons, or 1.9 per- 



AVERA6E ANNUAL COMMERCE OF PHILADELPHIA. PA., 1932-1936 



IMP0RTS-3,697.825-l8.3^ 



(quantities expressed in short tons) 

TOTAL— 20,141,206 

FOREIGN 

BANANAS-II9.II5-3.2 



PETROLEUM a PRODUCTS 

1.433.742 

36.87^ 



SUGAR 
747.095 

20.2% 



MOLASSES 
375.902 
10.2% 



^ 



WOOOPULP -117.640- 3.2% 

FERROALLOYS-99.660 - 2 .TJt 



EXPORTS- 969.748-4.8 % 



IRON ORE, PIGS a SCRAP-108,723-2.9% 

OIL SEEDS a OILS-87.818-2.4% 
COAL TAR a PRODUCTS-54,440-5.6%-1 






ALL OTHER 
606.130 

16.4% 



PETROLEUM a PRODUCTS 
579.460 
59.8% 



75.977 l^l-^l? 
7.8% '^•0^ 



ALL OTHER 
117,166 
12.1% 



DOMESTIC 
COASTWISE RECEtPTS-6,722.104 -33.4% 



FRUITS a NUTS -87.085-1.3 
CANNED GOODS-I05.807-I.6i-] 
LUMBER-l57,lll-2.3% ' 



PETROLEUM a PRODUCTS 

5.068,088 

75.4% 




COASTWISE SHIPMENTS-2.94I.I79-I4.6?C 



PETROLEUM a PRODUCTS 
1,294.106 
4 4.0% 



COAL 

604,732 

17.2% 



VEGETABLES- 68.498-1. 0%-f 

-PAPER a PRODUCTS- 
74,872-2.5% 



IRON, 
STEEL a 

»R0OUi 
213,337 



ALL OTHER 
635,207 

21.6% 



SUGAR-l23.l4e-4.2%-' ^CANNED GOOD^^SI?^^^^ 
COAL TAR a PR0DUCTS-32.25I-2.I% 



INTERNAL RECEIPTS— 1,568.858-7.8; 



SAND a GRAVEL 

715.439 

45.6% 



COAL 
438,629 
28.0% 



PETROLEUM 

a PRODUCTS 

236.857 

15. 1":* 



ALL 
OTHER 
114.035 

7.2% 



INTERNAL SHIPMENTS — 1,146,782-5.7% 



COAL 
480,399 

41.9% 



LUMBER- 31.647- 2.0%- 
SAND a GRAVEL-31.577-2.9% 
COKE— 30.740-2.7% 



ALL OTHER 

408.345 

3 5.5% 



PETROLEUM a PROOUCTS-66.825-5.8:- 

SUG&R-55, 174-4.8%- 

INTRAPORT AND LOG AL — 3,094,710 — 15.4% 



COAL 

1.080,850 

34.9% 



PETROLEUM a PRODUCTS 

1,066,147 

34.5% 



SAND ASHES. 

a GRAVEL ETC. 

349,687 212.005 

11.3% 6.9% 



ALL OTHER 

386,021 

12.4% 



COMMERCE 193 

cent. Other commodities, in the order of their respective tonnages, 
consisted of ashes and other materials used for making fills, canned 
goods, iron ore and raw products, lumber, coal tar and products, paper 
and manufactures, grain and preparations, chemicals, wood pulp, 
bananas, fertilizer materials, other fruits and nuts, ferro-alloys, coke, 
oil seeds, and vegetable oils. Further information regarding these 
commodities is given below and in the tables and graphs following. 

Imports 

During the period 1932-36 imports averaged 3,697,825 short tons 
and accounted for 18.3 percent of the total traffic of Philadelphia. 
Among the commodities imported, petroleum and its products, which 
included 1,411,582 tons of crude oil, led with an average of 1,433,742 
tons, and represented 38.8 percent of the total imports; sugar, includ- 
ing 691,250 tons of raw sugar, averaged 747,095 tons, or 20.2 percent; 
molasses, 375,902 tons, or 10.2 percent; bananas, 119,115 tons, or 
3.2 percent; wood pulp, iron ore (including pig and scrap iron), ferro- 
alloys, oil seeds and vegetables, averaged 3.2 to 2.4 percent, and gyp- 
sum and clays 1.4 percent, respectively. 

Exports 

Exports averaged 969,748 tons and represented 4.8 percent of the 
total trafiic. Of the 579,460 tons of petroleum products exported, 
representing 59.8 percent of the total exports, 365,251 tons consisted of 
gasoline, 120,425 tons of lubricating oils and greases, and 52,644 tons of 
kerosene. Scrap iron averaged 75,977 tons, or 7.8 percent; coal 67,932 
tons, or 7 percent, 56,676 tons being anthracite; coal tar and products 
54,440 tons, or 5.6 percent; and grains averaged 42,601 tons, or 4.4 
percent. Other commodities in lesser amounts were fodders and feeds, 
iron and steel, empty containers, and sugar. 

Coastwise Receipts 

Receipts from the Gulf of Mexico, Pacific and Atlantic coast ports 
averaged 6,722,104 tons, or 33.4 percent of the entire trafiic included 
in this report. Petroleum and products led with an average of 
5,068,088 tons, or 75.4 percent; bituminous coal averaged 595,752 
tons, or 8.9 percent; lumber, 157,111 tons, or 2.3 percent; canned 
goods, 105,807 tons, or 1.6 percent; fruits and nuts, 87,085 tons, or 1.3 
percent; cotton and manufactures, 75,963 tons, or 1.1 percent; and 
other commodities, in lesser amounts, included vegetables, paper 
and manufactures, fertilizer materials, sulphur, and naval stores. 

Coastwise Shipments 

Shipments to other Atlantic coast ports, as well as to those on the 
Gulf of Mexico and Pacific Ocean, averaged 2,941,179 tons, represent- 



194 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



ing 14.6 percent of the total traflBc. Petroleum products averaged 
1,294,106 tons, or 44 percent of the total shipments, and included 
730,426 tons of fuel and gas oil, 323,565 tons of gasoline, 121,079 tons 
of kerosene, and 106,218 tons of lubricatmg oils and greases. Coal, 
including 340,494 tons of bituminous, averaged 504,732 tons, or 17.2 
percent; iron and steel products averaged 213,337 tons, or 7.3 percent; 
sugar, 123,148 tons, or 4.2 percent; canned goods, 95,777 tons, or 
3.2 percent; paper and products, 74,872 tons, or 2.5 percent; and 
floor coverings, largely linoleum, chemicals, coal tar and products, and 
soap and soap powders together, averaged 4.5 percent of the total 
coastwise shipments. 

Internal Receipts 

Internal receipts, or movements to Philadelphia from other points on 
the Delaware River and via the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, 
averaged 1,568,858 tons and represented 7.8 percent of the port traffic. 
Sand and gravel averaged 715,439 tons, or 45.6 percent of the total 
internal receipts; coal averaged 438,629 tons, or 28 percent, of which 
405,335 tons was bituminous; petroleum and products averaged 
236,857 tons, or 15.1 percent, while coal tar and products, lumber, 
chemicals, iron and steel products, and sugar averaged from 0.3 to 2.1 
percent. 

Internal Shipments 

Internal shipments averaged 1,146,782 tons, or 5.7 percent of the 
total traffic of Philadelphia. Coal averaged 480,399 tons, or 41.9 
percent of the total shipments; petroleum products averaged 66,825 
tons, or 5.8 percent; sugar, 55,174 tons, or 4.8 percent; iron and steel 
products, 40,823 tons, or 3.6 percent; coal tar, 32,899 tons, or 2.9 
percent; sand and gravel, 31,577 tons, or 2.8 percent; and coke, 
30,740 tons, or 2.7 percent; while fertilizer materials and chemicals 
averaged 1 and 0.7 percent, respectively. 

Intraport and Local Traffic 

Intraport traffic consists of movements between the Philadelphia 
water front and points on the Schuylkill Eiver; and local, of move- 
ments from one point on the Philadelphia or the Schuylkill water 
front to another within the same area. The combined traffic averaged 
3,094,710 tons and represented 15.4 percent of the traffic credited to 
Philadelphia. Coal averaged 1,080,850 tons, or 34.9 percent; petro- 
leum products, largely fuel and gas oil, gasoline, and kerosene, aver- 
aged 1,066,147 tons, or 34.5 percent; sand and gravel, 349,687 tons, 
or 11.3 percent; ashes and earth, used for making fills, averaged 
212,005 tons, or 6.9 percent; and chemicals, grain, iron and steel 
products, and coal-tar products together averaged 5.7 percent. 



COMMERCE 



195 



Table 2. — Water-borne commerce of port of Philadelphia, Pa., 1932-36 

[Quantities expressed in short tons] 

IMPORTS 



Commodity 



Animals and animal products: 

Animal oils and fats 

Bones, unmanufactured 

Bristles 

Dairy products - 

Fish... 

Fish oils 

Ghiestock and glue .-- - 

Hides and skins, except furs 

Le.ither 

Meats, canned 

All other.. 

Vegetable food products: 

Beverages 

Cocoa beans and cocoa 

Coffee - 

Fodders and feeds 

Fruits and nuts: 

Bananas — 

Unspecified, canned, dried, etc... 

Grain: 

Corn - 

Oats 

Rye 

Other grains and preparations 

Malt 

Molasses - --- 

Rice 

Spices.. 

Sugar: 

Raw 

Refined 

Tea - 

Tapioca 

Vegetables: 

Beans and peas 

Potatoes -. .- --- 

Unspecified and preparations 

Vegetable oils. 

All other - 

Vegetable products, inedible: 

Crude drugs: 

Cinchona bark --. 

Licorice root 

Unspecified 

Dyeing and tanning extracts 

Dyeing and tanning materials: 

Logwood - 

Myrobalans fruit 

Unspecified - 

Gums, resins, etc 

Moss 

Oil seeds and vegetable oils: 

Chinese wood oil 

Coconut oil - 

Cottonseed oil 

Flaxseed 

Oil seeds, unspecified 

Olive oil, inedible 

Palm oil 

Vegetable oils, unspecified 

Rubber, unmanufactured 

Seeds — grass, garden, etc. 

Tobacco 

All other 

Textiles: 

Cotton: 

Manufactures.. 

Rags 

Waste. 

Flax and hemp, unmanufactured 

Flax, hemp, and ramie manufactures. 

Hair, animal 

Jute: 

Burlap and other manufactures... 
Unmanufactured 

Rayon waste 

Silk: 

Rags and waste 

Raw 



1932 



619 

10, 042 

196 

148 

1,602 

1,492 

2,059 

19, 748 

69 

1,233 

411 



12, 58,5 
9,295 

757 

115,945 
15, 644 

820 



379, 346 

425 

4,998 

710, 850 

50, 747 

1,228 

2,628 

344 



3,846 
1,956 
1,232 



452 
302 



2,538 

3,821 

9,209 

5,006 

584 

7,563 

1,046 
1,025 



75, 480 
1.591 
2,189 
7,863 
1,852 
2,152 
3, 687 
1,497 
1,382 



1,001 
2,431 

474 
2,413 

151 
1,149 

19, 042 
7,390 



1933 



429 
7,231 

381 

229 

1,528 

1,567 

1,367 

34, 065 

126 
2,917 

325 



9,915 

14, 608 

931 

94, 697 
14, 182 



374, 932 

589 

4,524 

693, 125 

53, 520 

918 

8,139 

205 



3,628 
2,589 
2,142 



367 
3,620 

10, 523 
10, 134 
5,240 
1,139 
5,065 

4,129 
2,380 



58, 544 
4,232 
2,933 
4,338 
5,712 

11, 905 
5,221 
2,585 
1,120 



1,237 
1,315 

1.551 

4,448 

152 

2,320 

21, 104 
5,187 



1934 



1, 218 

9,108 

254 

120 

884 

1,006 

1,088 

20, 912 

157 

2,826 

350 



3,689 

13, 818 

1,984 

112,838 
16, 548 

742 
4.312 
14, 363 



2,818 

410, 449 

1,679 

5,185 

789, 632 

43, 262 

894 

6, 329 



4, 576 
3,811 
3,273 
3,409 



609 

404 

262 

4,533 



7,652 

3,209 

715 

5,359 

4,344 
1,238 



54,679 
1,946 
2,006 
1,143 
5,516 

11,231 
3,370 
2,732 
1,615 



882 
1, 057 
3,489 
2,803 



774 



16, 849 
7.327 



256 
67 



1935 



9,410 
7, 262 

101 

192 

1,756 

1,561 

1,246 

22, 160 

191 
4,746 

440 

592 
17, 356 
12, 503 
13, 388 

128, 662 
14, 475 

65, 339 



43, 692 

815 

15, 038 

367, 235 

1,429 

4,081 

562, 736 

51, 957 

914 

7, 549 



3,659 

5,571 

749 



648 



6,914 

5,782 
7,371 
6,822 
948 
5,143 

2,530 
2,439 
7,827 
63, 802 
12, 322 
2,508 
1,786 
8,910 
7,437 
4,624 
3,585 
1,355 



1,367 
3,066 
4,322 
3,879 
170 
1,416 

16, 798 

16, 357 

409 

117 
144 



1936 



1,685 
9,355 

103 
1, 658 
2,274 
1,910 
2,819 
25, 036 

172 
6,699 

858 

6,819 
73, 146 
13, 908 

7,381 

143, 433 
18, 115 

55, 360 



21, 984 

732 

17, 847 

347, 546 

3,292 

3,612 

6')9, 905 

79, 740 

1,097 

9,823 



2,627 
3,642 
1,470 



964 
106 



2,512 

4,734 
8,727 
2,678 
2,358 
7,184 

3,561 
4,608 
6,275 

64, 154 
9,597 
1, 369 
3,764 
9.452 

13, 684 
3,932 
4,600 
1,308 



1,527 
1,387 
3, 585 
1,406 
270 
2,589 

27, 689 

14, 381 

1,016 

223 
32 



196 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Table 2. — Water-borne commerce of port of Philadelphia, Pa., 193S-S6 — Contd. 

[Quantities expressed in short tons] 

IMPORTS— Continued 



Commodity 



Textiles— Continued. 

Sisal, manila, etc., and manufactures 

Unspecified crude vegetable fibers and manufac- 
tures 

Wool: 

Manufactures.. 

Noils, waste, and rags 

Unmanufactured 

All other 

Wood and paper: 

Bamboo poles 

Cork and manufactures 

Logs and railroad ties 

Lumber. 

Paper; 

Newsprint - 

Unspecified and manufactures 

Paper stock: 

Rags - 

Wood pulp - 

Unspecified 

Wood manufactures -- -.. 

Nonmetallic minerals: 

Abrasives 

Asbestos, unmanufactured.. 

Cement.. - 

Chalk - 

Clays: 

Earthenware and other manufactures 

Fluorspar 

Kaolin and china clay 

Unspecified -. 

Coal, briquettes and composition 

Glass and glassware.. - 

Granite and other stone.. 

Gypsum - 

Kryolith. 

Magnesite - 

Petroleum and products: 

Crude oil.. - 

Fuel and gas oil - 

Lubricating oil 

Paraffin 

Miscellaneous.. 

Sand 

Salt - 

Talc - 

Witherite - - 

All other - 

Ores, metals and manufactures of: 

Antimony, regulus or metal 

Bauxite, crude 

Ferroalloying metals: 

Chrome ore - 

Forromanganese 

Manganese ore -- 

Unspecifiod.. 

Iron and steel: 

Advanced manufactures 

Bars, rods, plates, and strips 

Castings and forgings 

Iron ore 

Nails -. 

Pigs, scrap, blooms, ingots, etc 

Pipe, tubing, and fittings 

Sponge iron.. — 

Structural 

Tin plate.. 

Wire and manufactures 

Silver and other piecious metals 

Tin— ore, pigs, scrap, and manufactures 

All other 

Machinery and vehicles — -- 

Chemicals: 

Acids and anhydrides .- - 

Ammonium compounds 

Calcium compounds - — 

Fertilizer, complete 



1932 



6,526 



196 

8,840 

897 

219 
8,324 

335 
8,324 

48, 750 
644 

7. 250 

101, 127 

1,706 

280 



55 
10, 348 



5,073 

41.812 

9. 9.58 

1,210 

331 

4,047 

63, 937 

3,266 

639 

1, 544, 403 



306 
21 
23 

143 



6,611 



18, 526 
20, 468 



3.413 
2,315 

49 

6, 436 

138 

7,038 

362 

99, 643 

97 



3,198 
"2,'406 



220 
474 
630 

440 

1,571 

527 

31 



1933 



3,932 
4,782 



953 

27, 855 

1,531 

518 
6,504 

170 
1,685 

42,152 
560 

14, 589 

142. 176 

2.903 

1,290 



661 
5,636 

1, 775 
5, 053 
27. 333 
11,068 



395 

1.429 

59, 185 

3, 452 

2,364 

1, 543, 876 



84 

4 

409 

347 



507 

"'l.'ogs' 

313 
10,080 

39, 998 

2,972 

55, 885 

370 

157 

2, 557 

71 

60, 083 

136 

106, 720 

200 

581 

1,309 



420 



152 
22,'; 
622 

882 

1,597 

402 

560 



1934 



2,061 

4,034 

161 

163 

13, 404 



312 

11,09.5 

263 

2, 342 

37, 883 
470 

12. 093 

109, 136 

606 

240 

1,474 

528 



11, 100 

2,071 

7,203 

26, 626 

10, 466 

202 

309 

996 



3, 621 
3,298 

1,199,315 

30,610 

352 



1,368 



1, .581 

259 

448 

61, 233 

512 
17, 344 

78, 548 

6,363 

11,345 

127 

179 

2,517 

211 

63, 229 



36, 529 

647 

393 

1,229 



34 



195 

291 

2,376 

1,343 

1,349 

447 

693 



1935 



3,228 

6,000 

303 

850 

31, 069 

1,436 

307 
6,507 



4,712 

40, 601 
2,538 

16, .526 

109,711 

7,58 

1, 0.53 

1,494 
829 
6,58 

5,123 

3,088 

6,099 

34. 439 

6, 549 



313 

1,049 

57, 122 

6, 885 

1,117 

1, 437, ,501 
6, 005 



467 



1,508 
379 
644 

1,065 

292 
22, 575 

83,863 

1,968 

21, 339 

70 

276 
4. 451 
3. 762 
18, 358 



60,923 

4, 668 

967 

2,150 



2,504 
134 
151 
419 
426 

993 
1,617 



COMMERCE 



197 



Table 2. — Water-borne commerce of port of Philadelphia, Pa., 19S2-S6 — Contd. 

[Quantities expressed in short tons] 

IMPORTS— Continued 



Commodity 



Chemicals— Continued. 
Fertilizer materials: 

Ammonium sulphate 

Fish scrap. - 

Nitrosrenous materials 

Phosphate materials 

Potash materials.. 

Tankage 

Unspecified- 

Glycerin, crude 

Medicinals - 

Naphthalene. 

Pigments, paint, and varnish. 

Potassium compounds 

Sodium compounds.- 

Strontium compounds.. 

All other 

Unclassified: 

Containers.- - 

Matches.- - 

Toys - 

General merchandise 



Total imports- 



1932 



7,917 



1,078 
4.960 
13, 670 



361 
1,182 

389 
3,681 
3,663 

486 
2,808 



2,567 

2,484 
443 
599 

2,515 



1933 



2,774 
1,602 

676 

4, 555 

17, 363 

1,477 

315 
1,697 



6,723 
3,083 
811 
3.821 
1,262 
2,704 

1,200 

1,531 

1,221 

600 



1934 



865 
1,908 

402 
2.380 
10, 553 

723 
1.021 
4,053 



8,617 
1,889 
582 
4,098 
1.249 
2,112 

2,047 

673 

1,027 

1,123 



3,614,760 3,764,586 3,436,033 3,649,233 



1935 



1,040 

2,935 

822 

10, 528 

13, 253 

4,365 

1,680 

595 



5,721 
6,553 
429 
4,890 
1,335 
5,078 

1,794 
385 
689 

2,401 



1936 



1,691 
3,866 
381 
3,233 
6.648 
8,981 
1,070 
1,743 



8,580 
2,4,23 
465 
6,654 
1,940 
4,933 

2,305 
858 
547 
950 



4, 024, 516 



EXPORTS 



Animals and animal products: 


282 

180 

1,990 

79 


481 

158 

2,292 

215 


382 

812 

1,356 

210 


372 
325 
179 
56 
112 


471 




174 






Leather and manufactures-. 


63 




137 




233 


34 










227 
625 
34 

86 
429 
63 

21,227 
331 
377 

75 

7,192 

128 

134 

90 

6,942 

740 

355 

675 

159 

1,139 

2,369 

194 

1,277 

359 

357 

72 

22 

156 

170 
3,934 

856 
6,541 

263 


231 


Oils, fats, and greases 


1,716 
553 


2,328 
260 

455 


1,791 
281 


1,048 


Another - 


137 


Vegetable food products: 


106 


Coffee 






96 


Flour -.- 


814 

41, 054 
530 
334 

1.857 

127, 007 

717 

462 


70 

40,827 
375 
235 


156 

24,996 

492 

60 

27 

34, 993 

129 

293 

12 

35, 954 

411 

479 

485 

136 

1,053 

6 

43 
1,155 
184 
1,340 
242 
169 

341 

124 
3,632 


123 


Fodders and feeds: 

Oilcake and oilcake meal 


30,968 




62 


Fruits — canned, dried, etc.. - 


469 


Grains: 

Buckwheat 




Wheat 


16, 278 
527 
173 
25 
9,400 
324 
875 

432 


25, 578 






Sirup and molasses . . . 


244 


Spices 




Supar, refined-- 


8,774 
427 
305 

403 


126 


Vegetables — canned, dried, etc 


671 


All other 


246 


Vegetable products, inedible: 

Dyeing and tanning materials 


680 


Drugs, crude 


76 


Licorice mass 


973 
155 


1,328 
31 

48 

1,837 

230 

1,052 


1,085 






Rubber: 

Manufactures-. 


68 


Reclaimed, scrap, and old 


2,288 

109 

574 

46 

612 

15 
222 
956 


355 


Seeds, grass and garden 


240 


Tobacco 


166 


Vegetable oils 


333 


All other 


115 

73 
131 

1,314 
173 

6,801 


147 


Textiles: 
Cotton: 

Linters 


416 


Manufactures 


141 


Rags and waste .. . . 


3,582 


Raw 


2,545 


Hair, animal.- 


2, 415 
125 


6,354 
506 


2,611 


Jute, bagging, burlap, and manufactures- 


63 



78920—39 14 



198 



THE POET OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Table 2. — Water-horne commerce of port of Philadelphia, Pa., 19SS-86—Conid. 

[Quantities expressed in short tons] 

EXPORTS— Continued 



Commodity 



Textile"— Continued. 

Linoleum and other like floor coverings 

Silk and rayon, rags and waste -- 

Wool: 

Manufactures --- 

Noils, waste, and rags 

All other 

Wood and paper: 

Cork and manufactures 

Logs and timber hardwood- - 

Lumber - 

Paper and manufactures .-. - 

Paper stock: 

Rags 

Wood pulp - 

Unspecified 

Wood manufactures .-. - 

Nonraetallic minerals: 

Ahnsivps — --- 

Ashe?tos 

Cement 

Clavs and clay products - 

Coal: 

Anthracite a 

Bituminous..- - 

Coke 

Glass and glassware - 

Infusorial e?.rth - - 

Petroleum and products: 

Asphalt 

Coke - - 

Fuel and gas oil 

Gasoline - - 

Kerosene 

Lubricating grease - 

Lubricating oil - 

Naphtha --- - 

Paraffin -.- --■ 

Petroleum spirits - 

Transformer oil 

Miscellaneous 

Another - ---■ 

Ores, metals and manufactures of: 

Aluminum ingots, scrap, and manufactures 

Brass and bronze, scrap and manufactures 

Copper — ore. ingots, and scrap - 

Iron and steel: 

Advanced manufactures 

Bars, sheets, plates, bands, etc 

Castings and forsings.- -.. 

Nails, staples, bnlts, etc. 

Pipes and fittings. - - 

Railway-track material 

Scrap - 

Structural- - 

Tin plate scrap 

Tin plate and terneplate 

Wire and manufactures ..- 

Lead, pigs and manufactures 

Mancanese ore and concentrates 

Nickel and monel metal, ingots and manufac- 
tures -- - - 

Tin— ineots, scrap, and manufactures. 

Zinc— slabs, spelter, and manufactures... 

.A.11 other 

Machinery and vehicles: 

Automobiles and parts 

Batteries, storage and other 

Communication devices 

Machinery and parts 

Unspecified vehicles and parts 

Chemicals: 

Alcohol 

Alum cake 

Coal tar and coal-tar products 

Ethers, esters, and ethyl lead compounds 



1932 



45 

C07 



202 
424 

23 

40 

62.'> 

4, 2.')5 

2V 
98 



331 



444 
8R3 
471 

47. 988 
5,517 



440 



3.220 
293. 944 
36. 454 

2. 004 
104. 0,57 

27. 886 

25. 871 

1,110 

1,954 

97 

1,109 

215 
2.837 
6,708 

803 

3, 331 

96 
1,412 
3.241 

96B 
1,433 
2,334 

943 



959 



994 



795 

1,615 
398 
279 

1,041 
110 



69, 973 



1933 



176 
442 



256 
181 

28 

60 

347 

3,901 

502 
56 



218 

63 
294 
496 
318 

49, 300 

12, 584 

933 

101 



180 



386 

360. 147 

no. 132 

2. 633 

158, 050 

10.100 

19, 738 

554 

332 

104 

549 

468 
3.203 
5,213 

206 

550 

158 

1,011 

4,364 

1,686 

33, 865 

354 

278 

2,586 

4,640 



1, 500 

221 
616 
234 
683 

1, 514 
275 
305 

2,707 
613 

410 

1. 054 

65, 933 



1934 



89 
361 

17 
196 
199 

78 

160 

989 

2, 919 

846 

14 

145 

330 

249 

261 

1,232 

200 

111,430 

23, 299 

2, 948 

661 

709 

90 



619 

346, 159 

44.203 

2.420 

114,460 



18, 679 

869 

962 

75 

3,115 

676 
3.707 
3,402 

314 
3,018 

234 
1.180 
5, 405 

403 
150, 582 
3,180 
3.592 
2,503 
7, 260 

926 
1,123 

576 
99 
159 
649 

2,023 
444 
461 

1,897 
140 

353 

1,822 

60, 633 

459 



1935 



289 
429 

17 
264 
133 

30 

228 

400 

2,852 

752 



727 
144 

230 

46 

1, 555 

697 

41,325 

9,138 

3,528 

242 

067 

1.399 

22, 870 

4.755 

467. 161 

38. 041 

2.008 

104, 529 



20, 396 



1.009 

4,155 

734 

216 
4,105 
1,805 

855 
2,892 

174 
2.103 
2,340 
1,746 
135. 924 
2,908 
4, 551 
4, 385 
7, 577 

195 
1,060 

1,780 

1, 761 

168 

609 

899 

412 

2)9 

3, 262 

65 

274 

1,703 

29,117 

858 



COMMERCE 

Table 2.— Water-home commerce of port of Philadelphia, Pa., 
[Quantities expressed in short tons] 
EXPORTS— Continued 



199 

-55— Contd. 



Commodity 



Chemicals— Continued. 
Fertilizer materials: 

Ammonium sulphate --. 

Nitrogenous materials -.. 

Phosphates.. 

Unspecified - 

Industrial chemical specialties 

Medicinals - 

Pigments, paint, and varnish 

Sodium compounds: 

Caustic soda --- 

Unspecified - 

Soan and soap powder 

All other 

Unclassified: 

Books, pamphlets, and magazines. 

Composition roofing - 

Containers 

General merchandise 



Total exports. 868,775 



1932 



623 



2,958 

'"'•iis' 



2, 855 

671 

5 

83 

106 

2,179 

1,698 



1933 



484 
25 



155 
890 



561 



3.918 
1,062 
1,169 



14, 0?4 
9G9 



979, 977 



1934 



3,641 
116 
657 
244 

1,947 



613 



698 

562 

1,462 

34 

18 

16, 787 

1,875 



1, 087, 179 



1935 



2,411 
1,739 



302 

1,439 

175 

691 

6,740 
317 
442 
540 

148 

243 

17, 369 

1,367 



1, 036, 198 



1936 



500 

516 
4,628 
5,226 

962 

84 

1,311 

920 

371 

520 

1,505 

60 

661 

24, 463 

1,639 



876, 012 



COASTWISE RECEIPTS 



Animals and animal products: 

Fish. .- 

Glue 

Fides and skins 

Leather and manufactures 

Meats - 

Milk, evaporated and powdered 

Oils, fats, and greases 

Oyster shells , 

All other , 

Vegetable food products: 

Beverages 

Candy and confectionery 

Canned goods 

Flour 

Fodders and feeds: 

Alfalfa meal 

Oilcake and oilcake meal... 

Unspecified 

Fruits and nuts 

Grains: 

Barley. 

Corn 

Oats... 

Rye... 

Wheat 

Molasses 

Peanuts and other nuts 

Rice 

Sugar: 

Raw 

Refined 

Vegetables: 

Beans 

Potatoes.- 

Unspecified vegetables and preparations. 

Vegetable oils and fats 

AH other 

Vegetable products, inedible: 

Flaxseed and other oil seeds 

Naval stores: 

Rosin 

Turpentine 

Unspecified- 

Rubber and manufactures 

Seeds, grass and field 

Tanning materials and extracts 

Tobacco and manufactures 

Vegetable oils 

All other 

Textiles: 

Burlap bags and bagging 

Carpets and other floor covering. 

Cordage, twine, and rope 



2,573 



3, 

105, 

3, 

3, 

7, 

2, 

37, 



8,510 



14, 295 



,984 
,893 

855 
,0.57 
,125 

139 
,761 

189 

923 

883 
356 
,654 



4,194 



3,972 

5,036 

175 

386 

2,484 

1,016 

592 

938 

3, 540 

117, 189 

12, 117 

4,903 

2.360 

1, 158 

70, 066 



13, 030 
1,120 
1,113 
5,366 
2,146 

18, 769 
3,123 

2,407 
309 

12, 398 

84. 268 

3,9S6 

1,979 

1,813 



30, 589 

1,763 

3, 1.53 

703 

652 

440 

6, 364 

1,985 

2,956 

2,593 
379 



2,601 



6,501 
3,615 
42 
1,878 
2,973 



647 

954 

4,001 

114,354 

15, 945 



8,196 
106, 946 

1,813 
25. 566 

4,210 
12, 748 

3,476 

1,345 
22, 096 

2,044 

46, 061 
5,518 

9,684 

39, 287 

6,983 



19, 359 

3,242 

13, 886 

1,726 

1,173 

539 

2,332 

98 

4,774 

147 

3,436 

459 
247 



4,971 
319 
5,341 
3,443 
283 
2.104 
1,216 



324 

1,837 

3,931 

90, 358 

30, 855 

2,796 

3,521 

3,518 

92, 241 

1,507 
1,791 
3,734 



15, 599 

"'4,'428' 

20, 224 
21, 148 

7.151 
35, 981 
20, 036 

4,628 
12, 700 

108 

26, 583 
1,680 
1,192 

117 
1,531 

553 
1,423 
1,266 
6,574 

1,230 
1,399 



5,332 
322 

5.392 

4,422 
154 
883 

3,625 
300 
114 

2,418 

3, 932 

101, 478 

6,423 



10, 191 
2,780 
74, 839 

314 

9,383 

1,808 

1,395 

500 

28, 341 



3,401 



8,246 
10, 480 



37, 667 

1,893 

13, 745 

071 

22,464 

1,920 

1,498 

570 

402 

610 

2,540 

2.235 

3,701 

2,227 
1,055 
1,246 



200 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Table 2. — Water-borne commerce of port of Philadelphia, Pa., 1932-36 — Contd. 

[Quantities expressed in short tons] 

COASTWISE RECEIPTS-Continued 



Commodity 



Textiles— Continued . 
Cotton: 

Linters - -.- 

Manufactures 

Rags and waste - 

Raw-.- -- 

Yarn - 

Dry goods 

Rayon yarn and waste 

Silk and rayon and manufactures 

Vegetable fibers and manufactures 

Wool: 

Manufactures 

Noils and waste. 

Unmanufactured 

Yarn 

All other 

Wood and paper: 

Cork, manufactures and waste 

Lath and shingles 

Lumber-. - 

Mine props, ties, and piling 

Paper products: 

Boxboard and wallboard 

Newsprint paper 

Wrapping paper 

Unspecified manufactures 

Paper stock: 

Pulpwood - 

Wood pulp and other paper stock 

Wood manufactures 

Nonmetallic minerals: 

China and earthenware products 

China, fire, and other clays 

Coal, bituminous - 

Fuller's earth - 

Glass and glassware 

Granite and other building stone 

Infusorial earth 

Magnesite 

Petroleum and products: 

Asphalt.. 

Crude oil. 

Fuel and gas oil 

Gasoline... - 

Kerosene 

Lubricating grease— 

Lubricating oil... - 

Naphtha 

ParaflSn... 

Miscellaneous 

Salt.... 

Sand, gravel, and stone 

Sulphur, crude 

All other. 

Ores, metals and manufactures of: 

Bauxite, crude 

Brass and bronze, ingots, scrap, and manufac- 
tures 

Copper and manufactures 

Iron and steel: 

Advanced manufactures 

Pig iron 

Pipe and fittings 

Scrap 

Semimanufactures... 

Wire and manufactures 

Bars, plates, sheets, and structural. 

Lead, pigs, bars, and manufactures 

All other 

Machinery and vehicles: 

Automobiles and parts 

Batteries 

Machinery and parts 

All other 

Chemicals: 

Alcohol 

Acids.. 

Baking powder 

Calcium compounds 



1932 



1,212 

32, 196 

520 

5, 109 
32, 526 

1,068 



499 
117 

2, 209 

841 

22. 823 

2,150 

144 



9, 9S4 

131, 394 

873 

12, 697 



18, 339 

300 
13, 862 
1,930 



12. 578 
607, 044 



1,500 



728 

1,346 

, 593, 260 

398. 195 

260, 244 

15, 742 

1,929 

34, 607 

979 

877 

988 

13. 873 

8.290 

33, 904 

318 



207 
990 

286 

992 

1,184 

8, 577 



623 

770 

6, 455 

2,921 

1,048 

61 

619 



1,078 
381 



1933 



2.007 

11,926 

731 

5.264 
68.363 

2,314 



379 

1,758 

1. 363 

25, 564 

3,000 

125 

58 

14,547 

144, 645 

278 

5,805 



39,816 

300 
15, 059 
4,423 



7,280 
619, 593 



1,240 
1,737 



2,275 

2.328 

4, 319. 623 

402. 624 

275. 895 

21. 938 

3,871 

61, 453 

348 

271 

669 

14, 789 



29, 926 
752 



5,307 

858 

4,709 

49 

20,998 



45 

805 

5,740 

4,174 

847 

178 

938 

20 



213 
368 



1934 



1,771 

38, 944 

561 

2.436 
27, 450 

1,446 



246 

2,705 

1,805 

20,652 

2,553 

197 

710 

5,555 

117. 530 

2,094 

3, 545 

835 

2,175 

19, 540 



9,498 
3,646 

1,207 

4.302 

676. 213 

986 

2,678 



2,446 

198 

, 451, 786 

276. 077 

170. 725 

6.854 

2.992 

64,641 

291 

153 

480 

17, 627 

931 

45, 686 

1,118 



383 
2,264 

170 

5,880 

178 

2.574 

151 

171 

641 

5,191 

4,654 

647 
39 

828 
47 

125 



294 
1,252 



1935 



1,641 

59, 783 

304 

3,319 

8,940 

384 

624 

347 

947 

4,611 

262 

31,944 

3,993 
320 



6,845 

167, 808 

2,507 

17, 102 
1.190 
3,312 

30, 738 

2.58 
14,038 
4,317 

496 

600 

616. 605 

117 

6,801 



4.699 
4,633 



4,451.021 

291. 459 

229. 429 

6.751 

3.027 

75. 848 



261 
499 

19. 392 
1.126 

38, 983 



755 

398 

228 

4,15 
3,655 

333 
8,848 

602 



5,936 
7,397 

547 

22 

329 



92 



216 
274 



COMMERCE 201 

Table 2. — Water-borne commerce of port of Philadelphia, Pa., 1932-36 — Contd. 

[Quantities expressed in short tons] 

COASTWISE RECEIPTS— Continued 



Commodity 



1932 



1933 



1934 



1935 



1936 



Chemicals— Continued. 

Chemical specialties 

Coal tar. crude 

Coal tar products 

Fertilizer materials: 

Nitrogeneous materials 

Phosphates - 

Potash materials. 

Unspecified — 

Industrial chemicals and specialties. 

Medicinals 

Pigments, paints, and varnishes 

Sodium compounds 

Soap 

All other , 

Unclassified: 

Books and other printed matter 

Containers 

Household goods 

General merchandise 



950 
15,075 



10.216 
3,222 



7,873 



39,350 
1, 466 

188 
5,099 
1,164 
2,795 

484 
3,329 



58, 884 
2,573 
427 
3, 235 
460 
5,507 
1,819 
1,834 



1,024 
207 



2,477 
342 



94, 522 



117,646 



46 
72, 883 
2, 135 
216 
7,554 
597 
8.092 
3,036 
2,839 



1,423 

1,842 

510 

66, 471 



3,525 

31, 440 

605 

1,308 

66, 223 

5,033 

166 
4,113 

618 
3,524 
2,227 

816 
41 

189 

1,170 

134 

77, 422 



1,361 

35, 005 

2,578 

1,062 
55, 335 
4,010 

556 
4,479 

517 
1.822 
2,150 

735 
33 

120 

1,116 

48 

91,119 



Total, coastwise receipts 5, 839, 571 6, 791, 758 



6, 695, 789 



6, 785, 401 



7,498,001 



COASTWISE SHIPMENTS 



Animals and animal products: 

Fish, fresh, dried, and salted .... . 


186 




36 


17 
343 
344 
6,625 
91 
1,041 
398 
41 

12,411 
15, 759 
89, 805 
511 
12,888 


34 


Olue 




634 


Hides and ^kins 


206 
2,528 

452 
1,965 


253 

4,932 

96 

2,770 


3,980 

636 

60 

3,371 
268 
147 

8,296 

32, 179 

96,011 

560 

6, 952 

830 

642 

749 

762 

630 
182 
80 
12 
463 

3,312 

907 


231 


Leather and manufactures 


3,795 


Meats 


124 


Milk, dried, condensed, etc 


1,474 


Oils, fats, and greases 


620 


Another .. 


13 

1.141 

26. 839 

81.551 

712 

6,888 

762 

134 

881 

442 

248 


174 

5,286 

34.873 

94. 861 

932 

9.678 

540 

206 

198 

221 

631 
83 
40 


416 


Vegetable food products: 


17, 631 


Candv and confectionery 


15. 173 


Canned goods 


116. 659 


Cereals 


741 


Cocoa and chocolate 


13.835 


Coffee and substitutes 




Flour 


2,768 

728 

1,317 

450 
243 
210 
2,462 
815 

3,100 

1,043 

854 

2,331 

109, 450 

439 

220 

2,682 
6,484 

204 
1.370 
2.567 
2,170 

625 
1,603 

449 

7,329 
1,900 

278 
4,144 
1,470 
267 
880 
806 


4,710 


Fodders and feeds... 


521 


Fruits and nuts 


2,897 


Grains: 

Oats 


283 


Rice 




Wheat 


60 




Unspecified grains and preparations 


6,222 


Molasses and sirup 


1,921 

1,823 
1,446 


170 

1,806 
1,086 


802 


Vegetables: 

Beans 


2,160 


Potatoes ....... 


517 


Unspecified vegetables and preparations 


1,030 


Spices.. 


2,213 

120, 797 

449 

3,299 

527 

7,288 

5.742 

1.429 

2,099 

425 

415 

656 

48 

5,613 
1,027 


2,484 
129, 735 


2,517 
136, 179 


933 


Buear, refined 


119, 580 


Vegetable oils and fats .... .... 


646 


Another 


1,980 

425 
633 
175 
674 

3,682 
137 
648 

2,800 
79 

4,054 
9,507 


1,994 

1,253 
7,341 

264 
2,762 
3,110 
1,893 

737 

3,698 

84 

4,534 

g,9sg 

281 
4,591 
346 
427 
688 
162 


4,383 


Vegetable products, inedible: 

Dyeing and tanning extracts and materials 

Licorice mass 


3,310 
4,599 


Naval stores 


425 


Oils, vegetable, cottonseed, etc.. 


899 


Rubber and manufactures 


2,517 


Seeds, grass and garden 




Starch 


592 


Tobacco and manufactures 


2,253 


All other 


470 


Textiles: 

Burlap bags and bagging 


6,887 


Carpets and rugs 


4,474 


Cotton: 

Linters 


933 


Manufactures 


2,705 
311 
180 
663 
143 


2,811 

187 
240 
690 
249 


6.055 




1,414 


Yarn 


253 




660 


Hair, animal 


610 



202 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Table 2. — Water-home commerce of port of Philadelphia, Pa., 1932-36- 
[Quantities expressed in short tons] 
COASTWISE SHIPMENTS— Continued 



-Contd. 



Commodity 



1933 



1934 



Textiles— Continued. 

Linoleum ami other like floor covering 

Rope and twine 

S'lk manufactures 

Woo); 

Manufactures 

Noils and waste 

Unmanufactured 

Yarns 

All other 

Wood and paper: 

Cork and manufactures 

Lo£rs. tie?, and piling 

Lumber and manufactures 

Paper product^: 

Boxes and cartons 

Neswprint paper 

Toilet paper 

"Wrapping paper and hags 

Unspecified paper and manufactures 

Paper stock 

W^ood manufactures 

Nonmetallic minerals: 

Abrasives 

Asbestos and manufactures.. 

Cement 

Clay and clay products 

Coal: 

Anthracite.- 

Bituminous 

Coke 

Earthenware, bricks, and tile.. 

Glass and glassware 

Petroleum and products: 

Asphalt - 

Crude oil 

Fuel and gas oU 

Gasoline 

Kerosene 

Lubricating grease 

Lubricating oil 

Naphtha 

Paraffin... 

Miscellaneous 

Sand and gravel 

Slate 

Sulphur, crude 

All other 

Ores, metals and manufactures of; 

Aluminum and manufactures 

Brass and bronze, ingots, scrap and manufac- 
tures , 

Chrome ore.. 

Copper and manufactures , 

Ferro alloys 

Iron and steel: 

Pig iron 

Scrap and ingots 

Bars, plates, sheets, strips, etc.. 

Castings and forginps 

Miscellaneous semimanufactures.. , 

Nails, bolts, screws, etc ., 

Pipe, tubing, and fittings 

Railway track material 

Structural.. , 

Wire and manufactures 

Other advanced manufactures , 

Lead and manufactures 

Zinc ore. pigs, dross, etc 

All other.. 

Machinery and vehicles: 

Agricultural machinery and parts , 

Automobiles and parts 

Batteries, storage and other 

Communication devices 

Electrical machinery and appliances 

Industrial machinery 

Unspecified vehicles and parts , 



50. 229 
1,943 



36, 921 
1,314 



489 

2, 19R 

18, 382 

912 

334 

263 



6S1 
2,423 
12, 497 
1,344 
1,411 

464 



31, 098 

1,290 

97 

2,105 

1,740 

13. 344 



939 

2,592 
7,649 
3,691 



536 



9. 269 
1, 499 



16, 400 
415 



1,716 
1,916 
1,836 



2,934 

29, 572 

523 

644 

1,434 
2,213 
5,111 



1,164 

819 
2,813 

328 

4,273 
3,748 
905 
542 
29, 021 
85 
984 

2,028 
1,850 
2,128 



143. 587 

439,818 

2,414 

2,003 

6,950 



620, 521 
305. 368 

79, 006 
322 

64, 155 



142,744 

348, 014 

80, 912 

2, 3.'-.5 

7,299 

64 

7,174 

602, 984 

286, 695 

108, 154 

562 

60, 852 



198, 478 

391,619 

183, 900 

3.619 

7,380 



49, 209 
026 
462 

6,861 
2,024 
17, 733 
1,046 
2,275 

895 

112 

1,108 

2,512 
1,349 
4,920 
1,326 
21, 054 
181 
1,636 

1,613 
1,753 
4,341 
4,180 

189, 332 
344, 625 
71,010 



598, 431 
341,852 
119, 428 
1.302 
94, 654 



6,811 

292 
429 
839, 999 
339, 604 
135, 760 
923 
163, 625 



274 
6,030 



817 
11,697 



1,743 
3,000 
2,019 

91 



1,530 
"2,"663' 



15, 892 

52, 773 

1,032 



456 

8,901 

264 

816 



2,154 
213 



2,691 



860 



32 

1,275 

82, 447 

1,243 



1,309 
5,010 

31 

4,976 

63, 609 

1,027 



435 

1,619 

683 

4,102 

3.758 

125, 036 

4,453 



14, 674 
692 

15. 835 
3, 602 
2,66'i 



247 
1,164 



3,464 

27, 049 

1,978 

132. 875 

10, 270 

4,141 

712 

561 

1,677 



12, 039 
3,841 



10, 578 
6,187 



6,906 
611 



8,091 
374 



11, 674 

866 

43, 023 

6,881 

4,161 

414 

693 

1,168 

1,295 
9,916 
4,047 
5,607 

301 
6,591 

426 



106 

21, 642 

1,737 

540 

602 

8,554 

46, 910 

181 

108, 103 

3,040 

11,242 

1.322 

28, 140 

6,186 

11.097 

107 

1,300 

1,604 

1,640 
9,870 
6,547 
6, 595 
1,068 
8,392 
750 



COMMERCE 

Table 2. — Water-borne commerce of port of Philadelphia, Pa., 1932-S6- 
[Quantities expressed in short tons] 
COASTWISE SHIPMENTS— Continued 



203 

-Contd, 



Commodity 


1932 


1933 


1934 


1935 


1936 


Chemicals: 


147 
5,27fi 


2.835 
3,473 
3.945 
4, 923 
5.154 
6,970 


973 
3,765 


540 
2,537 
9.2.M) 
28. 248 
2,354 
1,002 

979 

164 

4,822 

435 

22, 121 

6. 208 

20,301 

17, 309 

6.080 

2,356 


648 




3,496 




3,308 




8,445 
1,775 
3,4l9 


26. 599 

1,766 

604 

2,276 

150 

1,292 

250 

19,884 

4,271 

19, 339 

22, 072 

16, 379 

640 


35. 872 




2,734 






Fertilizer materials: 


4,223 








283 








693 












17, .538 
3,842 
9.054 
18, 466 
16, 693 
13 


18, 252 
3,760 
15. 8P8 
15. 280 
18, 927 
750 


23, 162 




4.616 




26. 722 




25. 336 




6,732 


Al! other 


2,333 


Unclassified; 


4,933 




43,131 
4,228 
1,150 
344 
397 
3,906 
2,016 


32, 952 

3,854 

987 

235 

273 

4.820 

1.626 


37, 028 

6,095 

2,353 

381 

317 

2,822 

2,156 

471 

175, 743 


38,374 

7,644 

982 

351 

675 

2,578 


36.520 




12.033 




723 




1.289 




983 




1,798 








501 
219, 395 


125 


General merchandise 


152, 443 


180.548 


207, 420 








2, 514, 411 


2. 703, 391 


3, 041, 269 


3, 215, 527 


3, 231, 297 







INTERNAL RECEIPTS 



Animals and animal products: 

Hides, skins, and leather 


126 
225 
100 


100 
200 
24 


i20 
215 


135 
200 
206 


225 


Meats . 


165 






All other 




629 


Vegetable food products: 


1, 1.50 
2,489 
4,S93 


1,650 








Canned goods .. 


998 
690 


799 
433 

796 


765 




7,647 

1,281 
136 
70 


380 


Grains: 

Corn . 


1,335 


Rye 




1,255 




Wheat . -.- 


4,361 


1,605 


539 






2,865 




3,579 
1,046 


796 
1,363 
2, 175 

190 
14 








Sugar -. 


4, 056 

897 


15, 057 
972 


323 


Vegetables, canned and fresh . ... 


286 


All other . 


74 
172 

358 

800 
1,765 


19 










Textiles: 






22 


Cotton: 

Manufactures 


3.276 
3,215 


2,050 


2,351 


4,228 


Rags 




Drv goods 






107 




53 
33 


18 








All other 






145 


Wood and paper: 


75 








Firewood 




322 

1,443 

29, 639 

350 


68 

1.618 

36, 537 

4J3 


118 


Logs, poles, and piling 


649 

22, 224 
477 

17 

475 

2,693 


155 

30, 174 

1,234 


3,668 


Lumber 


39, 659 


Paper and manufactures 


439 


Paper stock: 
Wood pulp 














Railroad ties 


345 
2 


2,637 


386 


901 


Wood manufactures 


350 


Nonmetallic minerals: 
Coal: 

Anthracite 








166, 471 


Bituminous 


290,961 


298, 452 
19,232 


344. 892 
14, 245 


416, 221 


676, 149 


Grit and crushed stone 





204 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Table 2. — Water-borne commerce of port of Philadelphia, Pa., 1932-86 — Contd. 

[Quantities expressed in short tons] 

INTERNAL RECEIPTS-Continued 



Commodity 


1932 


1933 


1934 


1935 


1936 


Nonmetallic minerals— Continued. 
Petroleum and products: 

Crude oil 






2.528 
121. 883 
129. 828 

3,904 






Fuel and gas oil 


129. 559 

89.012 

1.033 

7,550 

1,046 

802,006 

52 

1,517 
9,747 
264 
1,891 
22 
1,195 

30, 027 

1,357 

46,546 

79 

2,497 
325 
829 

1,387 
280 

1,078 
891 

1,144 
91 

61 


136. 167 

167, 561 

72' 

9,202 


91,361 

64,490 

2,220 

3,135 

94 

558, 570 


154,981 
58 616 


Gasoline 


Kerosene 


4 102 


Lubricating oil 


3,909 
1 


Miscellaneous 


1, 385 

701, 385 

50 


Sand and gravel 


591, 501 
720 

835 

5.773 

2,427 

2,743 

300 

654 

21,190 
1.430 

33, 571 
1,620 

2,451 
143 


923, 732 
71 


All other 


Ores, metals and manufactures of: 
Iron and steel: 

Pig iron and semimanufactures... 




174 


Pipe and fittings . . . 


6. 509 
2,443 
1,044 


748 
1. 088 
2,832 


1,342 


Plates, sheets, etc 


Scrap 


3,001 
10 


Another 


Machinery and vehicles: Machinery 


30 

13, 133 

250 

21, 689 




2 


Chemicals: 

Acid, sulphuric . 


21, 823 


21, 274 


Alcohol 


Coal tar and pitch _ 


23, 660 
224 

910 


35, 791 


Fertilizer, complete 


Fertilizer materials: 

Fish scrap 


833 


350 


Nitroeenous materials 


125 


Phosphates „ 








Sodium nitrate 


818 
4,086 

406 
1,089 

210 
60 

520 


1,606 
1,429 


2,086 


2,046 
80 




Industrial chemicals.. 




3 


Medicinals 


150 






Soap.. 






All other 






1,684 
402 


Unclassified: 

Containers 


122 

135 

54,487 


255 


Household goods 


85 




25, 193 


26.688 


72. 930 


60,009 






Total, Internal receipts. 


1, 495, 389 


1, 384, 760 


1, 468, 532 


1, 324, 233 


2, 171, 378 





INTERNAL SHIPMENTS 



Animals and animal products: 

Dairy products 

Fish.. 

Hides and skins 

Leather and manufactures 

Another 

Vegetable food products: 

Beverages 

Canned goods 

Fruits and vegetables, unspecified 

Grains.. 

Oilcake and oil'^ake meal 

Molasses and sirup 

Suear, refined 

Vegetables: 

Tomatoes 

Various 

Another 

Vegetable products, inedible: 

Logwood 

All other 

Textiles: 

Bags and bagging 

Cotton manufactures 

Cotton rags 

Linoleum and other like floor covering- 
Wool and manufactures 

All other 

Wood and paper: 

Lumber 

Paper and manufactures 

Wood pulp 

An other 

Nonmetanic minerals: 

Cinders, common 



165 

50 

5,248 



1,700 

1,050 

310 



20 

25 

68, 734 

1,062 
255 
269 

4,736 
654 

1,265 
3, 036 
2,517 



151 
685 

50 
129 
560 

75 

1,340 



125 

40 

,320 



24 
,065 



,952 

,010 
250 
93 

,064 
18 

.645 
,535 
,286 



50 



6.283 
100 



115 

.50 

5,413 

375 



626 



34 
54, 798 

481 

127' 



400 

2, 650 

5G5 

12 



879 

10 

6,710 

34 



170 

75 

6,128 



532 



45 
67, 679 

102 



65 
4,291 



2,211 



855 



3,790 
200 



COMMERCE 

Table 2. — Water-borne commerce of port of Philadelphia, Pa., 19S2-S6- 
[Quantitles expressed in short tons] 
INTERNAL SHIPMENTS— Continued 



205 

-Contd. 



Commodity 


1932 


1933 


1934 


1935 


1936 


Nonmetallic minerals— Continued. 
Coal: 


39,022 

296, 285 
20, 5,';o 
2,158 

79,021 

165, 794 

21,025 

116 

1.033 

1,450 

96. 724 

2,187 

252 

75 
66, 556 


50,373 

304.064 

33. 097 

20. 506 

84,294 

178, 933 

25, 146 

186 

1,069 

1.038 

9.839 

3.253 


26, 879 

346, 937 

32. 177 

14,806 

137. 626 

148, 440 

24.360 

95 

1,108 

624 

37,804 

673 

200 

883 

34,512 

406 


32, 885 

420, 713 

31, 463 


209. 049 


Bituminous 


675. 789 


Coke — 


36, 416 






Petroleum and products: 


154,368 

154, 479 

20.905 

ll.'i 

11, 038 

650 

10, 072 

1,652 


215,030 




163. 626 




26,667 


Lubricating grease 


85 




2,126 




174 


Sand and eravel 


3.44S 


Sulphur, crude 


1,750 


All other - 


11 


Ores, metals and manufactures of: 
Iron and steel: 

Bars, plates, sheets, etc— 




4,799 

18,870 

1,621 

994 

124 

225 




Pig iron 


49,476 

794 

1.002 

330 

83 

725 


22.875 


Pipe 


651 






145 














90" 


227 


Machinery and vehicles: 


370 






18 

5 

5,789 

90 

2l,6«:9 

2,358 




360 




79 

12,386 

656 

46,546 






103 


Chemicals: 

>cid, sulphuric.— 


12,414 
615 

33. 626 

700 

1,490 

250 


3,100 


6.176 


Alcohol 




Coal tar 


26, 744 
1. 257 
2,000 

944 
179 
1.59 
415 
4.273 
2.312 


35,886 


Creosote oil . . 


200 


Fertilizer, complete 


1,571 




Fertilizer materials: 


585 


1,913 




650 
450 


1.801 








3, 630 


Potash materials .. . 







1,702 


Tankape . 


4,371 

6,023 

335 

8.50 

2,731 


3.003 

10,047 

31 

1, 425 

2,739 


5,108 

5,454 

267 

200 

598 

1,800 


2.341 


Unspecified - 


3,277 


Industrial chemicals 


755 


Medicinals . 




72 


Paints and varnishes 


130 


353 


Picments 


477 




1,235 

980 
14.5.^3 
74. 005 


280 
1,725 


245 


8 


Unclassified: 


350 




Excavated earth 








58.027 


90. 051 


103, 047 


115,385 






Total, internal shipments -- 


1, 043, 943 


977, 423 


1,015,261 


1, 085, 921 


1,611.362 







INTRAPORT 



Vegetable food products: 
Grain- 

Wheat. 


26. 912 

1, .544 

324 

1,600 

80, 362 

1,060 


22,&34 
724 


32, 130 


12,064 


11,928 


Other 




Ruear. refined . 








Wood and paper; Lumber 










Nonmetallic minerals: 

Coal, bituminous. 


7,914 
4 




13,092 

6.475 

15, 398 

2,244 

456, 151 

114, 367 

4,320 

468 

32, 748 


40,004 


Petroleum and products: 

Asphalt 






Coke 




1,444 


Crude oil 


28,114 

573. 676 

132. 392 

3,618 

1.758 

28,265 

842 

43. 698 

1,132 

481, 101 

1,700 

924 


212, 758 

445. 038 

43.658 

2.846 

1.028 

47,228 

640 

30. 638 

12. 397 

287, 538 


8.470 

317.925 

146,091 

4,034 

1,600 

46, 163 


3,472 


Fuel and gas oil 


493.021 


Gasoline 


130.086 


Kerosene 


6,669 


Lubricating grease 


678 


Lubricating oil 


38, 797 


Naphtha 


1.320 


Paraffin 


33,284 


34,630 


25, 680 


Miscellaneous 


11,864 


Sand and gravel 


205,200 


364,296 


344,086 






Ores, metals and manufactures of. 











206 



THE PORT OF PHELADELPHIA, PA. 



Table 2. — Water-borne commerce of port of Philadelphia, Pa., 1932-36 — Contd. 

[Quantities expressed in short tons] 

INTRAPORT— Continued 



Commodity 


1932 


1933 


1934 


1935 


1936 


Chemicals: 

Acid, sulphuric 


32,683 
2,465 


27, 405 
9,432 


27,983 
14, 895 


49, 029 
10, 661 
5,058 
1.484 


88,610 

18.059 

2.5, 618 

1 200 


Co3l tar 


Creosote oil 


All other 




4 

195,476 




Unclassified: 

Ashes and rubbish 








Containers 


5,146 
48, 349 








Earth and stone fill 


1,945 


18,060 






General merchandise 


718 














Total, intraport 


1, 497, 565 


1, 349, 307 


855, 835 


1, 123, 203 


1,242,536 





LOCAL 



Animals and animal products: Lard... 




282 








Vegetable food products: 

Canned goods 




323 
32,962 






Grains and preparations 


40, 124 
4,621 

1,145 
480 
160 

2,250 

88 


37,908 


36, 172 
34, 614 

622 


32 898 


Sugar 




Vegetable products, inedible: 

Dyeing and tanning materials 


230 

406 

35 

133 
184 






Rubber, crude 






All oiher 






23 


Textiles: 

Cotton manufactures 


59 


23 




Hemp 




All other 


154 

8,929 
342 

3,267 
776 






Wood and paper: 

Corkwood and cork waste 


9,583 
694 

4,924 

52 

561 

8,799 

69, 882 
897, 771 
85, 424 

229 

6,566 

61, 635 

6,825 

5,426 

165, 376 

1,628 

24, 745 

62,930 

254 


11, 340 

96 

1,468 


13, 306 
3,418 

778 


16, 460 


Logs and railroad ties 


2,776 


Lumber 


Paper and manufactures 




Paper stock 


176 

3,360 

74, 988 
995, 880 




243 


Nonmetallic minerals: 

Chalk 


4,000 

72, 689 
1, 130, 586 


2,800 

56, 210 
858, 867 


2,000 
66. 259 


Coal: 

Anthracite ... 


Bituminous. 


964, 322 


Unspecified.. 




Petroleum and products: 

Asphalt. 


11, 030 

4,411 

133, 672 

97, 282 

11,516 

218, 125 

453 

36, 422 

700 

100 

1,500 

17,311 

102 

26,640 

40 

68 

20, 274 

916 

16, 496 

13, 908 


4,835 






Crude oil 






Fuel and gas oil 


136, 945 

85, 048 

4,596 

42, 445 

18 

26,104 

984 

92 


175, 264 

81, 834 

1,141 

43, 285 


224, 540 


Gasoline 


80,948 


Kerosene... 


5,070 


Lubricating oil 


28,243 


Paraffin... 




Miscellaneous 


37. 684 

4,848 

465 


43,840 


Sand and gravel 


6,754 


All other 




Ores, metals and manufactures of: 
Iron and steel: 

Castings, forgings, and ingots 


2 


Pipe 


17. 029 
3,112 


7,072 

682 

14, 876 


11,737 


6,587 






Semimanufactures 


38,952 




All other 


629 
30 

3,530 

890 

12,002 

7,200 




Machinery and vehicles . . . 


65 
17, 616 






.\cid, sulphuric 


10, 864 


56, 076 


Benzol 




Coal tar and products 


17, 226 
17, 612 


18, 870 
16,454 

401 

642 

8 


14, 284 


Creosote oil 




Fertilizer materials: 


1,213 


Unspecified 


8,935 


800 
674 

426, 748 

414 

128, 786 


200 
18 


7,698 






Unclassified: 

Ashes, rubbish, and garbage 


369, 450 

95 

89, 400 




Containers 


382 
121, 487 


601 
238,008 


889 


General merchandise 


156. 689 








1, 963, 474 


2, 294, 774 


1, 752, 290 


1, 687, 768 


1, 706, 793 







COMMERCE 



207 











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208 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



SCHUYLKILL RIVER 

Although the traffic of the Schuylkill River has been included in 
tables Nos. 1 and 2, or "Delaware River, Philadelphia to the Sea," 
and "Philadelphia," table No. 3 is introduced in this report to show 
the amount and character of the traffic contributed by the Schuylkill 
River during the decade 1927-36. 

The commerce increased from 8,221,485 short tons in 1927 to 
11,337,373 tons in 1936 and averaged 9,923,668 tons durmg the 
10-year period. The principal commodities handled included petro- 
leum and its products in the average amount of 8,477,959 tons, of 
which amount 4,958,059 tons consisted of crude oil. Sand and gravel 



AVERAGE ANNUAL COMMERCE OF SCHUYLKILL RIVER. PA.. I927-I93S 



(QUANTITIES EXPRESSED IN SHORT TONS) 
T0TAL-9.92S.66a 



IMP0RTS-I.8e8.l93-I6.0% 



FOREIGN 



6YPSUM-62.T9I — 3.9%- 



PETROLEUM a PRODUCTS 

1,486,020 

93.6% 



ft 



EXP0RTS-6l6.0l7-6.2% 



ALL OTHER-39.382-2.5%- 
COAL TAR a PB0DUCTS-ie,768 — 3.0%- 



PETROLEUM PRODUCTS 

949,204 

88.9% 




DOMESTIC 

COASTWISE RECEIPTS-4,620,4ie-46.6 % 



ALL OTHER— 9,689-1. 0%- 



ALL OTHER— 48.634— 1.0%—; 



PETROLEUM a PRODUCTS 

4,971,784 

99.0 % 



COASTWISE SHIPMENTS — 1,004,443 — 10.1% 



ALL OTHER-35, 180-3.9% 



PETROLEUM PRODUCTS 
969,263 
96.9 % 



ff 



INTERNAL RECEIPTS-e42,l74-e.5% 



COAL TAR a PRODUCTS— 37,988— 4.9%- 
PETROLEUM PRODUCTS— 62.090— 7.4%- 



SAND, GRAVEL a STONE 

729,944 

66.6% 



T 




INTERNAL SHIPMENTS — 279,530 — 2.8 % 



ALL OTHER— 12,532 — 1.5% 
CHEMICALS— 4,069-1.5% 



PETROLEUM PRODUCTS 
249.129 
8 9.1% 






EARTH 

ST0NE4T(. 

22.106 

7.9% 



INTRAPORT AND LOCAL — 972,893-9.8% 



PETROLEUM PRODUCTS 

594,473 

61.1% 



ALL OTHER-4,234-1.9% 
CHEMICALS -32, 88 6 -3. 4% 



^ 



EARTH, STONE.ETC. 

177,010 

18.2% 




COAL TAR— 26.131— 2.6% — ' I 
ALL 0THER-34,3r6-3.5%— ' 



COMMERCE 209 

averaged 746,795 tons; grain, 118,469 tons; coal and coal tar products, 
113,915 tons; and other important commodities, in lesser amounts, 
included gypsum and iron ore. 

Imports 

The average annual imports on the Schuylkill Eiver amounted to 
1,588,193 tons, or 16 percent of the total traffic. Petroleum and its 
products accounted for 1,486,020 tons, or 93.6 percent of the total 
imports, 1,366,815 tons of which consisted of crude oil; gypsum 
62,971 tons, or 3.9 percent; and the remaining 39,382 tons consisted 
largely of iron ore, grain, and aluminum. 

Exports 

Exports averaged 616,017 tons during the decade and represented 
6.2 percent of the total traffic on the Schuylkill River. Petroleum 
and its products averaged 545,204 tons, or 88.5 percent of the total 
exports, and included 258,849 tons of gasoline, 114,434 tons of lubri- 
cating oils and greases, 75,501 tons of naphtha, and 72,471 tons of 
kerosene. Grains averaged 46,360 tons, or 7.5 percent of the total, 
chief among which was wheat with an average of 40,512 tons. Coal 
tar and its products averaged 18,768 tons, or 3 percent. 

Coastwise Receipts 

During the 10-year period 1927-36 the coastwise receipts averaged 
4,620,418 tons and accounted for 46.6 percent of the total commerce. 
These receipts increased from 3,739,113 tons in 1927 to 5,978,807 
tons in 1936 and the largest single item was petroleum and its prod- 
ucts, which averaged 4,571,784 tons, or 99 percent of the total. 
Included in this item were 3,588,244 tons of crude oil, 450,630 tons 
of gasoline, 412,998 tons of fuel and gas oil, and 85,152 tons of lubri- 
cating oils and greases. Other items included an average of 22,801 
tons of coal tar products, 10,463 tons of sulphur, and lesser quantities 
of grain, iron and steel, chemicals, and paints and pigments. 

Coastwise Shipments 

Coastwise shipments from the Schuylkill River averaged 1,004,443 
tons and accounted for 10.1 percent of the total commerce. Ship- 
ments fluctuated somewhat throughout the decade but showed a 
steady increase from 291,953 tons in 1927 to 1,628,086 tons in 1936. 
Petroleum products comprised the largest item of traffic, averaging 
969,263 tons or 96.5 percent of the total coastwise shipments. This 
item included 599,503 tons of fuel and gas oil, 255,812 tons of gas- 
oline, 67,234 tons of kerosene, and 36,335 tons of lubricating oils 
and greases. Other items, in lesser quantities, included coal tar, 
creosote oil, chemicals, and fertilizer materials. 



210 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Internal Receipts 

Internal receipts, or traffic reaching points on the Schuylkill River 
from localities on the Delaware River, other than Pliiladelphia, or 
via the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, averaged 842,174 tons, or 
8.5 percent of the total traffic on the Schuylkill River. Receipts of 
sand, gravel, and stone averaged 729,544 tons, or 86.6 percent of the 
total internal receipts. Petroleum products averaged 62,090 tons, or 
7.4 percent; coal tar products, 37,988 tons, or 4.5 percent, while the 
remaining tonnage consisted of chemicals, coal and coke, lumber, 
iron and steel, and miscellaneous commodities. 

Internal Shipments 

Shipments to localities on the Delaware River, other than Phila- 
delphia, and via the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, averaged 
279,530 tons, or 2.8 percent of the entire traffic. Petroleum products 
led with an average of 249,125 tons, or 89.1 percent of the total, 
followed by earth and other materials used for making fills with an 
average of 22,106 tons, or 7.9 percent, and chemicals with an average 
of 4,065 tons, or 1.5 percent. Other items shipped included fertilizer 
materials, grain, sand and gravel, and coal tar. 

Intraport and Local Traffic 

Intraport traffic, or movements between the Delaware River, port 
of Philadelphia, and points on Schuylkill River averaged 751,006 
tons, and local traffic, or movements within the confines of the Schuyl- 
kill River, averaged 221,887 tons, together averaging 972,893 tons 
and representing 9.8 percent of the traffic on the Schuylkill River 
during the decade 1927-36. Petroleum products led with an average 
of 594,473 tons, or 61.1 percent; followed by ashes, dirt, and other 
refuse used for filling purposes, 177,010 tons, or 18.2 percent; grains, 
56,304 tons, or 5.9 percent; coal and coke, 51,713 tons, or 5.3 percent; 
chemicals, largely sulphuric acid, 32,886 tons, or 3.4 percent; and coal 
tar, 26,131 tons, or 2.6 percent. 



COMMERCE 



211 




212 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



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Animals and animal products: Leather and manu- 
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Another 

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Another 

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Lumber and manufactures 

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Nonmetallic minerals: 

Cement 

Coal and coke 



COMMERCE 



213 



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214 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



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THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



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220 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Summary of water-borne traffic in 1937, Schuylkill River, Pa. 

Short tons 

Imports 1,601,300 

Exports 529,318 

Coastwise receipts 6, 235, 086 

Coastwise shipments 1, 585, 222 

Internal receipts via Chesapeake and Delaware Canal 83, 897 

Internal shipments via Chesapeake and Delaware Canal 161, 862 

Internal receipts other than via Chesapeake and Delaware Canal 435, 656 

Internal shipments other than via Chesapeake and Delaware Canal- _ 185, 584 

Intraport receipts 416, 695 

Intraport shipments 291, 002 

Local traffic 73, 618 

Grand total, all traffic in 1937 11, 599, 240 



GENERAL 

Philadelphia is an inland seaport, situated on the Delaware River 
101 miles from the Atlantic Ocean. The Delaware River flows, in 
general, in a southerly direction emptying into Delaware Bay, which 
is a natural enlargement of the river mouth. Entrance into the Bay 
from the Atlantic Ocean is between Cape May, N. J. and Cape 
Henlopen, Del., usually known as the Delaware Capes. At the 
present time a dredged channel 35 feet deep at mean low water ex- 
tends from deep water in Delaware Bay to Allegheny Avenue on the 
upper water front of Philadelphia. An approved modification of the 
existing project for river and harbor improvement provides for the 
deepening of this channel to 40 feet mean low water from deep water 
in Delaware Bay to the Navy Yard, and thence 37 feet deep to the 
Philadelphia-Camden Bridge. 

The port of Philadelphia, as contemplated in this report, comprises 
such waters of the Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers bordering on the 
city of Philadelphia as are navigable. The municipal limits of Phila- 
delphia on the Delaware River extend from a point south of Fort 
Mifflin below the mouth of the Schuylkill River to the mouth of 
Poquessing Creek, immediately north of Torresdale, a distance of 
about 22 miles, and along both banks of the Schuylkill River from its 
mouth to Fairmont Dam, comprising about 16 miles of shore line. 

The shipping activities of the port are mainly on the Delaware 
River water front where a continuous line of piers extends from the 
vicinity of the foot of Oregon Avenue to the foot of Allegheny Avenue, 
a distance of about 6 miles. The city of Philadelphia has taken the 
lead in the development of water terminals and has constructed many 
large piers of the most advanced type along this stretch of the water 
front. These piers are available for lease by shipping interests. 

There is a total of 191 piers, wharves, and docks in the port, ex- 
cluding those at the Navy Yard, representing a total berthing space 
of about 159,000 linear feet, or 30 miles. Thirty-nine of the piers or 
wharves are situated on the Schuylkill River and 152 on the Delaware 
River water front. The ownership of the piers and wharves may be 
segregated as follows: private interests, 44 percent; railroads, 34 
percent; city of Pliiladelphia, 18 percent, and the United States, 4 
percent. 

A great majority of the piers in the port have access, by spur tracks, 
to the tlu-ee trunk-line railroads serving the port, either by direct 
connection with them, or through the Philadelphia Belt Line. The 
trunk lines are the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, and the Reading Railway System. These railroads also 

221 



222 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

operate terminals for the interchange of cargo between rail and water. 
The largest of these, known as the Port Richmond Terminal, is oper- 
ated by the Reading Co. on the Delaware River opposite Pettys 
Island and consists of a group of 23 piers including 2 coal-handling 
piers and 1 grain pier. The Pennsylvania Railroad operates a group 
of piers, including a grain pier, at Girard Point on the Schuylkill 
River, near its junction with the Delaware, and a coal-handling pier 
at Greenwich Point on the Delaware River. In addition to these 
terminals, both railroads, as well as the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, 
operate water terminals at various points on the Delaware River water 
front. 

The facilities for warehousing at the port of Philadelphia are excep- 
tional. There is a total of 48 warehouses which cater to the storage 
of commodities incident to water-borne commerce, of which 40, with 
a total storage space of about 64,230,000 cubic feet, are for dry storage, 
and 8, having an aggregate space of about 11,650,000 cubic feet, are 
for the cold storage of perishables. The storage warehouses are, with 
few exceptions, in close proximity to the water front and in most cases 
have railroad connections. 

While the drydocldng facilities at Philadelphia are limited to one 
graving dock 420 feet in length, additional dry docks are available at 
Chester, a comparatively short distance below the city and at Camden, 
N. J., on the opposite shore of Delaware River. There are, however, 
a number of marine repair plants capable of making repairs to huUs of 
vessels above the water Ime, as well as to engines, boilers, dynamos, 
motors, radios, and ships' gear. For heavy lifting there are floating 
derricks with capacities up to 100 tons. 

The water-borne traffic of the port of Philadelphia averaged 
20,141,206 short tons annually during the 5 years from 1932-36. 
The commerce for 1932 amounted to 18,837,888 tons, which increased 
in the following year to 20,245,976 tons, a gain of 7.2 percent. The 
volume declined 4.4 percent in 1934, gained 2.9 percent m 1935, and 
experienced an upswing of 12.3 percent in 1936. The net gain in 
volume during the 5-year period was 18.7 percent. This net gain was 
evident in all classes of traffic, except that of intraport and local. It 
was most pronounced in the internal traffic, in which the gain 
amounted to 54.4 percent in shipments and 45.2 percent in receipts. 
The gain in coastwise traffic was equally divided in receipts and ship- 
ments, bemg 28.4 and 28.5 percent, respectively. In the foreign 
traffic this gain was 11.3 percent in imports and 0.9 percent in exports. 

Based on an average of the 5-year period, foreign traffic amounted 
to 23.1 percent of the total; coastwise traffic was 48.0 percent, internal 
traffic 13.5 percent, and intraport and local was 15.4 percent. In each 
of the three classes of in-bound and out-bound traffic, foreign, coast- 
wise, and internal, the receipts, or in-bound movement, were consid- 



GENERAL 223 

erably greater than the shipments. Of the total average annual 
traffic, 59.5 percent was out-bound, 25.1 percent in-bound, while 15.4 
percent represented traffic moved between points in the port. 

In the movement of commodities the volume of petroleum and its 
products exceeded that of any other, being by far the greater in im- 
ports and exports, and in coastwise receipts and shipments than any 
other commodity handled. It comprised 38.8 percent of imports, 
59.8 percent of exports, 75.4 percent of coastwise receipts, and 44.0 
percent of coastwise shipments. It was also an important item in the 
internal receipts and shipments, although it did not rank first among 
commodities in these movements. 

Philadelphia is one of the foremost ports in the United States in 
respect to the volume of its commerce, its harbor facilities, and the 
area of the territory served by it, and the railroads serving the port 
connect it with the most highly developed industrial section of the 
coimtry. 



CAMDEN, N. J. 

PORT AND HARBOR CONDITIONS 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

Camden, N. J., is an important manufacturing city located on the 
east bank of the Delaware River, directly opposite the city of Phila- 
delphia, Pa., and about 101 statute miles from the Atlantic Ocean. 
Although a separate municipality, many of the industrial and shipping 
activities of Camden are closely related to those of Philadelphia. 
Communication between these two cities is afforded by passenger 
and vehicular ferries, car floats, and by the Camden suspension bridge, 
which is 1.81 miles long. 

Cooper River, in the northern section of the city, rises in the eastern 
part of Camden County, N. J. and flows northwesterly about 13 
miles, emptying into the Delaware River above Cooper Point. The 
mean range of tide is 6 feet at the mouth, diminishing to 2 feet at the 
head of navigation, 7K miles up the river. 

Information relative to tides, tidal currents in the Delaware River, 
anchorages, and weather conditions is given in the report for Phila- 
delphia, on page 5, as these data are applicable to both ports. 

BRIDGES 

Cooper River, from its confluence with the Delaware to the head of 
the improved channel, is crossed by four bridges. These are de- 
scribed in the following table. The channel between Pettys Island 
and the mainland is crossed by one bridge operated by the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad. For a description of the Philadelphia-Camden 
bridge see page 11. 

225 



226 



THE PORT OF CAMDEN, N. J. 



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PORT AND HARBOR CONDITIONS 227 

HARBOR IMPROVEMENTS BY THE UNITED STATES 

The improvement of the channel in Delaware Bay and River is 
described in the report for Philadelphia, on page 13. 

In front of Camden, on the Delaware River, the project for improve- 
ment, adopted by the river and harbor act of July 3, 1930, provides 
for dredging to a depth of 18 feet at mean low water from that depth 
north of Cooper Point to Berkley Street, 1.5 miles, and 30 feet from 
the latter point to Newton Creek, 2.3 miles, these depths to extend 
from the 35-foot channel in the Delaware River to a line parallel with 
and 50 feet distant from the established pierhead line. Under the 
project as originally adopted, dredging to 18 feet from Cooper Point 
to Kaighn Point, and to 30 feet from Kaiglm Point to Newton Creek, 
was completed in 1924. Work of extending the 30-foot depth north- 
ward to Berkley Street was commenced in the spring of 1931 and 
completed in the fall of that year. 

The existing project for the improvement of Cooper River, N. J., 
provides for a channel 12 feet deep at mean low water and 70 feet 
wide through the bar outside of the mouth and upstream to the Taylor 
White wharf. This project was completed in 1920, since which time 
some shoaling has occurred. The controlling depths at mean low 
water on June 30, 1937 were 11.7 feet from the Delaware River to 
600 feet below the upper end of the project, thence 7.3 feet. 

HARBOR IMPROVEMENTS BY LOCAL INTERESTS 

The river and harbor act of March 2, 1919, required local interests 
to contribute $15,000 toward the improvement of the harbor. This 
amount was paid by the city in 1921. The river and harbor act of 
July 3, 1930, providing for the extension of the 30-foot channel from 
Kaighn Point Ferry to Berkley Street, required the construction of 
terminals open to all vessels at reasonable rates and adequate for 
deep-draft vessels. In compliance with these requirements, the South 
Jersey Port Commission has constructed a concrete bulkhead for 
berthing deep-draft vessels extending from Clinton Street southward 
1,050 feet, and has dredged to 30 feet the area between this wharf and 
the pierhead Une. 

TERMINAL IMPROVEMENTS 

Of the 71 piers, wharves, and docks at Camden there are but 2 that 
are open to general freight carriers on equal terms. These are the 
Spruce Street and Beckett Street terminals, operated as the Camden 
Marine Terminals by the South Jersey Port Commission for berthing 
overseas vessels and those engaged in coastwise and other domestic 
traflBc. The remaining 69 facilities are used by industries for the 
receipt and shipment of commodities peculiar to their particular busi- 



228 THE PORT OF CAMDEN, N. J. 

ness, by shipbuilding and repair plants, passenger and vehicular ferries, 
railroad car ferries, for mooring dredging plant, and as sites for the 
storage of railroad cars. 

OWNERSHIP OF WATER FRONT 

The port of Camden has a navigable water front of about 14,3 
miles. This includes about 3.95 miles on Pettys Island and 3 miles 
on Cooper Kiver, the remainder, or 7.35 miles fronting on the Dela- 
ware River. The total water frontage of the Camden Marine Termi- 
nals measured along the pierhead line is 1,790 linear feet, of which 
1,050 feet are owned by the South Jersey Port District and the remain- 
ing 740 feet is owned by city of Camden. The South Jersey Port 
District also owns 580 feet of water frontage situated between the 
Beckett Street and Spruce Street terminals, which is available for 
future terminal development. Other city-owned water frontage, con- 
sisting of street ends and other property, in addition to the Spruce 
Street Terminal, amounts to 7,628 linear feet, of which 2,596 feet 
fronts on the Delaware River and 5,032 feet on the Cooper River. 



FUEL AND SUPPLIES 

ELECTRIC CURRENT 

Alternating current for light and power is supplied by the Public 
Service Electric and Gas Co. At the Beckett Street Terminal alter- 
nating current of 120-240 volts, 3-phase, 4-wire is available, the charge 
being $1 per light or 10 cents per kilowatt-hour. The current avaDable 
at the Spruce Street Terminal is alternating, single-phase, 120 volts 
for lighting, and 2-phase, 240 volts for power. The charge is the same 
as at the Beckett Street Terminal. 

WATER SUPPLY 

The city water supply is obtained from artesian wells and is of 
excellent quality. Fresh water will be supplied at the Camden marine 
terminals at the rate of 30 cents per 100 cubic feet, the minimum 
charge being $1. When water is furnished before or after the regular 
working hours, an extra charge of $1 per hour is made for an attend- 
ant. Water for boiler purposes may be taken directly from the river. 
The charges for water supplied by water boat are the same as those 
charged at Philadelphia, of which the following are examples: 

In stream, $1.25 per ton; minimum $37.50 

Girard Point, $1.50 per ton; minimum 50.00 

Point Breeze, $1.75 per ton; minimum 62.50 

Marcus Hook, $2.00 per ton; minimum 62.50 

OIL BUNKERING 

Bunker fuel oU for vessels is supplied by the Cities Service Oil Co. 
at its plant on Pettys Island, where 745 feet of bertliing space with 30 
feet of water alongside at mean low water is available. Grades kept 
in stock are No. 5, Bunker C, and Diesel fuel oil, the normal supply 
on hand being 30,000, 60,000, and 20,000 barrels respectively. De- 
livery is at the hourly rate of 2,000 barrels for No. 5, 3,000 barrels for 
Bunker C, and 1,500 barrels for Diesel fuel oil. Delivery to vessels 
in stream or at their berths is also made by tank barge at the rate of 
900 barrels per hom-. 

COAL BUNKERING 

Facilities for supplying coal for bunkers at Camden, N. J., are 
situated on the west side of the Delaware River at Philadelphia and 
are described on page 20 of this report. Bunker coal may also be 
brought alongside vessels while at their berths by barge, and trans- 
ferred to bunkers by derrick boats. Such floating derricks, especially 
equipped for this service, are operated by the Delaware River Operat- 
ing Co., and are described on page 272 of this report. 

78920—30 16 229 




231 



PORT AND HARBOR FACILITIES 

PIERS, WHARVES, AND DOCKS 

There are 71 piers, wharves, and docks along the water front of 
Camden, including 3 on Pettys Island and 11 on Cooper River. 
These facilities have a combined berthing space of 47,703 Uneal feet. 
The two facihties at Camden which are open to all carriers on equal 
terms for overseas and domestic general cargo are the Beckett Street 
Terminal, owned by the South Jersey Port District, and the Spruce 
Street Municipal Pier, owned by the city of Camden. These terminals 
are operated by the South Jersey Port Commission and are known 
collectively as the Camden Marine Terminals. The Beckett Street 
Terminal is a quay-type structure 1,050 feet long and has a depth of 
30 feet alongside at mean low water. There are two steel frame, metal- 
covered transit sheds 400 by 100 feet and 360 by 100 feet, set parallel 
to and 35 feet distant from the bulkhead. The rear of the sheds have 
15-foot-wide carloading platforms. Cargo beams are provided on 
the tops of the sheds on the river side for use with ship's tackle for 
handling cargo between vessels and wharf. Two railroad tracks 
connecting with the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Pennsylvania- 
Reading Seashore Lmes extend along the apron of the wharf for the 
direct interchange of cargo between vessels and railroad cars, and 
tracks are also located at the rear of the transit sheds. The cargo- 
handling equipment at this terminal consists of a traveling revolving 
gantry crane having a 50-foot reach, with capacities of 25 tons at 
12-foot radius and 5 tons at 50-foot radius. There are also one 
15-ton tractor crane, one lift truck, five lumber carriers, two portable 
conveyors, as well as trucks and trailers. There are two one-story 
storage warehouses of brick and steel construction in the rear of the 
upper transit shed, each having 38,500 square feet of floor space, as 
well as two lumber-storage sheds of timber-frame and metal-side con- 
struction, having a total floor space of 9,200 square feet. Open 
storage space for lumber and other bulk commodities embracing an 
area of 430,000 square feet is available in the rear of the buildings. 
The pier at the Spruce Street Terminal is 700 feet long on its lower 
side, 474 feet on the upper side, and 102 feet wide. The terminal 
also includes 422 feet of bulkhead adjoining the upper side of the 
pier. Depths of water at the pier range from 22 to 32 feet and at the 
bulkhead from 8 to 13 feet at mean low water. The pier is equipped 

231 



232 THE PORT OF CAMDEN, K. J. 

with a steel-frame and metal-covered transit shed, 460 by 73 feet, 
with cargo beams at the top of its upper side. The lower side of the 
pier has a 24-foot apron bearing a railroad track and a semiportal 
traveling revolving gantry crane with 55-foot reach. A 25-ton travel- 
ing revolving gantry crane with 50-foot reach is operated along the 
bulkhead above the pier. An area of 330,000 square feet for the open 
storage of lumber and other bulk commodities is located in the rear 
of the pier and bulkhead. Other public wharves owned by the city of 
Camden are at the foot of Cooper Street on the Delaware River and 
on the Cooper River near the Admiral Wilson Boulevard Bridge, both 
of which are little used. 

The remaining 67 piers and wharves at Camden are privately 
owned and operated. Of this number 17, with a total berthing 
space of 10,717 feet, are used in connection with shipyards and marine 
repair plants; coal is handled at 6 wharves, having a total bertliing 
space of 3,693 feet; 8 are used for tying up vessels and floating plant; 
3 are car-float landings; 2 are landings for passenger and vehicular 
ferries plying between Camden and Philadelpliia; 1 is a wharf at 
which lumber alone is handled; 6 arc railroad car storage yards; 
11 are used in connection with industries for the receipt of raw ma- 
terials; 4 for the receipt of petroleum products; and 9 are not in use. 

Details regarding the piers, wharves, and docks at Camden are given 
in the following table: 



PORT AND HARBOR FACILITIES 



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THE POKT OF CAMDEN, N. J. 



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256 



THE PORT OF CAMDEN, N. J. 



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258 THE PORT OF CAMDEN, N. J. 

HOISTING FACILITIES 

Mechanical facilities for heavy lifting are to be found at many of 
the wharves along the water front of Camden. WliUe the majority 
of these appliances are operated for private use, there are heavy 
lifting cranes available to the public at the Camden Marine Terminals 
at the foot of Beckett and Spruce Streets. The Beckett Street Ter- 
minal is equipped with a steam traveling revolving gantry crane 
having a 50-foot reach. Its capacities are 25 tons at a radius of 
12 feet, 7K tons at 30 feet, 6 tons at 40 feet, and 5 tons at 50 feet. 
The crane tracks extend along the bulkhead of the wharf where 
heavy cargo may be transferred directly between vessel and raUroad 
car. At the Spruce Street pier an electric semiportal traveling re- 
volving gantry crane, having a 55-foot reach, is operated on the 
lower side of the pier. It has a capacity of 5 tons at 40-foot radius. 
A traveling revolving gantry crane, steam-operated, is situated on 
the bulkhead above the Spruce Street pier. It has a maximum capac- 
ity of 25 tons and a reach of 60 feet. 

In addition to mechanical handling facilities on the wharves there 
are a number of floating derricks with lifting capacities of from 5 to 
20 tons, with operating headquarters at Camden. 

Details of hoisting facilities ashore and afloat at Camden are shown 
in the following table: 



PORT AND HARBOR FACILITIES 



259 



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260 



THE PORT OF CAMDEN, N 







1 




Pivot of crane is 
IIH feet from 
stringpiece of 
pier. 

Pivot of crane is 
19 feet from 
stringpiece of 
pier. 

The locomotive 
cranes are also 
available for 
use at piers 
Nos. 2, 4, 6, 
and 7. 




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R. and Penn- 
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Penn -Reading' 
Seashore Lines. 

Penn-Reading 

Seashore Lines. 




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1 traveling revolving 
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3 locomotive cranes 

2 traveling revolving 
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1 traveling revolving 
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With 25-foot boom ex- 
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1 traveling revolving 
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1 locomotive crane 


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Foot of Spruce St... 

Foot of Mount Ver- 
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Foot of Jefferson St.. 

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andBulsonSt. 




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(a) Spruce St. municipal pier... 
(6) South Jersey Port Commis- 
sion, foot of Beckett St. 

(o) Camden coke plant pier 

(6) Camden coke plant of the 
Public Service Electric & 
Gas Co., Front and Chest- 
nut Sts. 

(o) MacAndrews & Forbes Co. 

Wpier. 
acAndrews & Forbes Co., 
3d and JeSerson Sts. 
(a) Pier No. 1, New York Ship- 
building Corporation. 
(6) New York Shipbuilding 
Corporation, Broadway 
and Fairview St. 




dBm 
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no 

0n9J9J9H 


lo r- CO «o 

S S S 8 



PORT AND HARBOR FACILITIES 



261 



Pivot of crane is 
19 feet from 
stringpiece of 
pier. 




Penn-Reading 
Seashore Lines. 

Penn-Reading 

Seashore Lines. 

Penn-Reading 
Seashore Lines. 


" 19-36 
20-36 

18-23 

30 
30 


950 

742 

357 

1,410 
1,540 


2;2§g5gSgSSg§SgS§g§SSSgSS§§S I SS^SSS I 1 : 


O O Q C^ 00 W5 ■<»' CO CO •«• 00 <0 •<)< r; •* =C « ■* •<f lO — 1 to M 00 lO N . OOCJt^CDlOMl 1 f 1 

•»(<coc5rt Ci-i «« eo CO o) « .-1 ri . .-1.-1 1 1 1 


...do 

steam.... 
...do 

Electric. . 

steam 


do 

1 locomotive crane 

do 

1 traveling revolving 
gantry crane. 

With 35-foot boom ex- 
tension. 

scribed at reference 
No. 266. 
1 traveling revolving 
gantry crane. 

4 locomotive cranes de- 
scribed at reference 
No. 266. 
do 

do 


d d do' d 

\z z :z Z ^ 


Between foot of 
Woodland Ave. 
and Fairview St. 

Between foot of 
Morgan St. and 
mouth of Newton 
Creek. 

Upper side of mouth 
of Newton Creek. 

Lower side of mouth 
of Newton Creek. 


(a) Pier No. 2. New York Ship- 
building Corporation. 

(6) New York Shipbuilding 
Corporation, Broadway 
and Fairview St. 

(a) Pier No. 4, New York Ship- 
building Corporation. 

(6) New York Shipbuilding 
Corporation, Broadway 
and Fairview St. 

(a) Pier No. 6, New York Ship- 
building Corporation. 

(6) New York Shipbuilding 
Corporation, Broadway 
and Fairview St. 

(a) Pier No. 7, New York Ship- 
building Corporation. 

(6) New York Shipbuilding 
Corporation, Broadway 
and Fairview St. 





2» 



^^ 



78920—39- 



-18 



262 



THE PORT OF CAMDEN, N. J. 



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PORT AND HARBOR FACILITIES 263 



GRAIN ELEVATORS 

There are no grain elevators at Camden. The elevators of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Co. and the Reading Co. at Philadelphia are 
described on page 96 of this report. 

STORAGE WAREHOUSES 

There are three warehousing facilities at Camden available for the 
storage of commodities handled by shipping, two of which are for the 
dry storage of general merchandise, and one for the cold storage of 
perishables. 

The Camden Marine Terminal at the foot of Beckett Street is 
equipped with two storage buildings of brick and steel construction, 
each having 38,500 square feet of floor space, while the South Jersey 
Warehouse Co. operates a warehouse of brick and concrete construc- 
tion for the handUng of general merchandise on Pine Street in the 
vicinity of Cooper River. The cold storage facility is that of the 
Camden Rail and Harbor Terminal Corporation at Kaighn Avenue 
and Front Street, near the water front. It is equipped with cooler 
rooms having temperatures of from 30° to 34°, and freezer room? 
with temperatures of to —8°. 

The details of these storage warehouses are shown in the following 
table: 



264 



THE PORT OF CAMDEN, N. J. 



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PORT AND HARBOR FACILITIES 265 

BULK FREIGHT STORAGE 

Storage space for bulk freight, such as lumber and other commodi- 
ties not subject to damage by weather is available at the Camden 
marine terminals, operated by the South Jersey Port Commission. 
The Spruce Street Terminal, owned by the city, has an available open 
space of 330,000 square feet, which is extensively used for the storage 
of lumber and wood pulp. Lumber is discharged from vessels by 
means of sliip's tackle on a 3-ton electric gantry crane and then carried 
to the storage area by gasoline-operated lumber carriers on trucks. 
The Beckett Street Terminal, owned by the South Jersey Port District, 
has an open storage area of 430,000 square feet and 9,200 square feet 
of covered storage for lumber. Cargo is discharged from the vessels 
by means of ship's taclde on a 25-ton steam-operated gantry crane, and 
thence carried to the storage area by railroad car, trucks, or motor- 
operated lumber carriers. 

DRYDOCKS AND MARINE RAILWAYS 

There are two drydocks at Camden capable of handling vessels of 
450 and 1,000 tons, respectively. These are owned and operated by 
the Noecker Shipbuilding Co. Of the four marine railways at Cam- 
den, the largest one, with a lifting capacity of 2,000 tons, is owned by 
the American Dredging Co. for use in connection with its dredging 
plant. The Kensington Shipyard & Dry Dock Co. has a 1,500-ton 
marine railway, and the John H. Mathis Co. and the Quigley Ship- 
yard, Inc., each have a railway of 1,000-ton capacity. These facih- 
ties are further described in the following table. 



266 



THE PORT OF CAMDEN, N. J. 



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THE PORT OF CAMDEN, N. J. 



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THE PORT OF CAMDEN, N. J. 



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THE PORT OF CAMDEN, N. J. 



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PORT AND HARBOR FACILITIES 



273 



WRECKING AND SALVAGE FACILITIES 

The wrecking and salvage facilities at Philadelphia, described on 
page 124 of this report, are also available at Camden. 

RADIO STATIONS 

There are three radio communication stations at Camden, all pro- 
viding aeronautical service only. The radio service at Philadelphia 
is described on page 124. 

AIRPORTS 

The Central Airport, situated 1% miles east of the center of the 
city and 2 miles southeast of the Philadelphia-Camden Bridge, is one 
of the most important airports on the Atlantic seaboard. At the 
present time it is the only transport field in the Philadelphia-Camden 
Metropolitan District and comprises 220 acres. There are three run- 
ways, each 150 feet in width and 2,500 feet in length. It is equipped 
with all modern appurtenances, and ser\dcing faciUties are available 
day and night. 

AIR LINES 

The Philadelphia-Camden Metropolitan District is served by the 
American Airlines, Eastern Airlines, United Airlines, and Transconti- 
nental & Western Air, all of which use the Central Airport at Camden. 
The following transport schedules, which were in effect in December 
1937, are shown for information only. They are subject to change 
without notice. 

Transport schedules at Central Airport 



Time leave 


Air line 


Destination 


6:42 a. m. 


American Airlines 


Newark. 


6:55 a. m. 


Eastern Airlines.. .. . 


Do. 


8:11 a. m. 


Transcontinental & Western Air 


West — to coast. 


8:50 a. m. 


Eastern Airlines 


Washington Richmond. 


10:50 a. m. 


American Airlines 


South and West. 


11:12 a. m. 


Transcontinental & Western Air.. .. .... . 


Newark. 


12:45 p. m. 


do.. 


Chicago. 


1:40 p.m. 


Eastern Airlines 


Washington-Richmond. 


3:15 p.m. 


do 


Newark. 


3:20 p.m. 


Transcontinental & Western Air 


Do. 


3:44 p. m. 


do 


Chicago. 


4:15 p. m. 


United Airlines 


Cleveland, Chicago, and 


6:47 p. m. 


Transcontinental & Western Air 


coast. 
Newark. 


6:56 p. m. 


do 


Pittshurgh. 


6:40 p.m. 


Eastern Airlines... 


Washington-Richmond. 


7:15 p. m. 


do 


Newark. 


8:40 p. m. 


do 


Washington. 


# 10:35 p. m. 


Transcontinental & Western Air 


Newark. 


(fl) 10:50 p.m. 


Eastern Airlines 


Do. 


11:40 p.m. 


do 


Houston. 









Code: (fl), flag stop; §, except Saturdays. 



RAILROAD SERVICES AND RATES 

RAILROADS 

Camden is served by the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Reading 
Railway System. These railroads have been described in the report 
for Philadelphia, to which reference should be made. 

FACILITIES FOR INTERCHANGE BETWEEN RAIL AND WATER 

The railroads at Camden have no piers of their own for the inter- 
change of freight between rail and water. Both lines have track con- 
nections with the Camden Marine Terminals at Spruce and Beckett 
Streets where interchange of freight may be effected. Further infor- 
mation hereon, and regarding car floatage and lighterage systems in 
this vicinity, is given in the report for Philadelphia. 

RAIL RATES 

Camden is in the same rate group as Philadelphia with respect to 
western territory, and since the subject of rail rates has been discussed 
in the report for Philadelphia, reference is made to that report. 

276 



COMMERCE 

The commerce of the port of Camden mcludes the traffic along the 
Camden water front and that of the Cooper River, which is a part of 
the port. During the 10-year period 1927-36 the traffic of the port 
averaged 1,538,278 tons annually, of which amount 1,301,933 tons 
pertained to the Delaware River terminals and 236,345 tons, consisting 
of internal receipts and shipments, to the term.inals along Cooper River. 
Of the latter, 146,732 tons consisted of sand and gravel and 54,584 
tons of petroleum products. 



AVERAGE ANNUAL COMMERCE OF CAMDEN. N. J., 1927-1336 



(QUANTITIES EXPRESSED IN SHORT TONS) 
TOTA'.-1, 536,276 



IMPORTS— 130.517—8.5 % 



FOREIGN 



PETROLEUM a PRODUCTS 
36.068 
27.654 



FERTILIZER MATERIALS— 6.377 — 1.9% 



CORK, CORKWOOD, 

WASTE, MFRS. 

36.063 

27.6;t 



LICORICE ROOT 
22.942 
17.651 



WOOD PULP 
13,148 
10.154 



CHALK 
12,223 
9.45t 



ALL OTHER— 3,636-2.8% 



1 

— 2.8^ i 



EXPORTS — 3,355-0.2 % 




CORK a MANUFACTURES 
2,618 
78.0:* 



COASTWISE RECEIPTS— 454,024 



DOMESTIC 

-29.5% 



ALL OTHER— 7,313- 



|-6;t-i. 




CORK, CORKWOOD a WASTE— 40,442 — 7.8;t- 

ASHES, ETC.— 6,835 — 1. 3%- 
ALL OTHER — 6,101— I. ^%- 



78920—39- 



-19 



277 



278 THE PORT OF CAMDEN, N. J. 

Considering the traffic as a whole, the principal commodities handled 
at the port included an average of 626,538 tons of petroleum and its 
products, or 40.7 percent; coal and coke, 407,972 tons, or 26.5 percent; 
sand and gravel, 172,796 tons, or 11.2 percent; and smaller amounts 
of cork and corkwood, lumber, canned goods, and licorice root. 

Impohts 

Imports averaged 130,517 tons during the decade, or 8.5 percent of 
the total commerce. Petroleum and petroleum products led among 
the principal commodities imported with an average of 36,068 tons, or 
27.6 percent, 34,269 tons of which was crude oil. Cork, corkwood, 
waste and manufactures of cork followed with an average of 36,063 
tons, or 27.6 prcent; licorice root with 22,942 tons, or 17.6 percent; 
wood pulp, 13,148 tons, or 10.1 percent; chalk, 12,223 tons, or 9.4 
percent; and fertilizer materials, 6,377 tons, or 4.9 percent. 

Exports 

Exports first occurred in 1930 with a total of 57 tons, and rose to 
12,009 tons in 1936, and averaged 3,355 tons during the decade, and 
accounted for two-tenths of 1 percent of the total traffic. Paper 
boxes and cartons averaged 2,618 tons, or 78 percent of the total 
exports. 

Coastwise Receipts 

Coast\\dse receipts averaged 454,024 tons during the decade under 
discussion and represented 29.5 percent of the total traffic. Petroleum 
and its products averaged 352,542 tons, or 77.6 percent, during the 
10-year period; coal and coke, 57,586 tons, or 12.7 percent; and lumber, 
36,583 tons, or 8.1 percent. 

Coastwise Shipments 

Shipments averaged 115,484 tons, or 7.5 percent of the total traffic 
during the decade, 45,621 tons of which, or 39.5 percent, consisted of 
petroleum products. Canned goods averaged 28,688 tons, or 24.8 
percent; paper and manufactures, 19,123 tons, or 16.6 percent; and 
chemicals, coke, and other commodities composed the remaining 

tonnage. 

Internal Receipts 

Keceipts from localities on the Delaware River, other than Philadel- 
phia, averaged 265,815 tons and represented 17.3 percent of the total 
commerce. Sand and gravel accounted for 156,196 tons, or 58.8 
percent, of the internal receipts; petroleum products, 54,164 tons, or 
20.4 percent; and other items included earth, stone, and rubbish used 
for fills, coal and coke, logwood, and chemicals. 



COMMERCE 279 

Of the above amounts, 30,072 tons were received at terminals along 
the Delaware River front and 235,743 tons at terminals on Cooper 
River. The principal commodities received on the Camden water 
front consisted of 12,510 tons of coal and coke, 9,464 tons of sand and 
gravel, 3,272 tons of kryolite, 1,238 tons of fertilizer materials, and 
3,588 tons of miscellaneous commodities. 

Internal Shipments 

Shipments to localities on the Delaware River, except to Pliiladel- 
phia, averaged 49,055 tons and accounted for 3.2 percent of the total 
traffic. With the exception of 603 tons, consisting of skins and hides, 
pUing, and petroleum products, which originated at Cooper River 
terminals, the shipments pertained to the Delaware River. The prin- 
cipal commodities included 20,950 tons of petroleum products, 16,600 
tons of sand and gravel, 2,931 tons of coal and coke, 2,118 tons of 
wood pulp, and 1,755 tons of canned goods. 

Intraport AND Local Tbafpic : 

Intraport and local traffic together averaged 520,028 tons, or 33.8 
percent of the entire commerce of the port. Of this amount 443,367 
tons were local to the port of Camden and 76,661 tons was either 
received from or shipped to Philadelphia. 

Coal accounted for 328,851 tons, or 63.2 percent of the total com- 
bined traffic; petroleum and products, 117,193 tons, or 22.5 percent; 
and other commodities in smaller amounts consisted of cork and 
products, coal tar, chalk, and ashes. 



280 



THE PORT OF CAMDEN, N. J. 



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THE PORT OF CAMDEN, N. J. 



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THE PORT OF CAMDEN, N. J. 



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288 



THE PORT OF CAMDEN, N. J. 



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GENERAL 

Situated on the Delaware River directly opposite Philadelphia, the 
city of Camden, N. J., enjoys many of the harbor facilities of that 
port. The 35-foot Delaware River channel, which has been recom- 
mended and approved to be deepened to 40 feet at mean low water, 
serves its shipping, and the railroad trunk lines serving Philadelphia 
also serve it. The two cities are connected by the Pliiladelphia- 
Camden suspension bridge, numerous vehicular and passenger ferries, 
and car-floatage facilities. The commerce of the port is, therefore, 
closeW related to that of Philadelphia. 

The port has a navigable water front of 14.3 miles, of which 3.95 
miles is on Pettys Island situated wholly within the limits of the 
municipality, 7.35 miles is mainland frontage on the Delaware River, 
and 3 miles are on the banks of the Cooper River. The activities 
along the water front of the city are devoted mainly to shipbuilding 
and ship repair, and other industrial operations. The Camden Marine 
Terminals, operated by the South Jersey Port Commission, are well 
equipped to handle such overseas commerce wliich does not move 
directly to or from the industries located on the water front. The 
marine terminals are comprised of quay wdiarves and a pier, with 
transit sheds, facilities for efficient loading and unloading of cargo, 
storage warehouses, and extensive open storage areas. The port 
commission has wisely acquired a water front area adjacent to the 
marine terminals wliich assures the possibility of future expansion to 
meet the needs of commerce of the future. 

Among the industrial estabhshments situated on Camden's water 
front are the New York Shipbuilding Corporation, one of the largest 
shipyards in the country, the Campbell Soup Co., the Armstrong 
Cork Co., and others. The Central Airport, situated 2 miles from 
the Philadelphia-Camden bridge, is one of the largest on the Atlantic 
coast, and is used by the leading air transport lines. 

The average annual water-borne commerce of Camden was 1,538,278 
short tons during the decade 1927-36. Of tliis total, 8.7 percent was 
in foreign trade, 37.0 percent in coast^vise traffic, and 20.5 percent in 
internal traffic. The remaining 33.8 percent represented intraport 
and local traffic. The commerce of the port was preponderantly 
inbound, the most important commodity in point of volume being 
petroleum and products, wliich accounted for 28.8 percent of the total 
receipts, in foreign, coastwise, and internal traffic. 

289 



290 THE PORT OF CAMDEN, N. J. 

There was considerable annual fluctuation in the volume of foreign 
trade during the decade. The trend in the coastwise shipments was 
upward tliroughout the 10-year period, resulting in an increase of 
917.4 percent in 1936 over 1927, while the coastwise receipts sufi'ered 
a decline in the early part of the decade, which was followed by a 
generally upward trend. The internal traffic fluctuated annually 
both in receipts and shipments throughout the period. 

The close proximity of the larger port of Philadelpliia has, at times 
perhaps, resulted in the overshadowing of the port of Camden, but 
the latter is, in reality, a separate entity. The raw materials which 
are used in the industries of the city are, for the most part, discharged 
at the wharves on its water front, while finished products and general 
cargo is adequately handled at the superb Camden Marine Terminals. 



GLOUCESTER, N. J. 

PORT AND HARBOR CONDITIONS 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

Gloucester, N. J., is located on the east bank of the Delaware River, 
opposite the city of Philadelphia and just below Camden, N. J., from 
which it is separated by Newton Creek. It is included in the customs 
district of Philadelphia and its industrial and shipping activities are 
closely allied with those of Philadelphia. Particulars concerning dis- 
tance from the sea, channels, tides, tidal currents, anchorages, and 
weather conditions which are also applicable to Gloucester, are given 
in the report for Philadelphia. 

FUEL AND SUPPLIES 

Electric current is supplied by the Public Service Electric & Gas 
Co. which serves alternating current 120-240 volts, single-phase, 
3-wire, 60-cycle for lighting, and 240 volts, 3-phase, 60-cycle for 
power. 

Water for vessels is available at the Armstrong Cork Co. pier B at 
a charge of 25 cents per ton. 

Oil and coal for bunkers may be obtained at Philadelphia and other 
points on the Delaware River, information regarding which is given 
in the report for Philadelphia. 

PORT AND HARBOR FACILITIES 

PIERS, WHARVES, AND DOCKS 

There are 12 piers and wharves on the water front of Gloucester, 
N. J. One of these is o\vned by the city of Gloucester and is open 
to the public on equal terms. The depth of water at this pier is 36 
feet at mean low water at the upper side and at the face or outer end, 
while the depths at the lower side are from 6 to feet. The sub- 
stantial depth of water at portions of this pier is due to dredging for 
the Armstrong Cork Co. w^hich maintains 46 feet of water at its pier 
A, immediately above the city pier. Two piers, situated immediately 
below the mouth of Newton Creek, are owned and operated by the 
New York Shipbuilding Corporation in connection with its shipyard, 
the main part of which fronts on the Delaware River above the mouth 

291 



292 THE PORT OF GLOUCESTER, N. J. 

of Newton Creek, in the city of Camden. The United States Gov- 
ernment immigration station is located at the foot of Cumberland 
Street. 

Fire protection along the water front is given by the city fire 
department and private plant protection is provided at most of the 
dock facilities. 

Details of the piers, wharves, and docks at Gloucester, as well as 
a pier near Eagle Point below this city, are shov/n in the following 
table: 



PORT AND HARBOR FACILITIES 



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THE POET OF GLOUCESTER, N. J. 





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PORT AND HARBOR FACILITIES 



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THE PORT OF GLOUCESTER, N. J. 



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PORT AND HARBOR FACILITIES 



297 



FLOATING EQUIPMENT 

Floating equipment of various types is available at Philadelphia, 
Pa., and at Camden, N. J., and is described on pages 116 and 269 of 
this report. 

The Armstrong Cork Co. maintains nine barges for the transporta- 
tion of cork to and from its piers at the foot of Mercer Street. The 
open decked, non-self propelled barges range in length from 100 to 120 
feet, with beams of 28 to 32 feet and loaded drafts of 8 and 9 feet. Their 
capacities range from 250 to 600 tons. 



List of piers, wharves, and docks 




PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Pier No. 1, U. S. En^jineers 

Pier No. 2, U. S. Engineers 

Pier No. 3, U. S. Navy 

City of Philadelphia bulkhead 

Penrose Pier, Petrol Corporation 

Mingo Creek Station wharf 

Standard Oil Co. steamer pier No. 1 

Standard Oil Co. barge pier No. 2 

Atlantic Refining Co. wharf 

Richfield Oil Corporation pier 

Socony- Vacuum Oil Co. wharf 

United States Gypsum Co. wharf 

Warner Co. bulkhead. _ 

George W. Smith's bulkhead 

Garbage reduction plant bulkhead 

George W. Smith's wharf 

Petrol Corporation wharf 

The Water Oil Co. wharf 

Garbage wharf 

Ash wharf 

Reading Co. wharf 

Sun Oil Co. bulkhead 

Standard Ice Co. bulkhead 

Warner Co. Christian Street bulkhead 

Philadelphia Electric Co. bulkhead 

U. S. Quartermaster Corps bulkhead. 

Pure Oil Co. wharf 

American Oil Co. wharf 

DuPont Schuylkill River wharf 

Stockyards wharf__ 

The Barrett Co. bulkhead 

Shell Union Oil wharf 

Schuylkill River oi! terminal 

Atlantic Refining Co. wharf 

Philadelphia Gas Works wharf. 

Atlantic Refining Co. Atlantic wharf 

Haenn's wharf 

Gulf Oi! Corporation dock No. 2 

Gulf Oil Corporation dock No. 1.. 

Pier No. 3, Girard Point. 

Pier No. 2, Girard Point 

Pier No. 1. Girard Point 

Philadelphia Navy Yard 

Greenwich coal pier 

Greenwich bulkhead 

South Philadelpliia Teim.inal ear-float bridge 

Picr No. ]0S, south wharves 

Pier No. 107, south wharves 

Pier No. 106, south wharves 

Pennsylvania car-ferry terminal 

Pier No. 105, south wharves 

Pier No. 104, south whar^'es 

Pier No; 10.3, south wharves 

Pier No. 100, south wharves 

Pier No. 9S. south wharves 

Pier No. 96, south wharves 



26 
26 
26 
27 
27 
27 
28 
28 
28 
29 
29 
29 
30 
30 
30 
31 
31 
31 
32 
32 
32 
33 
33 
33 
34 
34 
34 
35 
35 
35 
36 
36 
36 
37 
37 
37 
38 
38 
38 
39 
39 
39 
40 
40 
40 
41 
41 
41 
42 
42 
42 
43 
43 
43 
44 
44 



298 



List of piers, wharves, and docks — Continued 



Name 



Pier No. 94, south wharves 

Pier No. 93, south wharves 

Pier No. 92, south wharves 

Pier No. 84, south wharves --. 

Pier No. 82, south wharves 

Pier No. 80, south wharves 

Pier No. 78, south wharves... 

Pier No. 72).2, south wharves 

Pier No. 72, south wharves 

Pier No. 70, south wharves 

Pier No. 68, south wharves 

Pier No. 67, south wharves 

Pier No. 64, south wharves 

Pier No. 63, south wharves 

B. & O. R. R. car-float bridge 

Pier No. 62, south wharves 

Pier No. 61, south wharves 

Pier No. 60, south wharves.. 

Pier No. 57, south wharves 

Pier No. 56, south wharves 

Pier No. 55, south wharves 

Pier No. 53, south wharves 

Pier No. 48, south wharves 

Pier No. 46, south wharves 

Pier No. 40, south wharves 

Pier No. 38, south wharves 

Pier No. 36, south wharves 

Pier No. 35, south wharves 

Pier No. 34, south wharves 

Pier No. 30, south wharves 

Pier No. 28, south wharves... 

South St. ferry 

Pier No. 24. south wharves 

Pier No. 27, south wharves 

Piers Nos. 18 and 20, south wharves 

Pier No. 16, south wharves 

Pier No. 14, south wharves 

Piers Nos. 10 and 11, south wharves 

Pier No. 9, south wharves 

Pier No. 8, south wharves 

Chestnut St. ferries... 

Pier No. 4, south wharves 

Pier No. 3, south wharves 

Market St. ferries 

Pier No. 3, north wharves 

Pier No. 5, north wharves 

Pier No. 9, north wharves.. 

Pier No. 11, north wharves 

Pier No. 12, north wharves 

Pier No. 13, north wharves 

Pier No. 15, north wharves 

Pier No. 17, north wharves 

Pier No. 19, north wharves. 

Pier No. 24, north wharves 

Pier No. 25, north wharves 

Pier No. 27, north wharves 

Pier No. 31, north wharves 

Pior No. 32, north wharves 

Piers Nos. 33 and 34, north wharves 

Pier No. 35. north wharves.. 

Pier No. 35y2, north wharves 

Pier No. 36, north wharves 

Piers Nos. 37 and 38. north wharves 

Pier No. 39, north wharves 

Baltimore & Ohio R. R. carfloat bridsje. 

Pier No. 40, north wharves... 

Pier No. 41, north wharves 

Pier No. 43, north wharves 

Pier No. 44, north wharves.. 

Pier No. 45, north wharves 

Pier No. 46, north wharves 

Pier No. 48, north wharves 

Piers Nos. 49 and 50, north wharves 

Pier No. 51, north wharves 

Pior No. 52, north wh;irves .- 

Pier No. 53, north wharves 

Pier No. 54, north wharves 

Pier No. 55, north wharves 



299 



List of piers, wharves, and docks — Continued 



Name 



Pier No. 56, north wharves. 

Pier No. 57, north wharves 

Pier No. 61, north wharves — 

Pier No. 62. north wharves 

Pier No. 65, north wharves 

Pier No. 66, north wharves 

Pier No. 67, north wharves 

Pier No. 69, north wharves 

Pier No. 70, north wharves 

Pier No. 71, north wharves 

Pier No. 72, north wharves 

Pier No. 75, north wharves 

Pier No. 76, north wharves 

Pier No. 77, north wharves -, 

Pier No. 80, north wharves. — 

Pier No. 86, north wharves , 

Pier No. 20, Port Richmond 

Pier No. 18, Port Rirhmond 

Pier No. 16, Port Richmond , 

Pier No. 14, Port Richmond 

Pier No. 13, Port Richmond 

Pier No. 12, Port Richmond 

Pier No. 11, Port Richmond.. 

Pier No. 10, Port Richmond 

Pier No. 9, Port Richmond... 

Pier No. 8, Port Richmond 

Pier No. 7, Port Richmond 

Pier No. 6, Port Richmond 

Pier No. 5, Port Richmond 

Pier No. 4, Port Richmond 

Pier No. 3, Port Rlchm.ond.. 

Pier No. 2, Port Richmond... 

Pier No 1, Port Richmond 

Pier A, Port Richmond 

Pier B, Port Richmond 

Pier C, Port Richmond 

Pier D, Port Richmond 

Pier E, Port Richmond 

Pier Q, Port Richmond 

Pier H, Port Richmond 

Pier J. Port Richmond 

Pier No. 127, north wharves 

Pier No. 179, north wharves 

Pier No. 181, north wharves 

Tioea St. pier 

Gas works pier 

Pier No. 217, north wharves. 

Pier No. 225, north wharves 

Liberty Corroration wharf 

Philadelphia Coke Co. pier 

Warner Co. wharf 

Bridge St. pier 

Philadelphia Cordage Works pier. 
Philadelphia Electric Co. wharf... 

Pumping station pier 

Di.sston's bulkhead.. 

Warner Co. bulkhead 

House of Correction wharf 



CAMDEN, N. 3. 



Cities Service Oil Co. barrel dock. 
Cities Service Oil Co. bulkhead.. 
Philadelphia Electric Co. wharf... 

Tucker's Yard pier 

Noecker Shipbuilding Co. pier 

Texas Co. pier 

General Chemical Co. wharf 

Standard Oil Co. wharf 

Public Service Co. wharf 

Taylor White wharf 

Camden Lime Co. wharf (upper). 

Mechling Bros., wharf 

Municipal wharf 

Camden Lime Co. wharf (lower). 

Sun Oil Co. wharf.. 

Worsted Co. wharf 

General Contracting Co. wharf... 



300 



List of piers, wharves, and docks — Continued 




219 
220 
221 
222 
223 
224 
225 
226 
227 
228 
229 
230 
231 
232 
233 
234 
235 
236 
237 
238 
239 
240 
241 
242 
243 
244 
245 
246 
247 
248 
249 
250 
251 
252 
253 
254 
255 
256 
257 
258 
259 
260 
261 
262 
263 
264 
265 
266 
267 
268 
269 
270 
271 



272 
273 
274 
275 
276 
277 
278 
279 
280 
281 
282 
283 
284 



Kensington Shipyard, upper pier 

Kensington Shipyard, center pier 

Kensington Shipyard, lower pier 

Peerless Kid Co. wharf 

Mathis Pier No. 4 

IVfathis Pier No. 3 

Mathis Pier No. 2 

Mathis Pier No. 1... 

Quigley Shipyard pier 

Quipley Shipyard pier _. 

Quiglpy Shipyard pier 

Qiiigley Shipyard pier 

Quigley Shipyard pier 

Quigley Shipyard pier 

Vine St. yard bulkhead 

do.- 

Vaughan'5 wharf 

Stockham pier 

Elm St. wharf. 

Bridge pier 

Baird pier. 

Reading Co. wharf 

Reading Co. car-float bridge 

Campbell Soup Co. pier 

Campbell Soup Co. bulkhead 

Cooper St. wharf 

Victor wharf 

Pennsylvania R. R. bulkhead 

Pennsylvania R. R. ferries 

Pennsylvania R. R. bulkhead 

Repair shop pier 

Pennsylvania R. R. storage yard bulkhead 

Pennsylvania R. R. car-float bridge 

Pennsylvania R. R. storage yard bulkhead 

Beckett St. terminal 

American Dredging Co. pier 

American Dredging Co. main pier 

Spruce St. municipal pier 

Camden coke plant bulkhead 

Camden coke plant pier 

Cole's wharf 

Reading Co. ferry 

Reading Co. bulkhead 

South wark pier 

Armstrong Cork Co. pier 

MacAudrews & Forbes Co. pier 

Pennsylvania-Reading Seashore Line car-float bridges 

Pennsylvania-Reading Seashore Line pier 

New York Shipbuilding Corporation pier No. 1 

New York Shipbuilding Corporation pier No. 2 

New York Shipbuilding Corporation pier No. 3. 

New York Sliipbuilding Corporation pier No. 4 

New York Shipbuilding Corporation pier No. 5 

New York Shipbuilding Corporation pier No. 6 

GLOUCESTER, N. J. 

New York Shipbuilding Corporation pier No. 7 

New York Shipbuilding Corporation pier No. 8 

Welsbach wharf 

Armstrong Cork Co. pier A 

Armstrong Cork Co. pier B._. 

City pier 

Immigration pier 

Dickensheets pier 

Lang Mills pier 

American Radiator Co. bulkhead 

Pusey & Jones bulkhead 

Pusey & Jones pier 

Sanitarium wharf 



WAR DELPARTMCHT 




CORPS OF ENGINEERS. U.SARla 





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COAL HANDLING PLANTS 


13 


TERMINALS Of INLAND i:a 


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BUNKER OIL 




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LUMBER HANDLtNG 


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STORAGE WAREHOUSES 




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MOLASSES HANDLING 




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DRY DOCKS 


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* 


MARINE RAILWAYS 


D 


SHIPBUILDING PLANTS 




N 


MARINE REPAIR PLANTS 


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SAND GRAVEL STONE 




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COLO STORAGE WAREHOtrst 




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IRON AND STEEL 




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CHEMICAL PLANTS 



PART II 



PREPARED BY 
UNITED STATES MARITIME COMMISSION 



301 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

PORT CUSTOMS AND REGULATIONS 

FEDERAL SERVICES AND REGULATIONS 

A digest of the prmcipal regulations of tlie Public Health, Customs, 
and Immigration Services, together with a compendium of the services 
and charges of those agencies applicable to seagoing vessels, their 
freight and passengers, and a list of Federal documents required of 
such vessels are contained in Miscellaneous Series No, 1, Port and 
Terminal Charges at United States Ports. Copies of this publication 
may be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, Govern- 
ment Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 

Treasury Department — Customs Service 

The Customs Service is charged with inspection of import cargo; 
determination of duties to be imposed on import commodities in con- 
formity with tariff laws of the United States; supervision over out- 
bound merchandise on wliich a drawback is payable, or merchandise 
withdrawn from bonded warehouses for exportation, or landed for 
transshipment, and supervision over the entry and clearance of vessels. 

Vessels arriving at the port of Philadelphia are granted entiy at 
the customliouse located at Second and Chestnut Streets between the 
hours of 9 a. m. and 4:30 p. m. During the summer months the 
customhouse opens and closes 1 hour earlier. Working hours foi 
inspectors are generally between 8 a. m. and 5 p. m., with 1 hour al- 
lowed for lunch. A special permit must be obtamed from the Collector 
of Customs when inspectors are required for overtime w^ork. 

There is no restriction on vessels entering the harbor at any time 
provided that proper notice of arrival is transmitted to the customs 
office and other officials in conformity with regulations governing the 
arrival and entry of vessels. Clearance of vessels may be effected by 
agents or masters during the above hours, or by special arrangement 
with customs officials. 

Public Health Service 

The Pubhc Health Service is charged with the inspection of all 
vessels, passengers, and crews, arriving from foreign ports except those 
operating exclusively between: Canadian ports and ports in continental 
United States and Alaska; Cuba, Bahama Islands, and Florida ports 

303 



304 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

south of 28° north latitude; and between the west coast of Lower 
CaUfornia and the State of CaHfornia south of 33° north latitude. 

However, exempted vessels may be subjected to inspection to de- 
termine rat infestation, and to regular quarantine inspection during 
the prevalence of quarantinable diseases at any foreign port of 
departure. 

All inbound vessels subject to quarantine inspection destined to 
points above Marcus Hook, Pa., are required to stop at the boarding 
station at Marcus Hook for inspection and may not proceed until 
given pratique. Vessels will be inspected at any time between sunrise 
and sunset. Between sunset and lip. m. vessels will be inspected 
only in case of emergency. No vessels will be inspected between 11 
p. m. and sunrise. Ample deep-water anchorage space is available 
opposite the station for all vessels awaiting inspection. 

There are two quarantine stations located on the Delaware River, 
one at Marcus Hook, Pa., and the other at Reedy Island. The Reedy 
Island station is maintained only as reserve station for quarantinable 
diseases and vessels will not be inspected at that point. Marcus 
Hook is the boarding station and is also equipped to handle detention 
cases. 

The Public Health Service maintains medical rehef stations at 
Beebe Hospital, Lewes, Del., and at 225 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, 
Pa., for the care and treatment of merchant seamen and beneficiaries 
of the various Government services. Hospital and out-patient service 
is available at both points. 

Vessels awaiting orders at the Delaware Breakwater will not be 
boarded by the quarantine officer until they become subject to cus- 
toms regulations and are required to make entry. Vessels calling at 
Wilmington, Del., and other points below Marcus Hook will be in- 
spected at their docks by an officer detailed from the Marcus Hook 
station. Notice of arrival and berth assignment must be furnished 
the quarantine officer prior to or immediately upon docking. 

Department of Labor — Immigration Service 

The United States Immigration Service of the Department of 
Labor is charged with inspecting aliens and regulating their entry into 
the United States. 

The immigration station for the Delaware district is located at 
Gloucester, N. J., directly opposite Philadelphia. An office is also 
maintained at the customhouse. Second and Chestnut Streets, 
Philadelphia. 

Inspectors board passenger vessels at the Delaware Breakwater and 
freighters about 20 miles below the immigration station. 



PORT CUSTOMS AND REGULATIONS 305 

United States Army — Engineer Corps 

Under the direction of the Secretary of War and the Chief of 
Engineers, United States Army, the Division Engineer, North Atlantic 
Division, 1400 Maritime Exchange Building, 80 Broad Street, New 
York City, is charged with the improvement of rivers and harbors in 
the Philadelphia, Pa., Binghamton, and New York, N. Y,, Boston, 
Mass., and Puerto liico engineer districts. The District Engineer, 
United States Engineer Office, 900 Customhouse, Second and Chestnut 
Streets, Philadelphia, Pa., is in direct charge of the work at the ports 
of Philadelphia, Pa., Camden, and Gloucester, N. J. 

Department of Commerce — Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation 

The Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation maintains offices 
in the Customs Building. Tliis bureau is responsible for the inspec- 
tion of vessels, their hulls and machinery, to determine their seawortlii- 
ness and safety for passengers, crew, and cargo. Through a shipping 
commissioner it administers Federal laws designed to protect American 
seamen and to maintain discipline on shipboard. Shipping articles 
are signed before the sliipping commissioner who is empowered to 
protect the rights of seamen and to arbitrate disputes which might 
arise during the course of a voyage. 

LOCAL EULES AND REGULATIONS 

The following are excerpts from the laws of Pennsylvania and from 
rules and regulations of the Navigation Commission for the Delaware 
River and its navigable tributaries. They are enforced by the 
Navigation Commission. 

Display of signals for reporting station. — Vessels desirous of being reported when 
pas.sing in or out of the capes of the Delaware must display their signals by day or 
night in a position where they can be seen from the reporting station of the 
Philadelphia Maritime Exchange on the inner Delaware Breakwater, say about 
one-half mile inside Overfalls Light Vessel. 

Speed of vessels. — Vessels shall not be worked or navigated in the Delaware 
River between the Point House wharf and pier G, Port Richmond, at a greater 
rate of speed than 8 nautical miles an hour, and such vessels shall navigate as far 
as is practicable from the pierhead line. 

Vessels shall not be worked or navigated in the Delaware River in front of the 
navy yard, between gas and bell buoy No. 44 off mouth of Schuylkill River and 
red nun buoy No. 46, off Eagle Point, at a greater rate of speed than 12 nautical 
miles an hour. 

Vessels passing craft anchored in the stream between Marcus Hook and Bristol, 
loading, discharging, or bunkering, shall not navigate at a greater rate of speed 
than 8 nautical miles an hour. 

Vessels shall not be worked or navigated in the Delaware River off Chester or 
Marcus Hook at a greater rate of speed than 12 nautical miles an hour. 

When vessels are moored to the ends of piers at Marcus Hook, lying parallel with 
the river, passing vessels shall not exceed a speed of 8 nautical miles an hour. 



306 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Penalty. — Ever}' master, officer, or other person or persons having charge of 
any vessel navigating the Delaware River and its navigable tributaries, who shall 
violate any rule regulating the speed of vessels, made and promulgated by the 
commission, shall pay a sum not exceeding $50 for the first offense and not less than 
$75, nor more than $100, for each subsequent offense. 

Re-porting. — It is the duty of the master of every vessel, within 36 hours next 
after arrival at the port of Philadelphia, to report to the Navigation Commission 
for the Delaware River the name of such vessel, her draught of water, and where 
any vessel shall be outward bound, her name and draught at that time. If a 
master of any vessel shall fail to make such report he shall forfeit and pay the sura 
of $10. — xAcl of Assembly, Slate of Pennsylvania, approved June 8, 1907. 

Anchoring and mooring.— It is unlawful for any vessel to anchor on the range 
line of any range lights established by the United States Lighthouse Board in 
Pennsylvania; and the master of any vessel so anchoring shall be deemed guilty 
of a misdemeanor and upon conviction thereof before any court of competent 
jurisdiction shall be punished bj'^ a fine not exceeding $50. — Ad of Assembly, State 
of Pennsylvania, approved May IS, 1879. 

All vessels at anchor in the port of Philadelphia shall keep their regulation riding 
fights exhibited during the night. 

Vessels anchoring in the stream and expecting to remain more than 5 running 
days will be required to report to the Navigation Commission for anchorage 
berth and will have to moor if directed. 

If the Navigation Commission directs the removal of any vessel which lies in 
the harbor of the port of Philadelphia, and the vessel is not promptly moved as 
directed, they may cause the vessel to be moved at the expense of the master or 
owners thereof; and if said master or owners neglect or refuse on demand to pay 
such an expense, the Navigation Commission may recover the amount in an action 
of contract. 

Should any of the prescribed anchorages in the port of Philadelphia become 
congested, vessels may be required to moor, and, if necessary, to make fast along- 
side of other vessels already anchored. 

Vessels hauled into any wharf or dock, or alongside of other vessels lying at any 
wharf or dock, must be made fast to the shore with proper lines with sufficient 
fenders between them and the inside vessels, and shall, when so ordered by the 
Navigation Commission; have their davits rigged in and anchors either at cockbill 
or at the hawsepipe, as most convenient. 

When lines of vessels extend across a dock so as to obstruct passing vessels, the 
captain or person in charge shall, when so ordered by the Navigation Commission, 
cause the lines to be slackened or cast off. Such lines shall be marked at night by 
a red light in the center thereof. 

Vessels lying at the ends of piers, so as to obstruct the passage to the adjoining 
docks, must move or slack their lines when necessar\- to accommodate other 
vessels entering or leaving the docks. 

Vessels lying alongside of a wharf, and not taking in or discharging cargo, must 
make way for and permit other vessels that want to load or unload cargo to come 
inside next to wharf. 

No dock shall be unnecessarily obstructed by a vessel so as to prevent the loading 
or unloading of cargo l)y another vessel. 

Vessels that increase their width by using ballast logs, pontoons, or other de- 
vices of like nature, must move to accommmodate other vessels, when so ordered 
by the Navigation Commission and shall pay the expense of moving such other 
vessels that have to be moved to allow the vessel with the above appliances to 
enter or leave dock. 



PORT CUSTOMS AND REGULATIONS 307 

Lights. — A vessel under 150 feet register length, when at anchor between sunset 
and sunrise, shall carry forward, where it can best be seen, but at a height not 
exceeding 20 feet above the hull, a white light in a lantern constructed so as to 
show a clear, uniform, and unbroken light, visible all around the horizon, at a 
distance of at least 1 mile. 

A vessel of 150 feet or upward in register length, when at anchor between sunset 
and sunrise, shall carry in the forward part of the vessel, at a height of not less than 
20 and not exceeding 40 feet above the hull, one such light, and at or near the 
stern of the vessel, and at such a height that it shall not be less than 15 feet lower 
than the forward light, another such light. 

Vessels of more than 300 gross tons propelled by machinery, when moored or 
anchored in a fairwaj' or channel where traffic is liable to congestion or confusion, 
shall display between sunrise and sunset on the forward part of the vessel where it 
can best be observed from other vessels one black ball or shape not less than 2 feet 
in diameter. 

Deposit of refuse in river. — Vessels discharging ballast or anj' loose material 
must have tarpaulins from the ship's rail to the wharf or lighter, as the case may 
be, to prevent such material finding its way into the river or dock. 

If any person or persons shall cast or place or leave in position where the same 
may be washed or drifted into the tideway of the river Delaware, or into the river 
Schuylkill from the lower falls thereof to its junction with the river Delaware, any 
ballast, cinders, ashes, dirt, refuse, or any heavy articles whatever, he or they so 
offending, for every such offense, shall forfeit and pay a sum not exceeding $100, to 
be sued for and recovered, with costs of suit, by the Commission, for the use of the 
Commonwealth, before any magistrate of the city of Philadelphia, or justice of 
the peace of the proper county. — Act of Assembly, State of Pennsylvania, approved 
June 8, 1907. 

Obstruction of channels. — Vessels lying in berths in the port of Philadelphia, in 
positions where they extend beyond the line of the pier, do so at their own risk, 
and may be held responsible for any damage that may occur by reason of their 
encroachment on the river. Such vessels shall display by night a white light on 
the extreme outshore end or side. 

It shall be the duty of the president of the commission, immediately upon 
information of the sinking of any canal boat, barge, or other vessel, in the channel 
way of the tidewaters of the river Delaware or its navigable tributaries, or in any 
of the docks thereof, to give notice to the owner, master, or other agent having 
charge thereof, to raise and remove such obstruction within 10 days after the date 
of said notice, under a penalty of $100, and, in case of refusal or neglect of the 
parties interested, as aforesaid, to raise and remove such obstruction within the 
time specified in said notice, it shall be the further duty of said president of the 
commission to have it raised and removed, at the expense of the owner, master, or 
agent. — Act of Assembly, State of Pennyslvania, approved June 8, 1907. 

Inflammables.- — All vessels loaded with petroleum, benzine, benzol, gasoline, or 
naphtha made fast to any wharf in the port of Philadelphia, and vessels not so 
loaded, I3 ing vdthin 150 feet of such vessels so loaded and made fast to or lying 
within that distance of a wharf where petroleum is kept or stored are not allowed 
to have aboard any fire or light, lighted cigar, or pipe of any kind whatsoever, 
unless by the written permission duly signed by the owner, lessee, or superin- 
tendent of the wharf at which the vessel is lying, setting forth particularly the 
lights and fires that may be used and the manner of using them. 

All vessels carrying bulk cargo of inflammable or combustible liquids having a 
flash point below 150° Fahrenheit, must conspicuously display a red flag or such 



308 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

other signals as may be lawfully prescribed, when within waters under the juris- 
diction of this board. 

Explosiveg. — Vessels having on board a greater quantity than five kegs of gun- 
powder or guncotton will not be permitted to anchor north of the pier next above 
the Point House on the river Delaware. Locations for anchorage will be assigned 
upon application to the Board of Commissioners of Navigation. 

Vessels carrying explosives shall be at all times in charge of competent persons 
and must displaj' by day a red flag of at least 16 square feet at the masthead, or at 
least 10 feet above the upper deck, if the vessel has no mast; at night a red hght 
will be displayed in the same positions specified for the red flag. No smoking will 
be permitted on or near such vessels and no person under the influence of liquor 
wiU be allowed on board any vessel, barge, or scow carrying explosives, nor will 
they be allowed to approach such vessels. 

Vessels carrying explosives shall not carry inflammable liquids, inflammable 
solids, oxidizing materials, mineral acids, as defined in Federal regulations for the 
transportation of explosives by rail, or articles liable to spontaneous ignition, or 
to give off^ inflammable gases, unless the explosives be stored in separate rooms or 
otherwise so separated as to effectually prevent danger to the explosive from any 
of these articles or from the vapor thereof. Where blasting caps, detonating 
fuses, and fulminate of mercury in bulk are loaded on the same vessel with high 
explosives, they must be in a different compartment, the distance in a straight line 
from the compartment containing them to the explosives to be not less than 25 
feet. 

No unnecessary fires shall be permitted on vessels carrying explosives, and those 
fires which are deemed necessary must be properly safeguarded and must be left 
in constant charge of some one individual during the entire period that they are 
burning. No artificial light shall be permitted in the holds or compartments of 
any vessel which contains explosives except electric flashlights or electric lanterns 
or regular electric installation of the vessel. Crews must not have or carry 
matches, firearms, or cartridges on their persons. 

No explosive will be allowed to be placed aboard a vessel until the rest of the 
cargo has been placed aboard the vessel and the vessel trimmed. All the necessary 
work in construction of floors, partitions, etc., or for the removal of any other 
combustibles from that part of the hold in which the explosives are to be stored, 
shall be completed before loading of the explosives is commenced. All decks, 
gangways and holds over which explosives must be passed in loading must be 
freed from all loose metal or tools and carefully swept before loading is com- 
menced and after loading has ceased. 

All explosives must be handled carefully. No metal tools shall be used in 
loading, unloading, or handling explosives. Men engaged in loading, unloading, 
or handling explosives must not have or carry on their persons metal tools or bale 
hooks, matches, firearms, or cartridges, and they must not wear boots or shoes 
with iron nails or shod or strengthened with iron, unless such boots or shoes are 
covered with leather, felt, or some other such material. Packages of explosives 
must not be thrown, dropped, rolled, dragged, or slid over each other or over the 
decks. Dynamite boxes should be stowed topside up. Powder kegs should be 
loaded with seams up. 

In transferring high explosives in bulk, blasting caps, detonating fuses, and 
fulminate of mercury from one vessel to another they must be handled by hand 
or regulation chute and mattress. If difference in elevation between vessels or 
condition of weather renders it impossible to transfer or load by hand or chute, 
mechanical hoists and a special crate or basket may be used. Explosives trans- 
ferred in this manner must not be handled roughly. They must be hoisted 
and lowered carefully and only deposited or lowered on a mattress. 



PORT CUSTOMS AND REGULATIONS 309 

When an inclined chute is employed, such chute shall be constructed of 1-inch 
planed boards with side guards 4 inches high, extending 3 inches above top face 
of bottom of chute and throughout its length fastened with brass screws. D- 
shaped strips or runners not more than 6 inches apart and running lengthwise of 
the chute must be fastened to the upper surface of the bottom part by means of 
glue and wooden pegs extending through the bottom part and runners. Chutes 
must be occasionally wiped down with waste moistened with machine oil, when 
dynamite packages are being handled. A stuffed mattress 4 feet wide and 6 feet 
long and not less than 4 inches thick, or a heavy jute or hemp mat of like dimen- 
sions must be placed under the discharging end of the chute. The incline of the 
chute should be such that the velocity of the packages sliding will not be great 
enough to cause violent shock when coming in contact with other packages or 
when reaching bottom of slide, or men must be stationed alongside the chutes to 
retard the velocity of the packages and prevent violent shocks when packages 
come in contact with each other or reach bottom of chute. 

Broken or seriously damaged packages of explosives may be recoopered when 
it is practicable and not dangerous. A broken box of dynamite that cannot be 
recoopered should be reinforced by stout wrapping paper and twine, placed in 
another strong box and surrounded by dry, fine sawdust, or dry and clean cotton 
waste, or elastic wads made from dry newspaper. A ruptured can or keg should 
be inclosed in a grain bag of good quality and boxed or crated. Injured packages 
thus protected and properly marked may be forwarded. 

Packages too seriously damaged to be recoopered should not be forwarded, but 
set aside and the shipper notified to make disposition of them. In removing 
broken cases or kegs of explosives from vessels, care must be taken to remove 
any particles of loose explosives. 

Miscellaneous. — AU sea-going vessels at anchor, or when discharging, loading, 
laying up, or being repaired at wharf in the port of Philadelphia, are required to 
have and maintain a safe and convenient ladder, gangplank or side steps for the 
use of persons having business on board such vessels. 

Vessels anchored in the harbor of the port of Philadelphia requiring the assistance 
of the police or fireboats shall display their national flag, union down. 

The signal for the Navigation Commission's tender shall be the international 
code letter N, set in the rigging or hoisted in a conspicuous place, or three short 
blasts and one long blast of steam whistle, to be continued until answered. 

All steamships fitted with twin screws, wh'le occupying berths in the port of 
Philadelphia, shall either display continuously on each quarter a sign, which shall 
be illuminated at night, marked "Danger, keep off, this vessel has twin screws," or 
float a spar boom around the stern which shall entirely enclose the space occupied 
by the propellers. 

Failure to abide by regulations. — If any person or persons shall refuse or neglect 
to comply with the directions of the president of the Navigation Commission 
in matters within the jurisdiction of his oflSce, or shall knowingly fail to comply 
wath the rules and regulations by the commission duly made, promulgated and 
established as aforesaid, or if any person or persons whosoever shall obstruct or 
prevent the said president of the commission in the execution of his duties, such 
person or persons shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof 
shall be sentenced to pay for each and every offense a fine not exceeding $500. 

TERMINAL RULES AND PRACTICES 

The Department of Wharves, Docks, and Ferries of the city of 
Philadelpliia does not operate any of the terminals under its control. 
Most of the city-owned terminals are leased to and operated by 

78920—39 21 



310 THE POET OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

steamship lines. Unleased municipal terminals are open to all water 
carriers upon payment of dockage and wharfage charges. The de- 
partment maintains a wharfinger at such piers to collect charges 
due it. The user is responsible for the performance of work in 
connection with the movement of cargo, subject to certain conditions 
promulgated by the director for the governing of such piers, as follows: 

1. All parties accepting a reservation from the Department of Wharves, Docks» 
and Ferries for terminal privileges at unleased municipal wharves, for the inter- 
change of freight between the wharves and vessels, thereby contract to pay all 
the terminal charges, and to comply with and to enforce the rules and regulations 
of the Department. 

2. All persons desiring berthage and wharfage privileges at the wharves shall, 
in advance of, but not more than 5 days before, the date of docking of a vessel, 
make application therefor, in writing, specifying the date of docking, the date 
of undocking, and the nature and quantity of cargoes to be handled. 

3. The department is not responsible for loss or damage to vessels using the 
wharves, or to merchandise, freight, or any other property discharged on or loaded 
upon wharves, or stored thereon, by fire, water leakage, action of the elements, 
theft, or any other cause. 

Watchmen shall be furnished at all times while the wharf is in service, without 
expense to the department. 

4. No explosives of any kind shall be discharged on or loaded upon wharves 
or vessels moored to wharves. 

5. Upon demand, the owner, agent, or person in command of any vessels 
berthed at a wharf shall furnish to the Department of Wharves, Docks, and 
Ferries a copy of the manifest, or bills of lading, of cargo received or discharged 
at a wharf. 

6. Freight shall not be stacked or piled on the wharves in any manner that would 
produce a uniform load, for the area covered, in excess of the "permissible loading" 
posted on the wharves. Single articles of freight, pieces of machinery, or any 
other concentrated loads that would produce for the area occupied a greater 
intensity than the limits of the "permissible loading" shall not be brought on to 
the wharves. 

7. Any damage to the wharf terminal or its equipment, by vessels, railroad 
cars, teams, trucks, or any other apparatus, or by the discharging, receiving, or 
delivering of freight and/or passengers from or to vessels, railroad cars, teams, 
trucks, or any other apparatus, shall be promptly repaired to the satisfaction 
of and without expense to the Department of Wharves, Docks, and Ferries. 

8. All dirt, rubbish, refuse, other materials, etc., shall be promptly removed 
from the wharf terminal, which shall be kept clean and sanitary at all times to 
the satisfaction of the Department of Wharves, Docks, and Ferries. 

PORT ADMINISTRATION 

The port of Philadelphia embraces the navigable waters of the 
Delaware and Schuylkill Kivers within and bordering on the munici- 
pality of the city of Pliiladelphia. The city limits extend from a 
point immediately south of Fort Mifflin, below the mouth of the 
Schuylkill Kiver, to the mouth of Poquessing Creek, immediately 
north of Torresdale. Included within the city limits is the entire 
navigable section of the Schuylkill River. 



PORT CUSTOMS AND REGULATIONS 311 

Jurisdiction over the waters and water-front lands of the port is 
vested in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the city of 
Philadelphia. 

The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania through the Navigation Com- 
mission for the Delaware River and its navigable tributaries exercises 
jurisdiction over the waters and water-front lands bordering upon the 
Delaware River and its navigable tributaries within and bordering 
upon the State, except those areas which are within the boundaries 
of cities of the first class, and the licensing and regulation of pilots 
for the Delaware River and Bay. 

In cities of the first class the jurisdiction of this Commission is limited 
to the regulation of vessels at anchor or lying at the piers, wharves, 
or bulkheads, and the movement, anchorage, and actions of vessels 
or their masters in the waters of the port. 

Cities of the first class, of which Philadelphia is the sole example, 
were specifically exempted from control by the Navigation Com- 
mission by a special act of the legislatiu-e which authorized those cities 
to exercise jurisdiction over water-front activities of a private or 
public nature within their limits through a branch of the municipal 
government, the Department of Wharves, Docks, and Ferries. 

Both of these governing and administrative bodies were created by 
acts of the legislature in Jime 1907 to supersede the Board of Port 
Wardens which had existed since 1766 and which operated under 
antiquated and obsolete laws. The Board of Port Wardens acted 
primarily as a regulatory and administrative body and had no legal 
power to initiate unprovements. It was maintained entirely by 
funds collected from wharf owners and vessels until 1870 when by 
ordinance of the city Council of Philadelphia it became a department 
of the city, being maintained by appropriations from the municipal 
treasury. 

Department of Wharves, Docks and Ferries 

Organization. — The Department of Wharves, Docks and Ferries is 
administered by a director appointed by the mayor by and with the 
advice and consent of the council. He holds office only during the 
term for which the mayor appointing him was elected and until his 
successor is appointed and qualified. An assistant director appointed 
by the director is vested with power to perform all the duties of the 
director in the latter's absence or incapacity. The director also 
appoints such other officers and employees as may be provided for 
by ordinance. With the exception of the administrative officers and 
special appointees all employees of the department are under the city 
civil service, and retain then* positions regardless of change of admin- 
istration. 

The several divisions of the department are under the supervision 
of division heads who are responsible to the director through the chief 



312 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

engineer, who exercises general supervision over all activities of the 
department and is directly responsible to the director. The division 
of iceboats and dredges under the supervision of a superintendent is 
charged with maintenance and operation of all iceboats and dredges 
owned by the department, and the performance of all dredging 
authorized by the director. 

Working directly under the chief engineer is the superintendent of 
docks who has charge of maintenance and operation of city-owned 
wharves and piers. Each unleased pier operated by the department 
is supervised by a wharfinger who is responsible for the collection of 
all charges. 

An inspector's office working under the chief engineer and in co- 
operation with the superintendent of docks is charged with checking 
public and private docks, piers, wharves, and other harbor structures 
and reporting on their physical condition. It is also charged with 
inspecting new construction and repairs or additions for which permits 
or licenses have been granted, and reporting any other matters that 
might imperil or impede the free movement of commerce, or in viola- 
tion of the rides and regulations promulgated by the director. 

A survey corps under the direct supervision of a hydrographic 
surveyor is responsible for keeping an accurate record of the depths 
of water available in the channels and at the various piers, wharves, 
and docks. 

Funds necessary for the maintenance and operation of the depart- 
ment must be appropriated annually by the city council, as must also 
such additional funds as may be necessary to carry out the purposes 
of the law. 

POWERS AND DUTIES 

Enforcement of laws. — The director is empowered to take any action necessary 
to enforce laws of the Commonwealth, city ordinances, and rules or regulations 
promulgated by the department pertaining to wharves, piers, bulkheads, docks, 
slips, and basins within his purview. 

Property control. — He is also vested with powers to control and supervise all 
port facilities belonging to the city, to repair, build, rebuild, maintain, alter, 
strengthen, and protect such property, and to clean, dredge, and deepen in or about 
the same. 

Surveys and soundings. — He is further empowered to make surveys and sound- 
ings and to prepare plans therefrom and to keep records thereof. 

Bulkhead and pierhead lines. — He may, at his discretion, regulate, fix, and estab- 
lish bulkhead and pierhead lines and the distance between piers, subject to the 
regulations of the United States Government. 

Regulation of construction.— He is authorized to adopt and promulgate rules and 
regulations for the construction, extension, alteration, improvement, and repair 
of wharves, piers, bulkheads, docks, slips, and basins within the city limits. 

Purchase and improvement of marshlands. — The director has the authority, 
after appropriation by the council of the city of the money required therefor, to 
acquire by purchase in the name of the city, such unimproved marshlands within 
the city as may be reclaimable between the low-water line and the high-water 



PORT CUSTOMS AND REGULATIONS 313 

shore line; and, after appropriation of the money therefor to reclaim, fill in, and 
improve said marshlands and construct thereon wharves, piers, docks, slips, 
basins, and storage facilities; and he may lease as provided by law such part or 
parts of said reclaimed lands as in his judgment cannot be so improved; or he 
may if so authorized by ordinance sell the same. 

Purchase of physical facilities. — He has the further authority, after appropria- 
tion of money required therefor by the council, to acquire by purchase in the 
name of the city, such wharves, piers, bulkheads, docks, slips, basins, and storage 
facilities appurtenant thereto, lands, property, rights, easements, and privileges 
within the city limits as may be required for the purposes of commerce and naviga- 
tion. He may also purchase lands, piers, or bulkheads, and erect thereon such 
structures and buildings for storage and storage facilities as may be necessary for 
the proper and convenient use of such wharves, piers, and bulkheads, for the 
storage of incoming or outgoing goods, wares, or merchandise; and he shall have 
power to make all rules necessary for the government of such storage facilities, 
and fix all rates and charges for their use and occupation. 

He has the authority to purchase, maintain, and operate such boats or launches, 
iceboats, and dredges as may be necessary for the performance of the duties of 
the department. 

Improvement of port's facilities. — Whenever the director deems it necessary or 
advisable to acquire property of any kind for use as a wharf, pier, or bulkhead, 
with the necessary dock-room or for the extension of any existing public wharf, 
pier, or bulkhead owned by the city or the improvement of the dock or docks 
appurtenant thereto, he has the power and is authorized to make all necessary 
or proper surveys for the location cf such public wharf, pier, or bulkhead, or 
extension thereto and for that purpose, if necessary, may enter upon such property 
as may be held, used, or owned either for private or public purposes, including 
that held, used, or owned as a public wharf. The result of such survey may be 
communicated with his recommendations to the council or mayor or both. 

Eminent domain. — The city council has the power and is authorized, either in 
pursuance of the recommendation of the director or otherwise, to take, condemn, 
and appropriate, by ordinance, any such property, for the uses and purposes set 
forth in the law, and in accordance with the laws governing such condemnation 
proceedings. 

Leasing of port's facilities. — The director has the power to lease for a period 
not to exceed 10 years under such covenants and conditions as he may prescribe, 
storage facilities, wharves, docks, piers, bulkheads, slips, and basins belonging 
to the city. The city, however, has the power to provide by ordinance for the 
leasing of such structures and facilities for such period in excess of 10 years and 
not exceeding 50 years as may be deemed advantageous or desirable. All leases 
of public port facilities shall be exposed to public sale at such place and time as 
the director may designate; and if no bid made is satisfactory to him, he may 
again offer for lease, or he may lease the same for 1 year for such rent or rents as 
he may deem advisable. 

Issuance of construction licenses. — Whenever any person or persons shall desire 
to construct, alter, or repair any harbor structure, situated wholly within the 
city limits, such person or persons shall make and file application with the director, 
stating in writing the nature and extent of such proposed construction, including 
the complete plans and specifications for the work to be performed, and produce 
his or their deed or deeds, or other evidence of title, to the premises on which the 
proposed construction is to be erected; whereupon, if the proposed structure or 
improvement will encroach upon the waterway, the director shall give notice of 
the time and place of hearing on the application, to all parties interested, and if 
the director shall approve the proposed construction and the plans and specifica- 



314 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

tions submitted therefor, he shall issue a license for the construction contemplated. 
Necessary repairs, costing $100 or less and not affecting the stability or strength 
of the structure, may be made without first procuring a license. 

All licenses granted for construction or improvement of -water-front facilities 
provide that work shall be commenced within 6 months and prosecuted with due 
diligence to completion, otherwise the license shall become void. 

Removal of obstructions from docks. — Whenever the owners or lessees of any 
wharf, pier, or bulkhead, within the limits of said cities, shall fail to keep and 
maintain the adjoining dock or docks cleaned and free from obstruction, the direc- 
tor is empowered, upon default for 30 days after the service of notice on such 
owners, or lessees, to clean or cause said dock or docks to be cleaned and free 
from obstruction, and to apportion the expense thereof among the owner or 
owners, lessee or lessees, of the wharves, piers, and bulkheads adjoining such dock 
or docks, in proportion to the extent of their wharves, piers, or bulkheads having 
the privilege of use of such dock or docks. 

Regulation of services and rates. — The director, after a hearing of the parties in 
interest, is authorized to regulate the services and to fix maximum rates for wharf- 
age, cranage, and dockage, whether the service is performed by the owners of 
said wharves, piers, and docks, or by the said cities. 

Appeal from decisions of director. — Any person or persons aggrieved by any 
decision of the director, either granting or refusing, in whole or in part, an applica- 
tion for a license to erect or improve any harbor structure, or as to any other 
matter or thing may, within 30 days after the date of the said decision, present 
a petition to the court of common pleas of the proper county, and that court 
shall make such order in the premises as he may think the said director should 
have made, and the said order shall be final and conclusive. 

Annual report. — The director must make an annual report to tlie mayor at 
the close of the fiscal j^ear setting forth amount of property owned; amount and 
price of property acquired; condition of all storage facilities, wharves, piers, 
bulkheads, docks, slips and basins, and approaches thereto; amount of money 
received from dockage, wharfage, storage, cranage, and other services, itemized 
as to sources; an itemized account of all expenditures; names and addresses of all 
employees and ther respective salaries; the terms and conditions of all leases; 
time of expiration of such leases, and the amount paid therefor; and the number 
of ships, vessels, and boats arriving and departing, their net and gross tonnage. 

Navigation Commission 

The Navigation Commission consists of seven members, three of 
whom are appointed by the Governor and two by the mayor of Phila- 
delphia, wliile the secretary of the Department of Forests and Waters 
of Pennsylvania and the director of the Department of Wharves, 
Docks and Ferries of the City of Philadelphia serve as ex-officio mem- 
bers. The Governor designates one of the commissioners to be the 
president. Members of the commission are appointed for a 4-year 
term and such further time as may be necessary until their successors 
are named and quahfied. There is no restriction as to reappointment. 
A majority of the members appointed by the Governor and the mayor 
of the city of Philadelphia shall constitute a quorum for the transaction 
of business. Members serve without compensation, but are reim- 
bursed for necessary expenses. 



PORT CUSTOMS AND REGULATIONS 315 

The commission is authorized to employ a secretary, a civil engineer 
and such clerks and other employees as may be necessary properly 
to transact its business, all of whom are appointed by the secretary 
of forests and waters. The attorney general of Pennsylvania shall 
furnish such advice or legal service as may be needed, or may desig- 
nate counsel to represent the commission. 

The commission is authorized to maintain adequate offices and a 
meeting room, the principal office of wliich shall be in the city of 
Pliiladelphia. 

POWERS AND DUTIES 

The commission is empowered to make rules for regulating, stationing and 
anchoring vessels in the Delaware River and its navigable tributaries, or at the 
wharves, piers or bulkheads, or in the docks, slips or basins extending into or on 
the said river and its navigable tributaries; for removing vessels in order to 
accommodate and make room for others, or for admitting river craft, compelling 
the masters of vessels to accommodate each other so that vessels shall for a reason- 
able time be entitled to berths next to the wharves, piers, and bulkheads until 
they have landed or loaded their cargoes; for regulating the speed of vessels 
navigating the Delaware River and its navigable tributaries between Marcus 
Hook and Bristol in the State of Pennsylvania; Provided, That such rules shall 
not extend to, impair, or in any way infringe on the mutual arrangements entered 
into by Pennsylvania and New Jersey. 

The commission is empowered: to make surveys and soundings to ascertain 
the capacities of the river and navigable tributaries for commercial purposes, and 
to prepare plans therefrom, and to keep records thereof; to regulate, fix, and 
establish bulkhead and pierhead lines, the distance between piers, subject to the 
regulation of the United States Government; to adopt and promulgate rules and 
regulations for the construction, extension, alteration, improvement and repair 
of wharves, piers, bulkheads, docks, slips and basins; Provided, That these powers 
are not applicable to any city of the first class. 

The commission is authorized, after a hearing of the parties in interest, to 
regulate the services and to fix the maximum rates for wharfage, cranage and 
dockage at all points other than in cities of the first class. 

It is the duty of the president of the commission to take the necessary action 
to enforce the laws of the Commonwealth and the rules and regulations made and 
promulgated by the commission; and if any person or persons shall refuse or 
neglect to comply with the directions of the president or knowingly fail to comply 
with the rules and regulations of the commission, or obstruct or prevent the execu- 
tion of the president's duties, such persons shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and 
upon conviction shall be sentenced to pay for each offense a fine not to exceed 
$500. 

It is the duty of the president upon information of the sinking of any canal 
boat, barge, or other vessel in the channel-way of the tidewaters of the Delaware 
or its navigable tributaries, or in any of the docks thereof, to give notice to the 
owner, master, or other agent thereof to raise and remove such obstruction 
within 10 days after date of notice, under a penalty of $100; and in case of refusal 
or neglect of the parties interested to raise or remove any such obstruction within 
the time specified, to have it raised and removed at the expense of the owner, 
master, or agent. 

Construction licenses. — Anyone desiring to construct or alter any harbor struc- 
ture wholly within the State on any waterway under the jurisdiction of the 



316 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

commission must file application in writing to the president of the commission 
describing the nature and extent of such structure, together with plans and 
specifications, showing fully the proposed construction and their evidence of 
title to the property. Upon receipt of any such application the president shall 
give notice of the time and place of hearing such application, and if the commission 
after the hearing approves the plans and specifications offered in the application, 
shall issue a license for such construction. This rule is not applicable to cities of 
the first class. Licensees are further required to obtain a permit from the water 
and power resources board, and to pay such encroachment charges as said board 
may fix, according to law. No license is valid without a permit from the water 
and power resources board. 

All licenses granted or orders made for the erection, construction, extension, 
alteration or improvement provide that work shall be commenced and prosecuted 
with due diligence to completion, within 6 months; otherwise the license shall 
become void. 

Whenever the owners or lessees, of any facility shall fail to keep adjoining docks 
clean and free from obstruction, the president of the commission, upon default 
for 30 days after the service of notice on such owners, or lessees, is empowered to 
have them cleaned and freed from obstructions, and to apportion the expense 
thereof among their owners. This clause does not apply to any city of the 
first class. 

Regxdation of pilots. — The Navigation Commission has the power and authority 
to grant licenses to persons to act as pilots in Delaware Bay and River, and to 
make rules for their government, to decide on application of the parties in interest, 
all differences which may arise between such pilots and masters, owners, and 
consignees of vessels, except as provided by law; and to make, ordain and publish 
such rules and regulations, and with such penalties for the breach thereof as they 
deem fitting and proper. 

Appeals from the decisions of the commission may be filed with the court of 
common pleas of the proper county within 30 days for legal redress. 

PORT LABOR AND METHODS EMPLOYED IN HANDLING 

CARGO 

LABOR 

The supply of water-front labor at Philadelphia is more than 
sufficient to handle present traffic moving through the port. Wliile the 
actual number of men available is not definitely known, the supply 
generally exceeds the demand at all shaping hours. 

In Philadelphia and Camden labor is employed either directly by 
the stevedore contractor or by his foremen at the former's gear ware- 
house or at a point which through long usage is generally recognized 
as the concentration point for that particular stevedore. 

While water-front labor is at liberty to seek employment at any 
point or with any employer, most longshoremen apply to the same 
stevedore for work, thus creating a reservoir of men accustomed to 
that stevedore's methods and to each other, all of which tends toward 
greater efficiency in the handling of cargo. Wlien a stevedore re- 
quires more men than are available at his hiring point he may obtain 
them either by requesting other stevedores to hire the required 



PORT LABOR AND METHODS EMPLOYED IN HANDLING CARGO 317 

number for him or to send such men as are not needed by them to 
his hiiing point. 

When a man is hired it is the practice to give him a ticket or other 
means of identification which authorizes him to work, provided he 
arrives at starting time at the job for which hired. Men must be 
able to show their identification cards at any time and are required 
to turn them in before drawing pay for any work performed. This 
practice has tended to eHminate pay claims of men not liired at the 
time the gang was shaped. Men are generally paid weeldy either 
at the stevedore's concentration point or at some other predetermined 
point. 

Practically all water-front labor at the port, including deep-water 
and coastwise longshoremen, car loaders, terminal labor, watchmen, 
checkers, and receiving and deUvery clerks, is affiliated with the 
International Longshoremen's Association. As a rule relations be- 
tween labor and employer in the past have been friendly and disputes 
have been settled amicably without cessation of work. This friendly 
relationsliip is reflected in the general efficiency of labor, the safety 
record of employees and the low percentage of cargo damaged in 
handling. 

With the exception of such nonunion labor as is employed at some 
private terminals which handle their own commodities only and 
some employed on river and inland waterway vessels, all labor works 
under regular agreements covering wages and working conditions. 

All longshoremen worldng coastwise vessels do not receive wages as 
determined by the coastwise agreement. Where coastwise steamship 
companies operate their own stevedoring organizations, wage scales 
are determined by mutual agreement between them and their em- 
ployees. In determ-ining wage scales consideration is given to regularity 
of work which assures a higher average weekly income than obtains 
in working other coastwise vessels. 

Following is a digest of working agreements of longshoremen, 
car loaders, checkers, receiving and delivery clerks, and watchmen 
made between the International Longshoremen's Association and its 
affiliated local chapters and the deep-water steamsliip lines and 
contracting stevedores effective during the year ending September 30, 
1938. 

Hours 

Working day. — The basic working day consists of 8 hours with a 
44-hour week, except that men employed at Point Breeze or out of 
city points generally work 10 hours and are paid on the basis of 8 
hours straight time and 2 hours overtime, and that watchmen work 
a full 48-hour week. Regular working hours are from 8 a. m. to 
12 noon and 1 p. m. to 5 p. m. except at Point Breeze where the 



318 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



working hours are from 7 a. m. to 6 p. m. with 1 hour allowed for 
lunch. Watchmen work in shifts of 8 hours each. All work at other 
hours or during meal hours is considered overtime. 

Meal hours. — Meal hours are from 6 a. m. to 7 a. m.; 12 noon to 
1 p. m. ; 6 p. m. to 7 p. m. and 12 midnight to 1 a. m., and men working 
foreign and intercoastal ships, checkers, and receiving and delivery- 
clerks are to be paid for the full meal hour if worked any part of it, 
at the prevailing overtime rate which will continue untU men are 
relieved. Coastwise longshoremen and car loaders, however, receive 
only one-half hour's overtime pay if worked 5 minutes after meal hour 
and an hour's pay if worked 35 minutes after meal hour. It is agreed 
that no work shall be performed during meal hours except on arrival 
or sailing days, or by mutual agreement in the event of emergencies. 

Holidays 

The following holidays are observed: New Year's Day, Lincoln's 
Birthday, Washington's Birthday, Good Friday, Decoration Day, 
Flag Day, Fourth of July, Labor Day, Columbus Day, November 
Election Day, Armistice Day, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas Day. 

Any other National or State holidays that might be proclaimed by 
executive authority are also observed. It is understood that so far 
as possible only baggage and mail be handled on the Fourth of July^ 
Labor Day, and Christmas Day. When the above-named holidays 
fall on a Sunday, the following Monday is observed. 



Basic wage per hour 




Overtime 



Longshoremen, foreign and intercoastal. 

Longshoremen, coastwise 

Carloaders- 

Checkers, receiving and delivery clerks. 
Watchmen 



$1.60 
1.42}^ 
1.05 
1.60 
.75 



• Per day. 



Working conditions 



Foreign and intercoastal ships. — Following is a digest of working 
conditions applicable to longshoremen handling cargoes in the foreign 
and intercoastal trades: 

Men handling wet hides are paid $L20 per hour straight time and $1.75 per hour 
overtime. 

The basic wage applies to general cargo of every description, excepting barrel, 
drum, or case oil handled elsewhere than at Point Breeze or out-of-city points. 
Men handling barrel, drum, or case oil at Point Breeze or out-of-city points for two 
or more consecutive hours shall receive $1.20 per hour straight time and $1.80 over- 
time. General cargo rates will apply if time occupied is less than 2 hours. 



POrvT LABOR AND METHODS EMPLOYED IN HANDLING CAPtGO 319 

Oil gangs handling kerosene, gasoline, naphtha, and oil in barrels, drums, or cases 
at Point Breeze are paid $13.20 per day with overtime at $1.80 per hour, day or 
half-daj' or night or half-night basis, except that when a ship is finished time is to 
stop. When starting a ship the men are to receive a half day's pay. 

Oil gangs handling general cargo at Point Breeze are to be paid oil cargo rates. 
When a special general cargo gang is sent to Point Breeze to handle general cargo, 
such men are to receive $11.60 per day with overtime at $1.60 per hour, day or half- 
day or night or half-night basis, except that when a ship is finished time is to stop. 
When starting a ship the men are to receive a half-day's pay. 

Oil gangs handling barrel, drum, or case oil out of city are paid on the same basis 
as is applicable at Point Breeze. 

Men handling grain are paid at the rate of $1.15 per hour straight time and 
$1.70 overtime. Work conducted at Camden is to be paid for at the same rates 
and under the same conditions as for work in Philadelphia, except that the men are 
to receive 25 cents per day for traveling expenses unless transported by the 
emploj^er. 

Men handling general cargo at out-of-city points are paid $12.10 per day with 
overtime at $1.65 per hour, day or half-day basis. In either case time is to stop 
when ship is finished. When starting a ship the men are to receive a half day's 
pay. Night work is paid on the hourly overtime basis except that when Phila- 
delphia men are sent to an out-of-city point to work a ship only at night they are 
to receive at least a half night's pay. 

Men handling explosives are paid $1.65 per hour straight time and $2.70 over- 
time. 

Men handling cargo actually damaged b}' water or fire are to be paid the rate 
applicable to explosives. 

Men definitely ordered out on weekdays at other than regular shaping times 
will be entitled to a minimum of 2 hours' pay at the prevailing rate whether they 
work or not. This section does not apply to cases where less than 2 hours on 
week days or week nights are required to finish a ship or a hatch. 

When fresh men are specifically ordered out, or employed at the 6:55 p. m. 
shape, to work at night on a vessel which has not previously worked, and when 
men are ordered out to work on Sundays and holidays, they are to receive a 
minimum of 4 hours' pay at the prevailing rate whether they begin or not, except 
when work is impractical owing to weather conditions. Except in the case of 
fresh men specifically ordered out or employed at the 6:55 p. m. shape to work at 
night on a vessel which has not previously worked, this paragraph is applicable to 
those men specifically ordered out at times other than regular shaping hours. 

Men working Saturday forenoon will be entitled to a minimum of 4 hours' pay 
between 8 a. m. and 12 noon. If work has to be discontinued during this period 
on account of weather conditions the men will be entitled only to a minimum of 
2 hours. 

Men employed at 7 a. m. on Saturday will be entitled to one hour overtime in 
addition to above minimum. 

When men are knocked off from work 5 minutes after the hour or later, they 
are to be paid for one-half hour. If they knock off 35 minutes after the hour they 
are to be paid for 1 hour. When necessary, gangs are to knock off 10 minutes 
before quitting time to replace hatch covers. Under no circumstances are men to 
leave a ship, or fail to return if ordered back, without replacing hatch covers. 

The employer has the right to work ship by any practical method, also to name 
number of men in gangs, except on general cargo, and likewise how men are to be 
distributed on ship, dock, or lighter. The size of drafts or truck loads is left to the 
discretion of the employer or his representative. 



320 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Minimum number of men in gang when discharging or loading general cargo to 
or from the pier shall be 20 men, not less than 8 hold men discharging and 8 hold 
men loading. This clause is not to apply to handling cork, burlap, newsprint, 
and logs where hooks are used, heavj^ lifts, sugar at sugar refineries or warehouses, 
lumber, rubber, tin plate and sheet steel in packages, or to work at Ford's plant at 
Chester, Pa., or to similar conditions that may be agreed upon. This does not 
apply to handling cargo to or from open top cars or open lighters. Men working 
inshore may be transferred to other gangs should their own gang go offshore. 
However, they must return to their original gang when work is resumed inshore. 

Regular shaping times shall be 7:55 a. m., 12:55 p. m., and 6:55 p. m. Employers 
may also designate a place and hour to shape men for future employment, the 
men to be given checks or some other means of identification that they are to work 
if they arrive at the job at the starting time. 

When the employers elect to transport the men to a ship to start work at a 
designated hour, the men shall shape at a convenient point at least 30 minutes 
before the designated hour, for boarding trucks and other conveyances. Pay of 
the men to commence at the designated hour and place whether work begins or 
not, unless work is impractical owing to weather conditions. 

When work is performed at out-of-city points and transportation to and/or 
from the ship requires more than 30 minutes, the men shall be paid for any 
actual additional transportation time (over and above 30 minutes at each end 
of the working period) at the straight time general cargo rate of $1.05 per hour. 
Men shall shape at any earlier designated hour in order to begin work at the 
appointed time. 

If men are so transported and weather conditions prevent working cargo or 
docking vessel (after arrival off pier), men shall receive 2 hours' pay at the pre- 
vailing rate. 

If the employer transports men to and/or from work during hours for which 
men are already being paid, no travel time shall be allowed. 

Coastwise vessels. — The following digest of working conditions is 
applicable to longshoremen handling cargoes of coastwise vessels: 

Regular shaping times are at 7:15 a. m., 7:50 a. m., 12:15 p. m., 12:50 p. m., 
and 5 p. m. Employer may also designate a place and hour to shape men for 
future employment, the men to be given tickets or some other means of identi- 
fication that they are to work if they arrive at the job at the starting time. 

Men specifically ordered out to work are to be paid for 2 hours at the pre- 
vailing rate whether they begin work or not, except when work is impractical 
owing to weather conditions. This section does not apply to cases where less 
than 2 hours on week days or week nights are required to finish a ship or a hatch. 

Men hired for Saturday afternoon or Sunday must be given tickets or some 
other means of identification on Saturday at 12 noon. Men hired for holidays shall 
be given tickets or some other means of identification on the previous day at 5 p. m. 

When fresh men are specifically ordered out, or employed at the 5 p. m. shape, 
to work at night on a vesssel which has not previously worked, and when men are 
ordered out to work on Sundays or holidays, they are to receive a minimum of 
4 hours' paj' at the prevailing rate whether they begin or not, and except when 
work is impractical owing to weather conditions. Except as noted in the first 
part of this paragraph, the entire paragraph refers to men who are specifically 
ordered out at times other than regular shaping times. 

Jitney drivers are to receive the regular rate of pay for whatever type of work 
in which they are engaged. 

Men handling cargo actually damaged by water or fire are to be paid at the 
rate of $1.80 per hour straight time and $2. GO per hour for overtime, employer 



PORT LABOR AND METHODS EMPLOYED IN HANDLING CARGO 321 

to furnish rubber boots and other equipment used when this kind of equipment 
is necessary. 

Men employed in pumping oil are to receive the prevailing car-gang rates, 
and are to be paid from the time they begin to handle the equipment, straight 
through until the time they are finished handling the same. 

When transported to Camden to work, men shall receive a minimum of at 
least 2 hours, at the prevailing rate. 

When employers elect to transport the men to a ship to start work at a desig- 
nated hour, the men shall shape at a convenient point at least 45 minutes before 
the designated hour, for boarding trucks and other conveyances. Pay of the 
men is to commence at the designated hour and place v.-hether work begins or 
not, unless work is impractical owing to weather conditions. 

When men work in excess of 5 minutes after the hour, they are to be paid for 
one-half hour, and when men work in excess of 35 minutes or more after the 
hour, they are to be paid for the full hour. When necessary, gangs are to knock 
off 15 minutes before quitting time to replace hatch covers. Under no circum- 
stances shall men leave a ship or fail to return if ordered back, without replacing 
hatch covers. 

Men being transferred from one pier to another must be given tickets as they 
are leaving the former pier. 

Men are to be hired by none other than duly authorized foremen. All men are 
to be members of the International Longshoremen's Association, Local 1332. 

When the International Longshoremen's Association cannot furnish a sufficient 
number of men to perform the work in a satisfactory manner, then the stevedore 
or other employer may employ such other men as are available, preferably 
members of the Carloaders' Union. 

Employer to have the right to work ship by any practical method, also to name 
the number of men in gangs, and likewise how men are to be distributed on ship, 
dock, or lighter. The size of drafts or truck loads is left to the discretion of the 
employer or his representative. 

Carloaders. — The following working conditions are applicable to car- 
loaders and cover the loading and unloading of railroad cars, trucks, 
drays, lighters, barges, transferring freight in and out of storage 
places, sorting, piling, and other miscellaneous work not performed 
by the members of the Deepsea and Coastwise Locals of the Inter- 
national Longshoremen's Association: 

Men handling wet hides receive 10 cents per hour more than the basic rate. 

Men specifically ordered out to work are to be paid for 1 hour at the prevailing 
rate whether they begin or not, except when work is impractical owing to weather 
conditions. 

The employer has the right to work by any practical method, also to name the 
number of men in a gang and how the men are to be distributed on docks and 
lighters. The sizes of drafts and truckloads are to be at the discretion of the 
employer or his representative. 

Checkers, receiving, and delivery clerks. — Members of the Checkers, 
Receiving, and Delivery Clerks Local of the International Longshore- 
men's Association are governed by the following terms and conditions: 

Members of the local International Longshoremen's Association union are to 
have the preference in checking, receiving, and delivery of all deep-water cargo, 
it being understood that tlie employer shall have the exclusive right to employ 



322 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

whatever number of men he considers necessary for his requirements; to designate 
where, when, and how the work shall be performed; and to use receiving and 
delivery clerks, who are regularly employed by him and who are in charge of ships 
or their cargoes, to receive and deliver cargo to and from the pier. 

Checkers are to be paid on a daily basis, with a half day's work at proportionate 
rates. If ordered out a checker is to receive a minimum of a half day's pay, work 
or not. Any checker working during the day or Saturday forenoon and ordered 
back will be paid a minimum of $1.60, work or not. Day men working during 
the night will be paid at the overtime scale until midnight, and if ordered back 
after midnight, will be paid a minimum of one-half night of 4 hours, equivalent to 
$6.40. Any reasonable part of an overtime hour constitutes 1 hour. 

If checkers are required to work on Sundays or holidays and fail to work a full 
period through no fault of their own they will be paid $12.80 for 8 hours, and $6.40 
for half day except when work is not started due to weather, in which event they 
are to be paid $3.20. 

Fresh checkers ordered out for night work are to be paid at the rate of $1.60 per 
hour with a minimum of $6.40 for any time before midnight or after 1 a. m., work 
or not. This applies to night shifts only. 

Employers are to notify men before 5 p. m. when night or following day work is 
to be performed, and before 5 p. m. of the day preceding a holiday or Sunday; if 
possible, notice in regard to Sunday work is to be given before 12 noon on Saturday. 

When checkers are employed on a day-by-day basis as receiving or delivery 
clerks in charge of a ship or its cargo they are to be paid $1.75 per day more than 
the basic rate, and overtime at the rate of $1.80 per hour; and if working ammuni- 
tion, explosives, and cargo damaged by fire or water when it is necessary for them 
to work under distress conditions, are to be paid double the basic rates. 

Every effort will be made to arrange for the men to be paid at a locality and at 
such a time as may be most convenient. 

Men ordered out to work at Camden and Gloucester are to be paid 25 cents per 
day traveling expenses unless transported by employer. To all other out-of-town 
points they are to be paid $2 per round trip, plus cost of transportation, unless 
transported by employer. 

No checker is required to mark cargo separations in hold of ship and at the same 
time be held responsible for checking other cargo. 

Regular salaried receiving or delivery clerks are to receive $47 per basic week, 
inclusive of any holidays falling within the week, with overtime pay of $1.60 per 
hour on Sundays, Saturday afternoons, and nights. If such clerks are required to 
work on Sundays they are to receive a minimum of 4 hours' pay, $6.40, if ordered 
to work between 8 a. m. and 12 noon or between 1 and 5 p. m.; if called in between 
8 a. m. and 12 noon and ordered back between 1 and 5 p. m. they are to receive a 
minimum of 2 hours pay for the second period of the day. 

Watchmen. — The following is a digest of the agreement covering 
watchmen at and in the vicinity of Philadelphia: 

All cargo watchmen, except ships' crews, railroad and city police must be mem- 
bers of the local chapter of International Longshoremen's Association. 

The day will be divided into three shifts, running from 8 a. m. to 4 p. m.; 4 p. m. 
to 12 midnight; 12 midnight to 8 a. m. except that men may be employed from 8 
to 5 provided 1 hour is allowed for lunch. 

When men are required for duty connected with arrival or departure of ships 
they may be ordered to report at any time within the 24 hours and shall receive 
a minimum of 4 hours' pay from the time ordered to report, but if they work more 
than 4 hours and not more than 8 hours they shall receive a full day's pay with 



PORT LABOR AND METHODS EMPLOYED IN HANDLING CARGO 323 

the understanding that they may be assigned to any watchmen's work upon 
completion of such duty. 

Men shall receive a full day's pay if ordered out for work except when work is 
impossible due to weather conditions. 

Wages are to be paid in cash, weekly. 

All uniforms and equipment are to be furnished by employer. 

When ordered to work at out-of-city points the extra carfare required shaU be 
allowed. 

All assignments to work the following day shaU be given whenever practical 
before men leave their posts. 

Watchmen are allowed to shape at piers or offices until 10 a. m. 

It is the watchmen's duty to watch on piers all property, cargo, and movements 
of cargo to and from ships, lighters, and trucks and similarly in ships' holds. 

In the event of strikes of other employees who are members of the International 
Longshoremen's Association, watchmen will continue at their posts unless strike 
breakers are employed. 

Arbitration oj disputes 

The following provision relative to the settlement of disputes and 
the interpretation of the worldng agreement is incorporated in all 
agreements: 

In the event of any dispute or controversy during the life of this agreement as 
to the interpretation of same, the men shall continue to work pending an adjust- 
ment of the trouble as foUows: 

Matter in dispute to be submitted to a committee of four, two of whom shall be 
representatives of the employers and two being representatives of the employees; 
a decision of the majority of this committee to be final and binding. In the event 
of failure on the part of this committee of four to reach a satisfactory decision, 
then the committee of four shall proceed to select a fifth man as chairman, which 
man must be satisfactory to both sides, and a decision of a majority of the commit- 
tee so augmented shall be final and binding. 

Stevedoring contractors 

A list of the principal contracting stevedores with their addresses in 
Philadelphia follows: 

Atlantic & Gulf Stevedores, Inc Drexel Bldg. 

Morris Boney, Inc Do. 

Delaware River Operating Co., Market St. pier. Camden, N. J. 

Delaware Terminal Co Drexel Bldg. 

General Stevedores, Inc Bourse Bldg. 

Martin J. Hickey Drexel Bldg. 

M. P. Howlett, Inc Pier 56, South. 

Independent Pier Co Pier 34, South. 

Jarka Corporation Bourse Bldg. 

J. R. F. Loveland 151 South Front St. 

S. C. Loveland Co., Inc Do. 

Marra Bros. Inc Ledger Bldg. 

Megee Bros. Ltd Drexel Bldg. 

Murphy-Cook & Co Bourse Bldg. 

Nacirema Operating Co Pier 179, North. 

Philadelphia Ceiling & Stevedoring Corporation. Ledger Bldg. 
Rogers Terminal & Shipping Corporation Dre.xel Bldg. 



324 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Stevedoring contractors — Continued 

Thomas F. Sullivan, Captain Drexel Bldg. 

Tucker Stevedoring Company 103 Walnut St. 

Union Stevedoring Corporation Ritner & Swanson Sts. 

United Freight Service, Inc Drexel Bldg. 

Universal Terminals & Stevedoring Co Do. 

Western Stevedore Co Girard Point. 



METHODS EMPLOYED IN HANDLING CARGO 

Arriving vessels usually proceed direct to their berths where they 
are taken in charge by the stevedore, who is either specially engaged 
by the agent or has contracted to handle all vessels of a certain line or 
agent. Several coastwise and intercoastal steamship lines maintain 
their own stevedore departments, while practically all lines engaged in 
foreign trade contract with independent stevedores to handle their 
vessels. 

Most stevedoring contractors handle ships at any point on the Dela- 
ware River between Wilmington and Trenton while a few limit their 
activities exclusively to Philadelphia and Camden. In addition to 
regular contracting stevedores (See p. 23) some of the steamship 
agencies undertake stevedoring for vessels of lines which they repre- 
sent. However, it is only occasionally that such agencies enter into 
competition with regular stevedore contractors. 

Stevedores prepare vessels for loading or discharging by removing 
hatch covers and rigging up the necessary gear, and are usually em- 
powered to work ships in any manner which according to their judg- 
ment seems practical. Cargoes may be transferred between ship and 
shore exclusively by ship's gear or by ship's gear in conjunction with 
cargo masts on the pier shed. The latter method is the most popular 
for handling commodities except those for which such special equip- 
ment as cranes, car dumpers or grain galleries are necessary. A special 
type of rigging known as a whip fall is used extensively for handling 
commodities in cases, barrels, bales or bags of uniform size which move 
in volume. 

The following tabulation shows the average handling speeds for 
certain selected commodities moving tlu-ough the port: 

Cargo handling speeds per hatch hour 



Burlaps, bales 

Clay, tons 

Coal, tons 

Cocoa beans, bags.. 

Coffee, bags 

Fertilizers, tons 

General cargo, tons. 

Orains, bushels 

Jute, bales 

Lumber, feet 



Loading 



25-30 
6,000 



Dis- 
charg- 
ing 



70-85 

25-30 

40 

750-800 

750-800 

25- 35 

25- 30 



250-300 
15,000 



Oil, barrels 

Oil, case 

Ores, tons 

Pipe, iron, tons.. 

Rubber, crude, bales 

Scrap steel, tons 

Steel bars, rails, tons 

Steel plates, billets, tons 

Sugar, refined and raw, bags. 
Woodpulp, tons 



Loading 



300-350 
1,500 



25-40 
25-40 
25-40 



Dis- 
charg- 
ing 



250-300 



25- 35 

65 

350 



1,000 
35-40 



PORT LABOR AND METHODS EMPLOYED IN HANDLING CARGO 325 

It is the practice of stevedores operating at this port to unload cargo 
from ship to pier, transport it into the transit shed, sort and pile it 
man high. Commodities such as lumber, fertilizers in bulk, clays 
and other bulk commodities consigned to storage are usually released 
by the stevedore at the end of ship's tackle to terminal employees 
who handle them to place of rest. Cargo destined for direct ship-to- 
car or ship-to-barge movement is handled entirely by the stevedore 
and at the same tariff rates that would apply on ship-to-pier move- 
ments. 

At terminals which have two-story transit sheds cargo may be 
handled direct to or from the second floor, although the charges may 
be slightly higher due to decreased handling speed. In such cases 
stevedores will handle cargo in the same manner as on the main floor. 
Wliere cargo is to be loaded direct between box car and ship steve- 
dores generally will handle the entire movement, employing car- 
loaders between car and ship's tackle. 

At practically all of the general cargo terminals, cargo is handled to 
or from shipside either by tractors and trailers or hand trucks. Bulk 
commodities such as clays and fertilizers are handled by dump 
buckets loaded by hand in ship's hold and dumped into two-wheeled 
carts for transportation to storage. Lumber is back-piled principally 
by lumber carriers or in a few instances by cranes. In-bound ores 
and coal are loaded by crane direct to open-top cars for movement to 
storage. Such cargo may remain in storage in cars or be placed in 
storage areas at the option of the rail carrier. At Port Richmond 
and at the Greenwich coal pier of the Pennsylvania Railroad out-bound 
coal is handled b}^ modern car dumpers. Bananas are usually un- 
loaded through side ports by belt conveyors from which they are 
carried by hand to trucks, or to refrigerator cars spotted on the pier 
or on car floats alongside the vessel. Portable telescopic conveyors 
are used to lift bananas from the lower holds of vessels. Sugar is 
unloaded in the same manner as general cargo but is usually back- 
piled from transit shed and stacked in storage by mechanical handling 
equipment. One company utilizes a telfer system, while others use 
trucks, tractors and electric hoists. 

There are no restrictions on the amount of cargo to be handled in a 
sling, or on a truck, and with the exception of the minimum require- 
ment of 20 men in a general cargo gang, all such matters as sling or 
truck load and the size of gang to be employed are left to the judg- 
ment of the stevedore. 

All coastwise lines handle cargo through side ports either by hand 
truck or by tractors and trailers. Hoists at each hatch handle cargo 
to and from the lower holds. 

78920—39 22 



326 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Freight moving between steamship terminals and interior points 
may be handled by rail, truck, or lighter. Rail carriers serving the 
port have access to all principal berths through the medium of tracks 
along Delaw^are Avenue, v^hich parallels the central water front. 
However, not all facilities in this area have spur tracks on the premises. 
This trackage is generally referred to as the Belt Line although only 
about 5 miles of track are actually owned by the Philadelphia Belt 
Line Railroad. By using the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Read- 
ing Railroad tracks cars may be shifted to any point on the water 
front. The Pennsylvania Railroad does all switching in the southern 
section of the water front while the Reading performs this operation 
in the north. The Philadelphia Belt Line has no locomotives or cars. 
For a description of the Belt Line, its switching practices and charges 
see pages 127 and 133. 

Considerable quantities of general merchandise move through the 
port to and from the interior by motor trucks. Estimates have 
placed the movement of cargo by truck at about 75 percent of the 
total general merchandise movement. Motor truck transportation is 
expedited by Delaware Avenue, a wide marginal street, which allows 
imhampered access to and from all terminals. At the terminals, 
motor trucks in most cases are allowed to drive to any point in the 
transit sheds to load or discharge freight. At some piers they may 
move direct to the second floor by means of heavy duty elevators, or 
may be placed under adjustable chutes leading from the second floor 
which permit of direct gravity loading. In addition most terminals 
have truck loading platforms. All loading or discharging of trucks 
is done by truckmen. 

Lighters and barges are used to some extent in handling transship- 
ment cargo between steamships or between ocean carriers and ter- 
minals other than the one at which they are berthed, but as a rule 
this movement is between ocean carriers and points along the water 
front which lack sufficient water to berth seagoing vessels or at which 
cargo is not concentrated in sufficient quantities to justify vessels 
calling there. 

Movements of cargo between ship and public warehouses may be 
made either by rail or motor truck. The only warehouse located 
directly on the water front is the second and third floors of the ter- 
minal building on pier No. 98 south. Movements to and from storage 
at this terminal are performed by the terminal, the handling costs of 
which are included in the storage rates. Most of the public ware- 
houses are located in close proximity to the water front. 



PORT LABOR AND METHODS EMPLOYED IN HANDLING CARGO 327 

RULES FOR LOADING GRAIN 

[Approved by the board of directors of the Philadelphia Maritime Exchange, June 23, 1913; revised August 
6, 1923; amended November 23, 1925, June 28, 1926, and May 23, 1938] 

Nothing in these rules is intended or is to be construed as interfering in any way 
with terms and conditions of charter parties or agreements existing between 
contracting parties. These rules, however, essentially conform to current 
charter conditions. 

Rule 1. Notice of readiness. — Notice that a vessel is ready for cargo must be 
served on charterers, or their duly accredited representatives, not later than 4 
p. m., and on Saturday before 12 o'clock noon. 

In case of steamer chartered to load a cargo of grain at Philadelphia, such notifi- 
cation of readiness, to be valid, must be accompanied by a pass of the local 
surveyor designated by a board of marine underwriters, certifying to vessel's 
actual readiness to receive her cargo of grain, and vessel must have been entered 
at the customhouse. 

Rule 2. Commencement of lay days. — Lay days of a steamer chartered to load 
grain at Philadelphia, and complying with rule 1, will commence at 7 a. m. the 
next day following the service of her notification of readiness, provided said fol- 
lowing day is not a Sunday or legal holiday. 

Rule 3. Delivery of orders to vessel. — In connection with rules 1 and 2, charterers 
are required to deliver orders by 4:30 p. m. to the agents of vessel, for steamer 
to move to her place of loading. In event of such orders as to place of loading 
being given to the agents of vessel as provided above, and vessel arrives at her 
place of loading by 7 a. m. between the 1st of April and the 1st of November, 
or by 8 a. m. between the 1st of November and the 1st of April on the day follow- 
ing her notification of readiness, the lay days shall then count in conformity 
with original notice, as per rule 2. If vessel arrives at her place of loading later 
than 7 a. m. or 8 a. m., as stipulated above, but not later than 12 o'clock noon, 
the days shall commence to count at noon of the day of her arrival at the place of 
loading, unless that day is Saturday, in which case time shall count from 7 a. m. 
the following business day. If vessel arrives at her place of loading after 12 
o'clock noon, time shall commence to count at 7 a. m. of the next business day 
following her arrival at said place of loading. 

In the event of orders for vessel to move to her place of loading not being served 
on the agents of the vessel as required above, the vessel must, upon receipt of 
such orders, proceed to her place of loading as soon thereafter as tide and weather 
will permit, the lay days, however, to count as per original notification of readi- 
ness delivered in accordance with this rule. 

Rule 4- Demurrage. — In case a vessel is loaded by 12 o'clock noon on the day 
after expiration of her lay days allotted for loading and vessel can still clear at 
the customhouse and the consulate the same day, no demurrage shall be charged 
by vessel to charterers for the use of that portion of a day. Should the vessel 
not be able to clear until Monday, owing to the next day after expiration of lay 
days being Saturday, then the vessel shall be entitled to 2 days' demurrage. 

Rule 5. In case where any portion of a day more than one-half day is used in 
loading a vessel after the expiration of lay days stipulated for loading in charter 
party, such portion of lay day so used shall be charged and paid for by charterers 
as 1 full day's demurrage per charter party, except in case where lay days of vessel 
would have expired at noon, as defined in rule 3, in which case the balance of such 
day of expiration shall be charged for as one-half of 1 day's demurrage. 

Rule 6. A vessel is considered loaded when sufficient grain has been delivered 
on board by the charterers to put her down to marks specified by the local sur- 
veyor of a board of marine underwriters. But if on demurrage same is due until 



328 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

bagging as required by the local surveyor is completed and bills of lading pre- 
sented by charterers for signature. 

Rule 7. Clearance. — Charterers shall be allowed the day after completion of 
loading of cargo in which to clear same at the customhouse and to prepare neces- 
sary shipping documents, provided vessel has completed loading within her lay 
days. 

Rule 8. Definition of word "about". — In chartering the word "about" when 
applied to readiness of a vessel to load or to sail, either in respect to this or another 
American port or a foreign port, shall be vmderstood not to exceed 5 days. 

Rule 9. Strike clause. — Lay days shall not count during the continuance of a 
strike of employees of the terminal at or from which vessel has to load, or of 
stevedores or laborers, which entirely stops charters from delivering cargo to the 
vessel, or the vessel from receiving said cargo. The charterers and the vessel 
are mutually exempt from responsibility to one another for delay caused by such 
strikes. 

Rule 10. Lay days and demurrage.— hay days and demurrage on steamers 
chartered for full cargoes of grain to load at Philadelphia, unless otherwise pro- 
vided for in charter party or contract, shall be as follows: 

Lay day scale: 

15,000 to 20,000 quarters, 10 percent more or less, 4 running lay days, Sun- 
days and legal holidays excepted. 

21,000 to 28,000 quarters, 10 percent more or less, 5 running lay days, Sun- 
days and legal holidays excepted. 

29,000 to 35,000 quarters, 10 percent more or less, 6 running lay daj's, Sun- 
days and legal holidays excepted. 

36,000 to 45,000 quarters, 10 percent more or less, 7 running lay days, Sun- 
days and legal holidays excepted. 

Demurrage, 4d. per net registered ton per day. 

Rule 11. Shifting berths. — If a steamer is ordered to proceed from first loading 
berth, the cost of towing and running lines for the first shift shall be for the 
account of the steamer, costs of all additional shifts shall be borne by the charterers. 
Foregoing to apply unless otherwise specified in charter party. 

Rule 12. Signing bills of lading. — Charterers desiring the signature of master 
to bills of lading for cargo shipped must notify agents of vessel before 2 p. m., 
and on Saturdays before 11 a. m. 

Rule 13. Loading berth. — No charge for wharfage is made by the grain elevator 
companies on steamships from the time of their arrival at elevator berth until 
after completion of loading. 

Vessels loading at berth of the grain elevator companies must receive grain 
whenever requested by the elevator companies or vacate the berth; provided the 
berth is required for loading another vessel which will receive grain at that time. 
When requested to do so by the elevator company, vessels loading at berths of 
the grain elevator companies must vacate the berth as soon as the loading is 
completed. 

Rules for Unloading Sugar 

[Approved by the Board of Directors of the Philadelphia Maritime Exchange, August 6, 1923] 

Nothing in these rules is intended or is to be construed as interfering in any way 
with terms and conditions of charter parties or agreements existing between 
contracting parties. These rules, however, essentially conform to current charter 
conditions. 

Rule 1. Commencement of lay days. — Lay days for discharging shall begin 
when vessel arrives and reports at discharging berth with booms swung out and 
rigged ready to deliver cargo. Any time lost after arrival in port, due to failure 



PORT LABOR AND METHODS EMPLOYED IN HANDLING CARGO 329 

•on part of charterers or their agents to give orders upon request of steamer, to 
count as lay time; further, any time lost in reaching discharging berth after receipt 
of orders not to count as lay time, 1 hour to be allowed for shore rigging before 
commencement of lay days of vessel, whether berthed or not. If, however, 
demurrage is incurred in connection with discharging of vessel, such demurrage, 
providing it does not exceed 1 full day, shall be waived by vessel. If demurrage 
exceeds 1 day, bill sliall be rendered for only that portion in excess of 1 day's 
demurrage. 

Rule 2. Discharge — Steam and sail. — Steam: Steamers are, according to the 
custom of the port of Philadelphia, entitled to discharge at the following rates 
per weather working day, Sundays and legal holidays excepted: 

From Cuba and Puerto Rico, in bags, 0,000 bags of 320 pounds each or 

equivalent. 
From Philippine Islands, in bags, 700 tons (2,240 pounds) ; in mats, 500 tons 

(2,240 pounds.) 

If vessel is unable to discharge at the rates provided, lay days shall be computed 
on the basis of the vessel's capacity for discharging. 

Sail: Sailing vessels are, according to the custom of the port of Philadelphia, 
entitled to discharge per weather working day, Sundays and legal holidays 
excepted, as follows: 

From West Indies, Demerara, Hawaii and Java, in bags, at the rate of 325 

tons (2,240 pounds) . 
From Java, in mats and baskets, and from East Indies and Brazil, at the 

rate of 250 tons (2,240 pounds) . 

Weather working day. — A weather working day is understood to be a day 
suitable for the discharge of sugar cargoes. 

Rule 3. Stevedoring rates — Steam and sail. — Discharging of sugar cargoes is to 
be performed at current rates at the expense of vessel. 

Rule 4. Weighing — Steam and sail. — Vessel shall be free of all weighing ex- 
penses at port of discharge. 

Rule 5. Exchange — Steam and sail. — The sterling rate of exchange for marine 
freight, payable at Philadelphia on cargoes of sugar discharged here, to be as 
per Messrs. Brown Bros. & Co.'s certificate as to selling rate of exchange current 
at noon on day of vessel's entry at customhouse, for demand, or 60 days sight 
bills on London. 

Rule 6. Wharfage — Steam and sail. — The following rates of wharfage apply to 
vessels discharging at wharves of refiners: 

Steam: $4 per day for the first 200 tons net register of vessel, and three-fourths 
of 1 cent for each additional net register ton. 

Note. — A steamer of 2,500 tons net register would, therefore, pay wharfage 
of $2L25 per day. 

Sail: $4 per day for the first 200 tons net register of vessel and one-half of 1 
cent for each additional net register ton. 

Note. — A sailing vessel of 1,200 tons net register would, therefore, pay for 
wharfage $9 per day. 

According to the custom of the port of Philadelphia, in computing wharfage, 
the day the vessel arrives at and the day the vessel leaves discharging berth shall 
be counted 1 full day. 

The custom of the port requires vessels to discharge their cargoes of sugar at 
any safe, suitable wharf, designated by refiner or other consignee of cargo. 

Rule 7. Demurrage — Steam and sail. — Demurrage is to be computed on the 
basis of rates used in current charter parties, but no allowance for free time is to 
be made other than covered by rule 1. 



330 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Rule 8. Dispatch — Steam and sail. — Dispatch is to be computed on the basis 
of rates used in current charter parties, but no allowance for free time is to be 
made other than covered by rule I. 

If demurrage incurred or dispatch earned, same to be computed on the basis of 
a 24-hour day. 

In the event of any stoppage of work caused by adverse weather conditions, 
lay days shall be extended for a corresponding period in the determination of 
demurrage, as incurred by vessel under discharge in stream or in berth assigned 
by refinery. 

Rules for Loading Petroleum 

[Approved by the Board of Directors of the Philadelphia Maritime Exchange June 26, 1893. Revised 

July 1913 and June 1923] 

Nothing in these rules is intended or is to be construed as interfering in any way 
with terms and conditions of charter parties or agreements existing between 
contracting parties. These rules, however, essentially conform to current charter 
conditions. 

Rule 1. Notice of readiness. — Between the 1st of November and the 1st of April, 
notice that a vessel is ready for cargo must be served on charterers, or their duly 
accredited representatives, by 3 o'clock p. m., and between the 1st of April and 
the 1st of November by 4 o'clock p. m., and on Saturday (legal half holiday), 
by 11 o'clock a. m. 

Rule 2. — In case of a sailing vessel or steamer chartered to load a cargo of 
petroleum in cases and/or barrels at Philadelphia, notification of readiness shall 
not be valid unless sufficient ballast (if any ballast be required) is on board vessel 
and duly trimmed, holds cleaned and dunnage laid as required, and, in case of 
tank oil vessels, the tanks are all tight and free of water, and in every way ready 
for cargo, the said notification of readiness when required by charterers to be 
accompanied by a certificate from an authorized stowage inspector of Philadelphia 
for cargo boats or oil inspector for tank vessels. 

Rule 3. Delivery of orders to vessel. — In connection with rules 1 and 2, charterers 
are required to deliver orders by 4 o'clock p. m., to the agents of vessel, for vessel 
to move to her place of loading, between the 1st of November and the 1st of April, 
and by 5 o'clock p. m., between the 1st of April and the 1st of November. In 
event of such orders as to place of loading being given to the agent of vessel as 
provided above, and vessel arrives at her place of loading by 7 o'clock a. m., say 
between the 1st of April and the 1st of November, or by 8 o'clock a. m., between 
the 1st of November and the 1st of April, on the day following her notification of 
readiness, the lay days will commence at 7 a. m., the next day following the 
service of her notification of readiness, provided said following day is not a Sunday 
or legal holiday. If vessel arrives at her place of loading later than 7 o'clock a. m., 
or 8 o'clock a. m. (as stipulated above in this rule), but not later than 12 o'clock 
noon, the days shall commence to count at noon of the day of her arrival at the 
place of loading, unless that day is Saturday legal half holiday, in which case 
time shall count from 7 o'clock a. m. the following working day. 

Rule 4- Demurrage. — In case where any portion of a day more than one-half 
day is used in loading a vessel after the expiration of lay daj^s stipulated for 
loading in charter party, such portion of lay day so used shall be charged and 
paid for by charterers as 1 full day's demurrage per charter party, except in case 
where lay days of vessel would have expired at noon, per rule 3, in which case the 
balance of such day of expiration shall be charged for as one-half of 1 day's de- 
murrage. 



PORT LABOR AND METHODS EMPLOYED IN HANDLING CARGO 331 

Rule 5. — In case a vessel is loaded by 12 o'clock noon on the day after expiration 
of lay days alloted for loading, and vessel can still clear at the customhouse and 
the consulate the same day, no demurrage shall be charged by vessel to charterers 
for the use of that portion of a day. Should the vessel not be able to clear until 
Monday, owing to the next day after expiration of lay days being Saturday legal 
half holiday, then the vessel shall be entitled to 2 days' demurrage. 

Rule 6. — In the event of orders for vessel to move to her place of loading not 
being served on the agents of the vessel in accordance with rule 3, the vessel must, 
upon eventual receipt from the charterers of orders to move, proceed to her place 
of loading as soon thereafter as tide and weather will permit; the lay days, how- 
ever, to count as per original notification of readiness delivered in accordance 
with rule 3. 

Rule 7. Clearance. — Charterers shall be allowed the day after the completion 
of loading of cargo in which to clear same at the customhouse and to prepare 
necessary shipping documents, and rule 5, regarding Sundays and legal holidays, 
shall apply in this case, it being part of this rule that charterers shall clear the 
cargo, as stated, in time for vessel to be cleared at the customhouse and consulate 
in accordance with advertised office hours. 

Rule 8. — When a vessel's name, nationality, tonnage, class in a specified "rec- 
ord" and position are correctly stated at time of charter and the vessel is accepted, 
the contract shall be considered closed, and subsequent insurance inquiries shall 
not afl"ect the transaction. 

Rule 9. Definition of word "about". — In chartering, the phrase "about," when 
applied to readiness of vessels to load or to sail, either in respect to a vessel in this 
or in another American port or in a foreign port, shall be understood to mean not 
to exceed 5 days for sailing vessel or for steamer from date of actual fixing of 
vessel. 

Note. — It is earnestly recommended that whenever it is at all possible that the 
use of such indefinite and misleading phrases as "nearly," "promptly," "about 
ready," "first-class," be avoided, and thus obviate many of the lawsuits and 
arbitrations certain to result from employing such indefinite terms. 

Rule 10. Charterers. — It is understood that wherever the word "charterers" is 
used in the foregoing rules it means charterers or their duly accredited representa- 
tives. 

Rule 11. Strike clause. — In case a strike, at the petroleum yard at which or 
from which vessel is loading shall make it impossible for charterers to furnish 
cargo, and/or in case of a strike of stevedores or other laborers employed by the 
vessel, preventing the latter from receiving cargo, the ship shall be free from 
responsibility on account of the delay and lay days will not count during such 
strikes. In either case, such vessels as are detained by strikes, as above, shall not 
be charged any wharfage as long as they are prevented from receiving cargo on 
account of said strikes. 

Lay-day scale. — On vessels loading petroleum in barrels, 1,000 barrels per day, 
Sundays and holidays excepted; on vessels loading petroleum in cases, 7,500 cases 
per day, Sundays and holidays excepted, unless otherwise provided for in charter 
party or contract. 

Demurrage scale. — As per charter party or contract. 

Wharfage rates at petroleum vjharves at Philadelphia and Marcus Hook, Pa. — 
Wharfage is chargeable at the rate of 1 cent per net registered ton per day or 
fraction thereof. 



332 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Rules for Loading and Unloading Lumber 

[Approved by the Board of Directors of the Philadelphia Maritime Exchange, August 6, 1923] 

Nothing in these rules is intended or is to be construed as interfering in any 
way with terms and conditions of charter parties or agreements existing between 
contracting parties. These rules, however, essentially conform to current charter 
conditions. 

Southern fine cargoes 

Customary dispatch. — This term shall be construed to mean that the consignees 
shall furnish a berth for vessel to discharge cargo within 24 hours from the time 
master reports that he is ready to deliver the same — such time to be counted from 
full half days — that is, when master reports before noon, said 24 hours shall com- 
mence to count from 1 o'clock p. m. of the same day; and when he reports after 
noon, it shall commence to count from 7 o'clock a. m. of the day foUov/ing. 

Discharge of cargo. — In discharge of cargo, 35,000 feet per working day, 4 by 4 
and 5 by 4 boards, and 40,000 feet per working day of resawed and plank, shall 
constitute a day's work, Sundays and legal holidays excepted, for each 10 hours 
during the months of March to October, both inclusive, or proportionately for 9 
hours during the months of November, December, January, and February. 

Wharfage. — The rate of wharfage for vessels shall be 1 cent per ton, up to a 
registered tonnage of 300 and an addition of one-half of 1 cent per ton, per day 
above the 300 tons, to the full registered tonnage of the vessel. 

Railroad ties — Delivery. — Consignees shall have 24 hours (Sundays and legal 
holidays excepted) after the vessel arrives and the master, or vessel's agent, re- 
ports, in which to furnish the vessel with a berth where she can discharge. At the 
expiration of said 24 hours, vessel's lay days shall commence; except that, in case 
consignees have given orders within the allotted time, and vessel fails to report at 
berth before noon, her lay days shall not begin until the morning following. 

Lay days allowed consignee for receiving cargo shall be as follows, viz : 24 hours 
to furnish a berth as provided in above rule, and 1 running day (Sundays and legal 
holidays excepted) for every 50,000 feet board measure of the ties. 

PORT AND TERMINAL SERVICES AND CHARGES 

PILOTAGE 

Official pilot boats are stationed off the entrance to Delaware Bay 
and all incoming vessels should apply to them for a pilot. Outgoing 
vessels may obtain a pilot by making application to the offices of the 
Philadelphia Pilots, Pliiladelphia, Pa. 

Vessels subject to pilotage. — Every ship or vessel arriving from or 
bound to any foreign port or place is obliged to receive a pilot, except 
American vessels solely laden with coal mined in the United States; 
provided that a ship or vessel inward bound to any port or place on the 
River Delaware, which is not spoken or offered the services of a pilot 
outside a straight line drawn from Cape May Light to Cape Henlopen 
Light, is exempt from the duty of taking a pilot, as well as from the 
duty of paying pilotage, or any penalty whatsoever. 

Vessels exempt from pilotage. — All ships or vessels employed in or 
licensed for the coasting trade, having on board a pilot duly licensed 



PORT AND TERMINAL SERVICES AND CHARGES 333 

to operate in these waters by the Federal Government, are exempt 
from the duty of employmg a pilot or paying pilotage, or any penalty 
whatsoever, but any ship or vessel voluntarily taking a pilot shall 
pay the same fees for pilotage as are prescribed in case of a vessel 
bound to or from a foreign port. 

Delaware Breakwater 'pilotage. — Every ship or vessel liable to pilot- 
age bound to the Delaware Breakwater for orders is obliged to receive 
a pilot provided she is spoken or a pilot ofl'ers his services outside of a 
straight line drawn from Cape Henlopen Light to Cape May Light. 
Every such ship or vessel shall pay as a fee a sum equal to half the 
pilotage to the port of Philadelphia. Vessels shall also be obliged to 
receive a pilot and pay the same pilotage fees when outward bound 
from the breakwater. If such sliip or vessel, without discharging her 
pilot, proceed to the port of Philadelphia, or any other port or place 
on the Bay or River Delaware, only one full pilotage fee shall be paid, 
in addition to the fee for detention; provided, however, that if the 
pilot bringing such ship or vessel to the breakwater be there discharged, 
and the sliip or vessel afterward proceeds to Philadelpliia or any other 
port or place on the Bay or River Delaware, she shall make the usual 
signal for a pilot and continue to make such signal until reaching 
Brandywine Light, and if spoken by or offered the service of a duly 
licensed Pennsylvania pilot, before reaching Brandywine Light, shall 
be obliged to employ such pilot and pay him the regular rates in addi- 
tion to the fee paid for bringing her into the breakwater, and for deten- 
tion, if any. 

Detention. — In case a pilot having charge of a vessel and while con- 
ducting said vessel be detained, either by order of the master, owner or 
consignee, or by ice or any other unavoidable circumstance, not per- 
sonal to himself, he shall receive compensation for such detention at 
the rate of $3 per day for each day so detained, commencing at a 
period of 24 hours from the time the detention first occurred. 

Either Pennsylvania or Delaware pilots are taken to or from any 
point on Delaware Bay or River, and the fees in either case are the 
same. Both Pennsylvania and Delaware pilots will be found aboard 
one vessel, either steamer or auxiliary schooner, which will be found 
cruising outside the entrance of the bay. 

Pilotage fees. — Pilotage fees are based on a charge of $2 per half 
foot for vessels drawing 12 feet or less, and $2.50 per half foot for 
vessels drawing over 12 feet. An increase of 10 percent over these 
fees is charged when a vessel is spoken east of Five Fathom Bank 
Lightship or north of Hereford Inlet Lighthouse, or south of Fenwick 
Island Lighthouse, and a deduction of 10 percent is made when a 
vessel is spoken inside of a line joining Cape May and Cape Henlopen 
Lighthouses. 



334 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 
Pilotage rates on the Delaware Bay and River 



Feet 


Inward (if spoken 
east of Five 
Fathom Bank 
Lightship, or 
north of Here- 
ford Inlet Light- 
ship, or south 
of Fenwick's 
Island Light) 


Inward (if spoken 
inside of Five 
Fathom Light- 
ship and outside 

of line drawn 

from Cape May 

Light to Cape 

Henlopen Light) 


Inward (if not 
spoken until in- 
side of line 
drawn from 
Cape May Light 
to Cape Hen- 
lopen Light) 


Outward 


8 - 


$35. 20 
39.60 
44.00 
48.40 
52.80 
71.50 
77.00 
82.50 
88.00 
93.50 
99.00 
104. 50 
110.00 
115.60 
121.00 
126.50 
132. 00 
137.50 
143.00 
148. 50 
154.00 
159.50 


$32.00 
36.00 
40.00 
44.00 
48.00 
65.00 
70.00 
75.00 
80.00 
85.00 
90.00 
95.00 
100. 00 
10.5. 00 
110.00 
115.00 
120.00 
125. 00 
130.00 
135. 00 
140.00 
145. 00 


$28. 80 
32.40 
36.00 
39. 00 
43.20 
58.50 
63.00 
67.50 
72.00 
76.50 
81.00 
85.50 
90.00 
94.50 
99.00 
103. 50 
108.00 
112.50 
117.00 
121. 50 
126.00 
130. 50 


$32.00 


9 - 


36.00 


10 


40.00 


11 


44.00 


12 


48.00 


13 


65. 00 


U - 


70.00 


16 


75.00 


16 


80.00 


17 


85.00 


18 


90.00 


19 


95.00 


20 


100.00 


21 


105.00 


22 


110.00 


23 


115.00 


24 


120.00 


25.... 


125.00 


26 


130.00 


27 


135.00 


28 


140.00 


29.... 


145.00 







TOWAGE 

Of the 20 companies operating tugboats at Pliiladelphia only 5 are 
regularly engaged in handling steamships. The remainder are 
engaged principally in towing barges and lighters between Delaware 
River points. Tugs may be obtained at any time of the day or night 
for any type of service required. Although some operators limit their 
activities to points within the Philadelphia port area most of the 
companies include the entire Delaware River and Bay and tributary 
waters in their zone of operations. Several companies also have tugs 
available for deep sea towing. 

The following standard rates, terms, and conditions are generally 
quoted by tugboat companies basing at Philadelphia for services 
rendered between Wilmington, Del., and Trenton, N. J., and within 
the port area. Charges for services performed by the towing com- 
pany which are not provided for in the tariff are generally determined 
by mutual agreement between the towing company and the vessel or 
its agent on a contract or time rate basis. 

As a general rule tugs are not required by vessels moving between 
Philadelphia and the sea. Most vessels traverse this distance under 
their own power. 



PORT AND TERMINAL SERVICES AND CHARGES 335 

Schedule of rates, terms, and conditions 

(1) For assisting steamer between Allegheny Avenue, Port Richmond, and 

Windy Point, as follows: 

Each tug 
From stream or anchorage to dock between the above points or vice 

versa $43 

From dock to dock between the above points or vice versa. 56 

From dock or anchorage, Delaware River front, to or from — 

League Island, dock or anchorage, or Mantua Creek anchorage. 75 

Bridesburg 68 

Girard Point 75 

Point Breeze or Gibson Point 100 

Harrison's wharf, Grays Ferry 137 

Hog Island, Paulsboro, or Thompson's Point 100 

Chester, Thurlow, or Marcus Hook 118 

Marine Terminal, Wilmington, or Deepwater Point 187 

Burlington, Roebling 125 

From Philadelphia, Delaware River front, to Marine Terminal, 

Trenton, or vice versa 187 

From Paulsboro, Chester, Marcus Hook, to Marine Terminal, 

Wilmington or Deepwater Point or vice versa 187 

For all services to or from points between Allegheny Ave. and 
Pennsylvania R. R. bridge, each tug $12.50, in addition to above 
rates. 

(2) For assisting steamer from anchorage at League Island or Mantua 

Creek to — 

Girard Point, or vice versa 50 

Point Breeze, or vice versa 68 

Gibson's Point, or vice versa 75 

Harrison's wharf, Grays Ferry, or vice versa 112 

Hog Island, Paulsboro or Thompson's Point, or vice versa 93 

Chester, Thurlow or Marcus Hook, or vice versa 112 

Deepwater Point or Marine Terminal, Wilmington, or vice versa 175 

(3) For assisting steamer from Girard Point to — 

Point Breeze, or vice versa 68 

Gibson's Point, or vice versa 75 

Hog Island, Paulsboro or Thompson's Point, or vice versa 106 

Chester, Thurlow or Marcus Hook, or vice versa 125 

Deep Water Point or Marine Terminal, Wilmington, or vice versa 187 

(4) For assisting steamer from stream or anchorage opposite berth into 

berth at — 

Hog Island, Paulsboro or Thompson's Point, or vice versa 81 

Eddystone, Chester, Thurlow or Marcus Hook, or vice versa 93 

(5) For assisting steamer from dock to dock at points between — 

A — Paulsboro and/or Hog Island and/or Marcus Hook, or vice versa. 112 

B — Dock to dock at Paulsboro 100 

(6) For assisting steamer from stream or anchorage off: To Deep Water 

Point or Marine Terminal, Wilmington, or vice versa 156 

(7) For assisting steamer in moving at Girard Point 62 

(8) For assisting steamer in moving at Point Breeze 68 



336 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Schedule of rates, terms, and conditions — Continued 

(9) For assisting steamer from Point Breeze to — Each tuff 

Hog Island, Paulsboro or Thompson's Point, or vice versa $143 

Chester, Thurlow or Marcus Hook, or vice versa 156 

Deep Water Point or Marine Terminal, Wilmington 206 

It is requested that all orders for tugboat services shall be given between 
8 a. m. and 5 p. m. on business days and should be definite orders for steam- 
er's movements. 

(10) For assisting a steamer by towing, attendance, or furnishing steam, $18.75 

per hour for each tug when services are rendered exclusively at or above 
Marcus Hook, and $31.25 per hour for each tug when services are rendered 
in whole or in part below Marcus Hook, the time chargeable to include 
in addition the running times of tugs from and to tug stations at Phila- 
delphia. 

(11) If tugs are sent to render services to a steamer and the steamer has not 

arrived or for any cause is not ready, detention of the tugs while waiting 
shall be paid at the rate of $15 per hour for each tug unless the tugs are 
discharged promptly upon arrival; and if they are so discharged the run- 
ning times of the tugs from and to tug stations at Philadelphia shall be 
paid at the rate of $18.75 per hour for each tug if the place to which they 
were ordered is at or above Marcus Hook, and $31.25 per hour for each 
tug if the place to which they were ordered is below Marcus Hook. 

(12) If tugs are ordered and sent to render service to a steamer which performs 

the movement without their assistance, the tugs shall be paid at the rates 
in this schedule applying to the particular services for which they are 
ordered, the same as if the tugs had performed the services; provided, 
however, that the tugs report when ordered. 

(13) When services to a steamer require the tugs to come into service or be- 

operated before 7 a. m. or after 5 p. m., the tugs shall be paid a further 
charge of $12.50 per hour net for each tug in addition to the regular rates 
in this schedule applying to the particular services. 

(14) When it becomes necessary for tugs engaged in assisting a steamer to shift 

such other vessels as elevators, railroad floats, coal boats, barges, lighters, 
or scows in order that the steamer may be properly moved, placed, or 
handled, an additional charge shall be paid of $12.50 per tug for each tug^ 
engaged in such shifting of each of such other vessels. 

(15) For all services on Sundays or holidays each tug shall be paid one and one- 

half the rates in this schedule applying to the particular services. Sunday 
or holiday work shall be optional with the tugs and their owners, agents, 
and charterers who shall not be liable for any inability or refusal whatso- 
ever to perform Sunday or holiday work, or for any delay or loss to steamer 
and concerned resulting from the same. 

(16) If tugs are ordered into service by or in behalf of a steamer for a movement 

or service expected to be performed or required on a Sunday or holiday 
and the movement or service is not performed or required by the steamer, 
the tugs shall be paid at the Sunday and holiday rates in this schedule 
applying to the particular services, the same as if the tugs had performed 
the services. 

(17) When ice interferes in any respect with the movements of the tugs or the 

steamer, the above rates in this schedule shall not apply, but the rates 
shall then be as follows: For all tug services rendered exclusively at or 
above Marcus Hook, $25 per hour for each tug, the minimum total charge 
per tug to be not less than the rates in preceding paragraphs hereof apply- 



PORT AND TERMINAL SERVICES AND CHARGES 337 

ing to the particular services in clear water; and for all tug services ren- 
dered in whole or in part below Marcus Hook, such special rates as may 
be mutually agreed upon by and between the tugs and the steamer at the 
time. 
(IS) Whenever the master or other officer of any tug or any licensed pilot goes 
on board a steamer to assist her movement or handling, he becomes and 
continues to be solely the servant of said steamer and her owners in respect 
of all acts done by him and all orders given by him to any tugs engaged 
or to said steamer or otherwise in the movement or handling of said 
steamer; and none of the tugs or their owners, agents, or charterers shall 
be responsible or liable for any claims or damages caused by or resulting 
from such acts or orders. 

(19) The regular charge made by the master or other officer of a tug or by any 

licensed pilot for going on board another vessel and directing or assisting 
in directing her movement or handling, shall be paid by such other vessel 
directly to such master or other officer or licensed pilot or to his agent. 

(20) For all services not specifically covered by stated rates in this schedule, 

such special rates or compensation shall be charged as may be mutually 
agreed upon by the tugs and the steamer or steamers at the time or times. 

(21) Subject to 30 days after date of written notice prices named herein are 

subject to adjustment in proportion to the increase in operating expenses 
due to changes in laws or regulations and changes in working conditions 
of labor and labor costs in all branches. 

(22) The furnishing of any towage service shall not be construed to be a personal 

contract and it is understood that we shall have the benefit of the exemp- 
tions from and limitations of liability contained in the United States 
limited statutes. 

(23) The tugs and their owners, agents, and charterers shall not be responsible 

or liable for any expenses, losses, damages, or claims whatsoever caused 
by or resulting from their nonperformance of services due to strikes, 
labor difficulties, breakdowns, accidents, or any causes beyond their 
control. 

(24) The above rates, terms and conditions supersede all previous schedules of 

rates, terms, and conditions, and are eflfective from January 1, 1938. 

DOCKAGE 

Dockage is charged against vessels for the use of a berth alongside 
a pier or wharf. 

At Philadelphia practically all terminals open to public use levy 
a dockage charge against vessels berthing at their facilities, subject 
to such rules and conditions as ma}'^ be set forth by the terminal. 

Municipal terminals. — The Department of Wharves, Docks, and 
Ferries levies a dockage charge of 2 cents per net registered ton per 
calendar day, subject to a minimum charge of 50 dollars per day or 
fraction thereof, at all unleased piers or wharves. 

Railroad terminals. — The railroad owned and operated piers and 
wharves assess a wharfage charge, which is really a dockage charge, 
of 1 cent per net registered ton per day on steamers ; one-half cent 
per gross registered ton on sailing vessels; and $2 per day for canal 
boats, inland barges, and small river craft. Their tariffs provide, 
however, that no charge will be made against vessels while discharging 



338 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

or loading provided that the cargoes of such vessels in full, or in part, 
will pass or have passed over the carriers' lines. 

Philadelphia Piers, Inc. — The Philadelphia Piers, Inc., levy a dock- 
age charge of 2 cents per net registered ton per day, berthing date and 
sailing date to count as 1 day's dockage when total charge is computed. 
Certain exceptions to this charge are made as follows: 

1. Vessels discharging straight cargoes of ore or pig iron are assessed a dockage 
charge of 1 cent per net registered ton per day. 

2. Steamship lines operating jointly on a cooperative or interchanging ship basis 
or which are under common ownership, or an individual steamship line, which 
during any calendar quarter of the year discharges or loads general cargo ' in 
excess of 5,000 net tons, but not more than 10,000 net tons shall be entitled to 
during the next following calendar quarter a dockage charge of l}i cents per net 
registered ton per day or fractional part thereof. 

3. Steamship lines operating jointly on a cooperative or interchanging ship 
basis or which are under common ownership, or an individual line which during 
any calendar quarter of the year discharges or loads general cargo ' in excess of 
10,000 net tons, shall be entitled during the next calendar quarter to a dockage 
charge of 1 cent per net registered ton per day or fraction thereof. 

4. Vessels of steamship lines regularly berthing at this terminal shall have the 
privilege of using a berth before loading and after discharging without charge for 
days when idle, provided the terminal has no use for the berth, and the line agrees 
to move the idle vessel from the berth on two hours notice from the terminal. 
Failure to move the vessel upon notice renders the vessel liable to a dockage charge 
of 2 cents per net registered ton per day and which is assessed for each idle day, 
or the vessel may be moved by the terminal at the expense of the vessel. 

Private piers and wharves. — There are very few piers or wharves 
owned or operated by private business or steamship lines whose dock- 
ing facilities are open to public use. When such facilities are obtain- 
able the dockage charge is usually by private agreement. 

WHARFAGE 

The Department of Wharves, Docks, and Ferries levies a wharfage 
or shed hire charge of 10 cents per ton of freight interchanged between 
vessel and wharf at all of its unleased terminals. 

The railroads assess vessels using their facilities a "wharfage" 
charge which is really a charge for dockage. It is described under the 
latter heading on page 337. 

Top wharfage. — On import and export freight discharged from or 
deUvered to vessels over the piers of the various railroads there is a 
top wharfage charge of 2/2 cents per 100 pounds when the movement 
to or from the piers is otherwise than in the railroad company's service. 
Minimum charge, 50 cents per sliipment. Freight delivered to piers 
by one shipper or received from piers by one consignee in any one day 

' General cargo is cargo that Is packed, I. e., barrels, drums, kegs, boxes, crates, cases, bags, bales, rolls, 
etc. other cargo such as lumber, shingles, and other forest products, as well as bulk cargo,Jsuch as oil, chalk, 
china clay, flaxseed, ore, pig iron, etc., will not be considered as geneial cargo for the purpose of determining 
dockage charges. 



PORT AND TERMINAL SERVICES AND CHARGES 339 

will be considered a single shipment for the purpose of applyiQg the 
minimum top wharfage charge. 

The Philadelphia Piers, Inc., adhere to the railroad tariffs and assess 
top wharfage under the same conditions and in the same amount as do 
the railroads. This company acts as an agent for the railroads and as 
such is compensated by them for all services performed in connection 
with line haul traffic. 

LOADING AND UNLOADING 

The several railroads serving the port of Philadelphia publish 
substantially the same charges and rules governing the loading and 
unloading of railroad cars. While the various carrier's provisions 
differ in a few minor points the following charges and rules are apphed : 

Coastwise traffic. — On coastwise domestic traffic, except lumber, 
moving via water lines which pays the railroads 10 cents per 100 
pounds or $2 per ton (2,000 or 2,240 pounds, as rated), or higher, the 
rate will include loading from piers to cars or unloading from cars to 
piers when the traffic is forwarded from or delivered to railroad piers 
by regularly established steamship lines. 

Where the railroads receive 13 cents per 100 pounds or $2.60 per 
ton (2,000 or 2,240 pounds, as rated), or higher, the service of both 
loading and unloading will be performed free on the same shipment at 
stations in Philadelphia, where the carrier is required by tariff to 
perform such service. Lumber is also excepted from this provision. 

On coastwise traffic except lumber, paying less than 10 cents pei 
100 pounds or $2 per ton (2,000 or 2,240 poimds, as rated), when 
the service is performed by the raUroads, there will be an additional 
charge for loading or unloading cars of 55 cents per ton of 2,000 or 
2,240 pounds, as the case may be, which will be added to the freight 
rate. The total charge, however, combining freight rate and loading 
or unloading charge will not exceed 10 cents per 100 pounds. 

Where the railroads receive less than 13 cents per 100 pounds and 
perform the service of both loading and unloading on the same ship- 
ment at stations in Philadelphia, where required by tariff to perform 
such service, there wUl be a charge of 55 cents per ton (2,000 or 2,240 
pounds, as rated) for each service of loading or unloading which will 
be in addition to the regular freight rate. However, the total com- 
bined charge wUl not exceed 13 cents per 100 pounds. This provision 
also is not applicable to lumber. The railroads reserve the right to 
perform this service with their own facilities. 

The above rules and charges will not apply on traffic loaded to or 
from open cars at uncovered piers nor on oils and other freight in 
bulk, except sulphur. 



340 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Intercoastal traffic. — Unless otherwise provided by tariffs, on inter- 
coastal traffic, except lumber, moved via the Panama Canal which pays 
the railroads 10 cents per 100 pounds or higher on in-bound or out- 
bound traffic, the rate will include loading from piers to cars or un- 
loading from cars to piers on both the carriers' piers and other public 
piers operated by steamship companies, pier companies, city of 
Philadelphia, city of Camden, or individuals excepting piers controlled 
by the owners of the traffic. 

In all other respects intercoastal traffic is generally subject to the 
same loading and unloading provisions as coastwise traffic except 
that the rules do not apply on: 

1. Freight in bulk (except bulk clay and ores) or on pieces or packages exceed- 
ing 3 tons in weight, or on pieces of extraordinary dimensions, or upon pieces or 
packages of extraordinary measurements or size compared with the weight 
thereof. However, the provisions do apply when arrangements can be made 
for handling shipments restricted as to weight or measurements. Arrangements 
must be made with the railroad company for handling such shipments and all 
inquiries in reference thereto must contain full description of the property in- 
cluding dimensions, weight, point of shipment, steamship hne or vessel to be 
delivered to or received from and the name of shipper or consignee. 

2. Grain in bulk will be subject to this rule only when for delivery to steamers 
of the regular lines docking at piers within the lighterage limits. 

3. Freight unloaded from open top cars at uncovered piers, or freight other 
than lumber loaded in open cars at uncovered piers. 

4. Oils in bulk at either open or closed piers. 

Import and export traffic. — The same rules and charges applicable 
to intercoastal traffic are applicable to import and export traffic with 
the exception that they do not apply on: 

1. Import traffic other than lumber when loaded into open cars at uncovered 
piers. 

2. Export traffic when unloaded from open cars at uncovered piers. 

3. Bulk grain (except flaxseed) except when it is to be delivered to steamers of 
the regular lines docking at piers within the lighterage limits. 

4. Pieces or packages exceeding 3 tons in weight, or on pieces of extraordinary 
dimensions, or upon pieces or packages of extraordinary measurements or size 
compared with the weight thereof. 

5. Oils in bulk at either open or closed piers. 

Lumber. — The following rules and charges govern the loading of 
lumber, all kinds, including logs, wooden poles, wooden ties and 
wooden piling received from vessels in coastwise, intercoastal (via 
Panama Canal) or import trade: 

Charges will be assessed in addition to the freight charge whether 
lumber is handled direct from vessels to cars, or from piers to cars, or 
received from intermediate storage, or received from vessels by lighters 
or car floats. 

On lumber paying a freight rate of 10 cents per 100 pounds or $2 per 
2,000 pounds or higher there will be a charge of 39 cents per 2,000 



PORT AND TERMINAL SERVICES AND CHARGES 



341 



pounds for loading on open cars, and 83 cents per 2,000 pounds for 
loading into box cars. 

On lumber paying a freight rate of less than 10 cents per 100 pounds 
or $2 per 2,000 pounds there will be a charge of 55 cents per 2,000 
pounds for loading on open cars and 83 cents per 2,000 pounds for 
loading into box cars. In this case the total freight and loading 
charge shall not exceed 12 cents per 100 pounds or $2.40 per 2,000 
pounds for loading on open cars. 

HANDLING CHARGES 



With the exception of certain specified commodities such as lumber, 
lath, and shingles, the terminals at Philadelphia do not publish regular 
handling charges. The practice at the railroads and most other 
terminals is to apply the same rate as is applicable to loading and 
unloading rail cars when handling of commodities on pier or wharf is 
necessary, namely, 2% cents per 100 pounds with a minimum charge of 
55 cents. When commodities are handled into storage after expiration 
of free time the handling cost is absorbed in the storage rate. If the 
tenninal handles or moves commodities for its own convenience, no 
charge is assessed against the cargo. 

The following table shows the handling charges applicable to lumber, 
lath, and shingles at the principal lumber handUng terminals in 
Philadelphia and Camden: 

Handling charges on lumber, lath, and shingles 



To place of rest: 

In open yard for truck delivery... 

Covered protection for truck delivery 

For box-car loading 

To open storage, piled 

To covered storage, piled ' _ 

To open storage, piled and stripped (owner to furnish strips) 

To covered storage, piled and stripped ' (owner to furnish strips) 

To open storage, sorted and piled ' 

To covered storage, sorted and piled ' 

To open storage, piled by crane (Camden only) _ 

Stowing lighters under ship's tackle' ". _ 

Loading and stowing lighters from pier floor ' 

Loading open top cars direct from ship's tackle, pier floor, or storage 

(per net ton) ,. 

Loading box cars from pier floor (per net ton) 

Loading trucks (when requested): « 

Complete loading- 
Lumber, not including timbers 

Timbers 

Assisting to load 

Sorting when piling for open or covered storage, or when loading to 

open top or box cars * 

Sorting after piling to storage has been done, charge to be based on 
actual amount of lumber handled * 



Lumber, 

per 1,000 

feet 



$1.00 
1.25 

.50 
L50 
2.00 
1.75 
2.25 
2.25 
2.75 
1.25 

.58 
2.00 

.35 
.75 



.65 
1.00 
.50 

.75 

2.00 



Lath, 100 
per bundle 



$0. 015 



.015 
.015 
.015 



.02 



.015 



Shingles, 
per bundle 



$0.02 
.025 
.015 
.02 
.025 



.0325 



.015 



.01 



1 Only intercoastal carriers quote rate on lath. 

' No charge quoted by Ontario Lumber Co. 

' This charge applied by intercoastal carriers only. 

* Charges quoted by Ontario Land Co. and Philadelphia piers only. 

Tariff authority: Intercoastal Eastbound Freight Tariff— Alternate Agent Joseph A. Wells, S. B.-I 
No. 7; Camden Marine Terminals— Lumber tariff; Philadelphia Piers, Inc.— Lumber Tariff No. 3; Ontario 
Land Co. Lumber Tariff No. 3; Calmar Steamship Corporation— S. B.-I No. 4. 

78920—39 23 



342 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Blocking, staking, or otherwise securing import freight 

Import freight forwarded from shipside or dock of steamer upon 
which imported, or from bonded warehouses or appraisers' stores, 
which requires securing by blocking, staking, or otlierwise on or in 
cars for safe transportation, where the rate is 10 cents per 100 lbs., or 
$2.00 per ton, net or gross as rated, or more, no charge for such service 
will be assessed, and no freight charges will be assessed on the weight 
of the material used except that on shipments transported at carload 
rates in no case shall less than the minimum carload weight prescribed 
in tariff or governmg classification be charged. 

Where the rate is less than 10 cents per 100 lbs., or $2.00 per ton, 
net or gross as rated, the expense of blocking, staking, etc., will be 
charged to the shipper or consignee as follows, but in no case shall the 
total charge for transportation and blocking, staking, etc., exceed 
an amount that would result from applying to the shipment a rate of 
10 cents per 100 lbs. 



Single 
cars 1 



Double 
cars ' 



Single 
cars ' 



Double 
cars ' 



Single 
cars 3 



Double 
cars' 



Lumber and timber -. 

Logs 

Poles and piling — 

Granite, marble, and stone. 



$1.93 
1.93 
1.93 
1.93 



$3.85 
3.85 
3.85 
3.85 



5.50 



$17. 60 
17. 60 
17.00 



$6.05 
6.05 
7.15 
3. 85 



$12. 10 
14.30 
14.30 



' When material is furnished by shipper and labor by the railroad company. 

* When material and labor are furnished by the railroad company. 

» When material is furnished by the railroad company and labor by the shipper. 

Per car 

Freight in barrels, half barrels, casks, drums, or kegs, carloads $6. 60 

Freight in bulk, carloads (except when door board protection only is 

required, see below) 6. 60 

Machines and machinery, carloads 6. 60 

All other freight, carloads 6. 60 

All freight, less carloads, in or on open cars 6. 60 

Freight in bulk, carloads, when door board protection only is required, 

charge for material and labor 1. 10 

Domestic freight. — Domestic freight requiring blocking or staking is 
subject to the same charges as import freight. 

Exception. — Shippers or owners must line cars at their own expense 
on sliipments of flaxseed and nitrate of soda in bulk in carload lots. 
If the carriers line such cars a charge of $5.50 will be made for lining 
each car loading imported flaxseed and $2.75 per car loading nitrate 
of soda, domestic or imported. When door protection is required 
and performed by the carrier, a charge of $1.10 per car will be made 
for material and labor. 

Protection of perishable freight. — Hay, straw, shavings, or sawdust 
furnished by the carriers, per 100 pounds, $1.65. 



PORT AND TERMINAL SERVICES AND CHARGES 343 



HEATING OR THAWING OILS 

Oils or other liquid commodities in tank cars, including switching 
to and from the facility at which the service is performed, per car, $11. 

WEIGHING 

Traffic moved or to be moved by the carrier, when weighed upon 
carrier's wagon scales, at request of shipper, consignee or owner, 
whether certificate is issued or not and including light weighing, 
14 cents per loaded vehicle. 

Outbound traffic to be moved via Pennsylvania Railroad Company 
when on carrier's wagon scales entirely for convenience of the carrier 
(not at request of shipper), weight being ascertained for carrier's 
billings or accounting purposes, no charge. 

The carrier will not undertake to make use of its wagon scales for 
the benefit of its patrons or the public at locations or outlying points 
where it has no freight agent immediately in charge of such scales, 
except at its option or convenience. 

STEVEDORING CHARGES 

Charges for loading or unloading cargo are determined by the 
stevedore upon a basis of cost plus insurance, workman's compensation, 
social security, contingencies, and profit. The competitive nature of 
the stevedore's business and the varying problems attending each 
ship and type of cargo make it impossible to quote loading or unloading 
charges that may be applicable on the cargo of any vessel. For actual 
costs shippers and steamship agents should consult with the stevedore, 
informing him as to type of commodity, sizes of packages, origin, name 
of vessel, where stowed or to be stowed, whether direct ship to car 
transfer is desired, whether cargo is to be handled direct to or from 
storage, etc. As a rule all charges are based on a ton of 2,240 pounds 
or 40 cubic feet. 

Stevedores own practically all equipment needed to handle average 
types of cargo but vessels are usually required to furnish necessary 
winches, blocks, ropes for falls, duimage, and lights. Where floating 
cranes or other special types of handling apparatus are required and 
such equipment is not operated by the stevedore, an extra charge is 
usually assessed against the vessel. The stevedore is generally com- 
pensated for any labor used in connection with special handling 
equipment and for any waiting time incurred. 

No extra charges are assessed for loading direct to or from open 
cars, barges, or lighters, but when the stevedore loads or unloads 
box cars, an extra charge is made. Car loaders are generally 
hired by the stevedore to perform this latter operation. Unless 



344 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

absorbed by the rail carrier the charge for handhng between ship's 
tackle and car is against the cargo. 

The average distance cargo will be trucked by stevedore is in the 
neighborhood of 150 feet. However, the distance varies with the 
stevedore and quite often with the amount of cargo that is to be 
moved. Where excessive distances must be traversed, the cost of 
additional labor and tractors necessary to keep cargo moving con- 
tinuously is assessed against the ship. 

Stevedores operating on the Delaware generally carry insurance 
covering cargo, ship, and pier damage. Shippers and vessels should 
determine if insurance is carried, and if not, should satisfy themselves 
as to the responsibility of the stevedore for damages. 

The following list of loading and discharging costs is indicative of 
rates presently in effect. 

Loading or dis- 
charging per 
„ .... freight pay abU 

Commodities: um 

Agricultural machinery and parts, per ton of 2,240 pounds $1. 68 

Agricultural machinery and parts, per ton of 40 cubic feet 1.08 

Automobiles, automobile parts and accessories, per ton of 2,240 

pounds 1. 33 

Automobiles, automobile parts and accessories, per ton of 40 cubic 

feet . 71 

Bags, bagging, rags, old rope . 98 

Bulk cargoes, not otherwise specified (by special arrangement) 

Chemicals (casks, drums, barrels, carboys) .90 

Chalk .68 

Clay, all kinds 1. 15 

Cocoa beans 1. 33 

Copper ingots, bars, slabs, plates, cathodes, rods .80 

Cork and cork waste 1. 54 

Damaged cargoes and explosives (by special arrangement) 

Grain, in bulk, trimming per 1,000 bushels (not to include quantity 

sacked) 3. 76 

Grain, filling into bags and stowing per 1,000 bushels 33. 24 

Grain, sewing bags in loading, per bag .07 

Grain, laying separations, each 33. 24 

General cargo — loading, per ton of 2,240 pounds 1. 07 

General cargo — loading, per ton of 40 cubic feet .92 

General cargo — discharging, per ton of 2,240 pounds 1. 07 

General cargo — discharging, per ton of 40 cubic feet .88 

Hair .-- 1.09 

Heavy lifts over 3 gross tons, by ship's gear (commodity rate not to 

apply) .88 

Hides, wet or salted, loose per 1,000 45. 86 

Hides, or skins, wet or salted, in bundles or bales, per ton of 2,240 

pounds 1. 09 

Hides or skins, dry in bundles or bales, per ton of 2,240 pounds 1. 48 

Iron pipe and fittings 2. 00 

Marble and stone 1. 33 

Napthalene, in bags 1. 33 



PORT AND TERMINAL SERVICES AND CHARGES 345 

Loading or dis- 
charging per 
^ .... ^ ,. J freight payable 

Commodities — Continued. ton 

Ore, all kinds, not otherwise specified (by ship's gear) $1. 00 

Oil (other than case oil) and grease at refinery, per ton of 2,240 

pounds . 88 

Oil (other than case oil) and grease elsewhere per ton of 2,240 pounds, . 80 

Oil, in cases at refinery, per ton of 2,240 pounds 1. 13 

Oil, in cases, elsewhere per ton of 2,240 pounds 1.13 

Ballast (including disposal) 1. 26 

Oil cake 1.26 

Rosin 1. 33 

Sand, in bags 1. 26 

Scrap rubber 2. 00 

Seeds, all kinds 1. 43 

Spath flour 1. 13 

Steel and iron products, including bars, bar ends, rods, sheets, 
billets, ingots, blooms, strips, wire, nails, fencing, also angle bars 

and channel bars, in bundles . 83 

Structural iron and steel, such as beams, angles, channels, plates, 

rails- __ . 80 

Sugar, at pier other than refinery 1. 07 

Talc - 1.33 

Toys, matches, paperware, wickerware, toilet paper, feathers, pic- 
tures, crockery, earthenware, glassware, tree ornaments, willowware, 
antiques, baskets, household effects, pottery, furniture, per ton 

of 40 cubic feet . 77 

Toys, matches, paperware, wickerware, toilet paper, feathers, pic- 
tures, crockery, earthenware, glassware, tree ornaments, willow- 
ware, antiques, baskets, household eff"ects, pottery, furniture, per 

ton of 2,240 pounds - 2. 86 

Wool -- 1.26 

STORAGE CHARGES, RULES AND REGULATIONS 

Storage at Municipal Wharves 

Out-bound freight may be assembled on the unleased wharves of 
the Department of Wharves, Docks, and Ferries for 5 days exclusive 
of Sundays and holidays prior to the docking of the vessel on which 
it is to be loaded, and incoming freight may remain on the wharves 
for the same period after the vessel has completed discharging without 
payment of storage charges. 

Upon the expiration of free time, a charge of % cent per square foot 
per calendar day, or fraction thereof based on the gross rectangular 
area of floor space occupied until wharf is completely cleared, will be 
levied. 

Storage space in the transit sheds of the Department of Wharves, 
Docks, and Ferries may be reserved after expiration of free time at the 
rate of 4 cents per square foot for 30 days including Sundays and 
holidays. 



346 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Storage at Railroad Piers 

The following charges, rules and regulations governing free time 
allowances and storage on import, export, intercoastal, and coastwise 
freight are named in Pemisylvania Railroad's tariff 1145-D (I. C. C. 
1994) and are applicable to the berthing facilities of this company. 
These rates and conditions are generally in agreement with those 
published by the Reading Co. and the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. 

Import traffic. — On freight from foreign countries including insular 
possessions and the Canal Zone received from vessels, free time periods 
will be computed from the first 7 a. m., following the day upon which 
the carrying vessel completes discharging. A vessel is considered 
finally or completely discharged when it finishes unloading at a pier 
where freight is landed regardless of whether it later returns or moves 
to other piers. On import freight received from lighters free time 
periods will commence at the first 7 a. m. following the day on which 
freight is landed on the pier. Sunday and full legal holidays are 
excluded from free time periods and when the latter fall upon Sunday 
the succeedmg Monday will be excluded. 

Package, piece and bulk freight, except wood pulp, crude rubber, 
pig iron, manganese, iron and chrome ores awaiting reshipment via 
the Pennsylvania Railroad are allowed 5 days free time. Wood pulp 
and crude rubber are allowed 15 days free time while pig iron, man- 
ganese, iron and chrome ores are subject to standard demurrage rules 
and charges as shown in Agent B. T. Jones' I. C. C. 3072. 

Freight unloaded from vessels docking at Pennsylvania Railroad 
wharves upon w^hich the Pennsylvania Railroad does not receive a line 
haul is subject to the following free time allowances: Wood pulp and 
crude rubber, 10 days; all other freight, 5 days. After the expiration of 
the free time periods named above the following storage charges will be 
assessed on both line haul and non-line haul freight. 

Cents per 
?,000 
Woodpulp: pounds 

First 30 days or fraction thereof 17 

Each succeeding 10-day period 5)^ 

Cents per 
100 

Clay, in bulk: pounds 

First 10 days or fraction thereof 2% 

Each succeeding 10-day period 1 

Crude rubber: 

First 10 days or fraction thereof 1 

Each succeeding 10-day period % 

Other commodities, except pig iron, iron, manganese and chrome ores: 
On traffic with a minimum weight in the official classification of 24,000 
pounds or higher: 

First 30 days or fraction thereof 5% 

Each succeeding 15-day period 1% 



PORT AND TERMINAL SERVICES AND CHARGES 347 

Other commodities, except pig iron, iron, manganese and chrome ores — ^^f'^o^^ 
Continued. poundt 

On traffic with a minimum weight in official classification lower than 
24,000 pounds: 

First 30 days or fraction thereof 9 

Each succeeding 15-day period SJ'i 

Storage charges will cease when shipping instructions are given the 
railroad company. 

Export traffic. — Through export bUls of lading will be issued only 
when founded on written ocean contract and on traffic moving under 
railroad transportation permit issued by the foreign freight agent, 
Philadelpliia. 

Carload freight, except grain in bulk, shipped for export covered by 
local or export bUls of lading and actually exported will be held free 
of demurrage and storage charges for 10 days while less-carload 
freight will be held free of charge for 5 days, exclusive of the date of 
arrival, after which demurrage or storage charges accrue. In com- 
puting free time, Sundays and full legal hoHdays will be excluded and 
when a hoUday falls on Simday, the following Monday will be excluded. 
Demurrage rules and charges are not applicable on shipments of bulk 
grain, for export, except when ordered by shipper or consignee to be 
held in cars or reconsigned for domestic dehvery. 

Carload freight covered by through export bills of lading issued in 
connection with steamship Unes and operators named in the tariff 
will be held in warehouses or, at option of carriers, in cars for a period 
of 15 days, exclusive of date of arrival, after which period storage or 
demurrage charges are applicable. In connection with carload 
freight moving on through bills of lading via lines named in the 
tariff, the following rules are applicable: 

1. In the event of omission or failure of the steamship company or operator 
to clear freight on any vessel, or during any period for which specifically booked, 
or to order freight within the 15 days' time, all demurrage or storage charges 
accruing shall be paid by the steamship company or operator. 

2. If the rail carriers fail to transport shipment to the port in time to clear on 
steamer, or to clear during the period ' for which specifically booked, demurrage 
or storage charges will not apply until the announced date of the steamer on 
which it is again booked, after which date demurrage or storage charges will apply. 

3. In the event demurrage or storage charges should accrue due to interference 
with transportation by shipper or his agents, through the issuance of orders to 
hold such freight, or to divert it, or due to delay in securing, or error in preparing 
proper export documents, or for any other cause for which shipper or his agent 
are responsible, they shall be collected and paid by the shipper. 

4. Where rail carriers deliver freight at port more than 15 days prior to date 
booked, the excess time shall be considered as additional free time. 

• If freight is booked to be lifted during a certain period (not booked for a vessel to sail on a specified date) 
it will be understood that the railroad shall have cargo ready for delivery at the port on the first day of such 
period. 



348 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

5. Demurrage or storage charges will cease to apply on and after receipt by 
the railroad from steamship company of order for delivery, provided steamer for 
which shipment is intended is ready to accept cargo. If freight is to be delivered 
to a steamship pier, not operated by the carrier, said charges will cease to apply 
on delivery to the pier. 

Where carload freight covered by through export bills of lading 
moves via lines other than those named in the tariff the following 
exceptions to the above rules are applicable: 

L In the event of omission or failure on part of the steamship company or 
operator to clear freight on any vessel, or during any period for which specifically 
booked, or to order freight within 10 days free time, all demurrage or storage 
charges, accruing after the period of free time of 10 days shall be paid to the rail 
carriers by the steamship company or operator before delivery of the freight 
to the steamship line will be made. 

2. Where rail carriers deliver freight at port more than 10 days prior to date 
booked, the excess time shall be considered additional free time. 

3. Freight will be held in warehouse, or at option of carriers, in cars free of 
charge at the port for a period of not exceeding 10 days, exclusive of date of 
arrival, after which storage or demurrage charges will apply. 

After the expiration of free time as shown above, a storage charge 
of 1 cent per 100 pounds is assessed for the first 10 days or fraction 
thereof and one-half cent per 100 pounds for each succeeding 10 day 
period, except that on export scrap iron and steel, carloads, the storage 
rate will be 1 cent per 100 pounds for the first six storage periods of 
5 days each after expiration of the free time allowance of 10 days 
when moving by lines other than named in the tariff and 15 days 
when moving on through export bills of lading via lines named in the 
tariff; 1% cents per 100 pounds for the next six periods, and 2% cents 
per 100 pounds for all succeeding periods. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad tariff 1145-D provides that various 
iron and steel articles, as named therein, may be unloaded and placed 
upon the ground, subject to the following handling and ground storage 
charges and rules: 

Ten days free time is allowed on carload shipments when consigned in shipping 
order or bill of lading for export, whether held in cars or unloaded, computed from 
the first 7 a. m. after the date notice of arrival is given consignee. In computing 
free time Sundays and full legal holidays will be excluded and when a holiday 
falls on Sunday, the following Monday will be excluded and the day for which 
delivery of property is ordered will be excluded. Shipments on hand after the 
expiration of the free time period and held in cars, or unloaded on the ground 
for carriers convenience will be charged car demurrage, in accordance with Agent 
B. T. Jones' I. C. C. 3072, except that if there is a lack of space at the billed desti- 
nation to store such freight in cars or on the ground, they will be tendered by 
written notice of arrival at the nearest available point in Philadelphia, and charges 

thereon assessed at the following rates: 

Cents per net or 
gross ton as rated 

Ground storage, (including handling) 61 

Each succeeding 30 days or fraction thereof GYj 



PORT AND TERMINAL SERVICES AND CHARGES 349 

When space becomes available at the original destination the freight will be 
moved to that point for storage or delivery to consignee. 

If the shipper or consignee makes a written request within the free time period 
to unload the freight, the above ground storage charges will be assessed, whether 
held in cars or unloaded. 

If, after the expiration of free time, the shipper or consignee requests in writing 
that such freight be unloaded, the ground storage charges listed above will be 
assessed. The storage period on such freight is computed from the third 7 a. m. 
after date it is ordered to storage. However, car demurrage charges are assessed 
for each day of detention between the expiration of free time and the beginning 
of ground storage. 

Domestic traffic. — The same rules regarding the computation of free 
time on import traffic are appUcable on domestic receipts (see p. 346). 
Package, piece, and bulk freight except woodpulp, iron ore, manganese 
ore, chrome ore, and pig iron received from the Pacific coast and other 
domestic ports and awaiting reshipment via the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road will, when storage space is available, be held free of charge for a 
period of 5 days. After the expiration of free time, storage charges 
are assessed in accordance with the rates quoted under import traffic 
on page 346. 

Woodpulp, when in transit or awaiting reshipment by the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad will be held, when space is available, free of charge for 
a 15 day period, after which the same storage charges applicable to 
imported woodpulp will accrue. 

Freight unloaded from vessels docking at Pennsylvania Railroad 
Terminals which does not pass over its rails must be removed within 
5 days from date of complete discharge of vessel. After the expiration 
of free time regular storage charges are appUcable. When labor 
service is performed by the Pennsylvania Railroad, a charge of 55 
cents per 2,000 poimds is assessed. 

Storage at Philadelphia Piers, Inc. 

The same free time, rules, regulations, and allowances in effect at 
railroad terminals are applicable at the facilities of Philadelphia Piers, 
Inc. Storage in the transit shed on the first floor of pier 98 after the 
expiration of free time is not permitted. All cargo remaining beyond 
the free time period will be removed to warehouse storage on the 
second or third floors of the building, and becomes subject to the 
rates and rules governing storage at railroad piers, page 346. For 
storage rates on lumber see Lumber handling terminals, page 352. 

Storage at Intercoastal Lines' Terminals 

All in-bound intercoastal cargo, except lumber and lumber products 
discharged at terminals of intercoastal carriers at Philadelphia will be 
allowed a free time period of 5 days, except w^oodpulp which is per- 
mitted 15 days. Free time is computed from the first 7 a. m. follow- 



350 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



ing date on which vessel completes discharging cargo. A vessel dis- 
charging part of its cargo and then leaving the pier is considered as 
having completed discharging even though it later returns to discharge 
additional cargo, and free time will be computed separately for cargo 
discharged during each berthing period. Sundays and full legal 
holidays are excluded in the computation of free time. 

At the expiration of free time all cargo not removed from the pier 
may, at the option of the carrier, be stored on the pier or placed in 
public storage at the risk and expense of the cargo and subject to 
any charges which may have accrued prior to placement in storage, 
such charges to be considered as a lien on the cargo. The actual 
amount of any class of cargo discharged from one vessel at Philadelphia 
covered by one bill of lading in storage at the first 7 a. m. of any 
storage period shall determine the storage charge for that period. 
Storage charges are due and payable on the first day of any period. 

Cargo in storage on any intercoastal pier may be placed in public 
storage at the expiration of the current storage period at the expense 
and risk of the shipper or consignee provided that 5 days written 
notice has been given prior to the expiration of the storage period. 
When such cargo is removed to a public warehouse, pier storage rates 
are no longer applicable (see storage warehouses) but any accrued 
charges remain as a lien on the cargo. 

The following storage charges on m-bound intercoastal traffic are 
applicable at terminals operated by intercoastal steamship lines sub- 
scribing to Agent Joseph A. Wells' intercoastal freight tariff No. 2-C, 
S. B.-I No. 7; the Calmar Steamship Corporation terminal tariff 
No. 1, S. B.-I No. 4; and the Shepard Steamship Co. east-bound 
tariffs. B.-I No. 2. 



Intercoastal terminal storage charges 



Beans, dried, In 100 pound bags, per bag 

Borax, in barrels, per barrel ..- 

Borax, in 100-pound ba?s, per bag 

Buttermilk, lactein, in barrels or half barrels, per barrel or half 

Buttermilk, lactein, in kegs, per keg 

C anned goods, preserves, in glass or earthenware or metal cans, in boxes, per box 

Coffee, in tins, in boxes, per box 

Flour, in 98-pound bags, per bag 

Flour, in 140-pound bags, per bag 

Food, animal, in cans boxed, per box - - 

Fruits, dried, in cartons in boxes or in bulk, in boxes 

Hair or hemp, bales of 600 pounds or less 

Hair or hemp, bales of over 000 pounds and under 1,000 pounds 

Hay, per bale 

Honey, in glass or tins in boxes, per box 

Kapok, 500-pound bales .- 

Nuts, 100-pound sacks 

Olives, per barrel.. 

Peas, dried, in 100-pound bags 

Pickles, per barrel , 

Plywood, in bundles or loose, per square foot of space occupied, limited to piles 6 feet 
high 



First 
30 days 



Cents 
5 
20 
5 
15 
5 
3 
3 
5 
7 
3 

30 
50 
25 

3 
30 

6 
20 

5 
20 

7H 



Each suc- 
ceeding 
30 days 



Cents 

3 
15 

3 
10 

4 

2 

2 

3 

5 

2 

114 
20 
35 
15 

2 
20 

4 
15 

3 
15 

7H 



POET AND TERMINAL SERVICES AND CHARGES 



351 



Intercoastal terminal storage charges — Continiied 



Rags, bales of 600 pounds or less_ 

Rags, bales of over 600 pounds and under 1,000 pounds — ..., 

Seeds, 100-pound bags 

Sodium hypochlorite, solution of, 48-pouud boxes, per box 

Vinegar, per barrel _ 

Wine, per barrel 

Wood pulp, per 2,000 pounds 

Wool, bales of 600 pounds or less 

Wool, bales of over 600 pounds and under 1,000 pounds 

Wool, bags of 250 pounds or less 

AVool, bags of over 250 pounds and under 325 pounds. 

All other cargo (except wood pulp) n. o. s., moved as carload traffic under tarifT pro- 
visions where the minimum weight is 24,000 pounds or greater, cents per 100 pounds.. 
All other cargo (except wood pulp) n. o. s., cents per 100 pounds 



Each suc- 
ceeding 
30 days 



Cents 



0) 



20 
36 
3 
2 
16 
16 

20 
35 
10 
20 

3 
6 



1 Rate is 5}4 cents per 2,000 pounds for each succeeding 10-day period. Shepard Steamship Co. quotes 
rate of 16 cents and 5 cents per 100 pounds for same periods. 



Storage at Co.^stwise Terminals 

The coastwise steamship lines maintaining terminal facilities will 
hold freight free of charge from the first 7 a. m. after the day on 
which notice of arrival is sent or given for a period not exceeding 96 
hours on less-carload and 48 hours on carload shipments. Sundays 
and legal holidays not included. 

If freight is not removed within the prescribed free time it may be 
stored in a public warehouse at owner's expense, including cost of 
delivery to the warehouse. If for any reason, freight is stored on the 
pier or wharf the following storage charges will be assessed upon 
expiration of free time; 

Cents per 
100 pounds 

First 10-day period, per period or part thereof 4 

Next 20-day period, per period or part thereof 7 

Each succeeding 30-day period, per period or part thereof 14 

In assessing storage charges, fractions of a day will be counted as 
1 day, and fractions of 100 pounds will be considered as a unit of 100 
pounds. 

Wlien the condition of the weather, during the prescribed free time, 
is such as to make it impossible to remove freight from the premises 
without serious injury to it, or when because of high water or snow 
drifts, it is impossible to remove freight from the premises during the 
prescribed free time, the free time shall be extended. A consignee 
shall not be absolved from storage charges, if, considering the charac- 
ter of the freight, other consignees similarly affected reasonably could 
and did remove freight during the same period of time. 



352 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Storage at Lttmbbr Handling Terminals 

The Ontario Land Co., Philadelphia Piers, Inc., and the Camden 
Marine Terminal in their lumber tariffs allow 5 days free time, ex- 
clusive of Sundays and legal holidays for the removal of lumber, 
shingles, and lath. Time is computed from the day following com- 
pletion of discharge of entire cargo of vessel. After the expiration of 
free time demurrage is assessed at the rate of 10 cents per 1,000 feet 
per day. On order from owner, lumber will be placed in storage at 
the following monthly rates: 




Covered 
storage 



Lumber, per 1.000 feot per month 

Shingles, per bundle 

L:ith: 

Bundle of 100 

Bundle of 50 



$0.50 
.02 



.02 
.01 



Warehouse Storage 

Charges for storage at the public warehouses at Philadelphia vary 
with the type, size, and weight of the commodity. No standard 
tariff or schedule of rates is applicable to all warehouses. Most ware- 
houses either pubhsh their own tariff or quote rates only upon request. 
Variation in rates between the individual warehouses in nearly all 
cases is confined to a narrow range, and for that reason the following 
storage rates on selected commodities are believed to be indicative of 
those now in effect at the port. For storage charges at Philadelphia 
Piers Inc., see railroad pier storage, page 346. 

Warehouse Storage Charges 



Beans, dry, per 100-pound bag 

Beans, cocoa: 

Per r20-pound bag - 

Per 200-pound bag 

Borax, per 100-pound bag 

Burlap, per bale, 600 pounds gross_.- 
Canned salmon, per case of— 

48 J2S cans 

48 tall, flat, and oval cans 

48 }/i cans 

Canned fruits and vegetables, per 
case of— 

24 No. 1 tall cans. 

24 8 -ounce cans, jars 

48 No. leans 

6 No. 10 cans 

12 No. 10 cans 

48 8-ouncecans, jars 

72 8-ounce cans, jars 



Cents per 


unit 


Stor- 


Han- 


age 


dling 


2.5 


4.5 


3.0 


5.2 


5.0 


8.5 


2.5 


4.5 


18.0 


31.0 


. 1 


.2 


1.75 


3.5 


.76 


1.5 


1.0 


1.75 


.5 


1.25 


1.25 


1.75 


1.5 


2.0 


2.5 


3.75 


1.0 


1.75 


1.5 


2.25 



Coffee: 

Per 140-pound bag 

Per 200-pound bag 

Cocoa: 

Per sugar-size barrel 

Per drum, 200 pounds net 

Per drum, 100 pounds net 

Dried fruits: 

Apples, per case, carton 

Apricots, peaches, prunes, and 
raisins, per case of— 

25 pounds net 

48 U-ounce cartons 

1 5-pound carton 

6 5-pound cartons 

50 pounds net 

Feeds: Oil cake, per bag 

Flour: 

Per barrel 



Cents per 
unit 



Stor- 
age 



4.2 
6.0 

12.0 
12.0 
7.2 



.8 
1.2 

.5 
1.0 
1.0 
2.6 



nan- 
dling 



6.0 
8.5 

13.5 
13.5 
10.0 



1.8 
2.6 
.7 
2.0 
3.0 
45.0 

13.6 



PORT AND TERMINAL SERVICES AND CHARGES 
Warehouse Storage Charges — Continued 



353 



Flour— Continued. 

Per H barrel - 

Per He barrel (paper bag) 

Per H barrel (paper bag) 

Per >2 barrel (jute or cotton bag) 
Licorice root: 

Per 150-pound bag 

Per 100-pound case 

Olive oils: 

Per 50-gallon barrel 

Per ease, 6 I-gallon, tins, glass_.. 

Per case, 12 1-gallon, tins, glass._ 
Paper, newsprint, per ton, 2,000 

pounds - -. 

Rice, per 100-pound bag-pocket 

Rosin, per barrel 

Salt: 

Per sugar-size barrel 

Per flour-size barrel 

Per 100-pound bag 



Cents per 


unit 


Stor- 


Han- 


age 


dling 


6.0 


8.4 


.5 


.8 


.7 


1.3 


2.5 


3.6 


12.5 


13.0 


4.5 


6.0 


21.0 


23.0 


2.7 


3.8 


5.0 


7.0 


50.0 


40.0 


2.5 


4.5 


18.0 


20.0 


12.0 


16.0 


9.6 


16.0 


2.5 


4.5 



Sugar, refined: 

Per barrel - - 

Per 100-pound bag 

Per ease, 24 1-pound cartons 

Per case. 12 5-pound cartons 

Tanning extracts, per 55-galk)n barrel 

Tobacco, Puerto Rico, per bale 

Wool: 

Australian: 

Banded, per bale 

Unhanded, per bale 

East India: 

Double dump, per bale 

Tall, per bale... 

Egyptian: 

Small, per bale... 

Large, per bale 

Domestic: 

Territory, per bag. 

Texas, per bag 



Cents per 
unit 



Stor- 
age 



12.0 
2.5 
.8 
1.8 
21.0 
11.5 



15.0 
20.0 



13.0 
15.0 



25.0 
35.0 



16.0 
12.5 



Han- 
dling 



17.6 
3.0 
1.8 
3.4 
19.0 
10.6 



16.6 
10.0 



14.6 
14.6 



31.0 
34.0 



16.0 
14.0 



The following digest of the terms and conditions from a standard 
contract are generally applicable to all warehouses. However, in 
most cases individual warehouses have made minor amendments or 
additions to its provisions to meet the particular requirements of their 
business. 

Storage period. — A storage month extends from the date stored in 
one calendar month to, but not including the same date of the next 
calendar month. If there is no corresponding date in the next suc- 
ceeding calendar month, the storage period shall extend to and include 
the last day of that month. When the last day of a final storage month 
falls on Sunday or a legal holiday, the storage month shall be deemed 
to expire on the next succeeding business day. 

Storage charges. — All charges for storage are on a month-to-month 
basis unless otherwise provided for. Charges for any particular 
lot shall begin upon the receipt of the first unit of that par- 
ticular lot in store and shall continue and include the storage month 
daring which the last unit of the particular lot is delivered. Charges 
are made on the basis of the maximum number of units in any particu- 
lar lot in store during a storage month. 

Insurance. — Goods are not insured nor do storage rates include 
insurance unless so specified in writing. 

Transfer of goods on books. — Instructions to transfer goods on the 
books of the warehouseman are not effective until delivered to and 
accepted by him, and all charges up to the time transfer is made are 
chargeable to the storer of record. If a transfer involves rehandling, 
goods will be subject to a handling charge. 



354 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Handling charges. — Handling charges include ordinary labor inci- 
dental to receiving goods at warehouse door, stowing and delivering 
to warehouse door, but do not include unloading or loading of cars, 
vehicles, or vessels, unless so specified by the warehouse. Handling 
charges are generally billed as a labor charge with storage for the first 
month. (See table above.) Where goods are received or delivered 
at other than regular busmess hours an additional charge based on 
cost of labor plus supervision, overhead, etc., is levied. 

Car loading and unloading. — Charges for unloading and loading 
cars includes use of sAvitch track, labor employed to handle cargo to or 
from warehouse door and billing of car. (Some warehouses include 
this service in their handling charge.) Costs of dunnage and fasten- 
ings furnished by the warehouse and used in loading out cars are 
chargeable to the storer on a cost-plus 10-percent basis. The regular 
labor charge is assessed for all labor used. Any additional costs 
incurred in imloading cars containmg damaged goods are chargeable 
to the storer. The warehouseman, unless he has failed to exercise due 
care and diligence, is not to be held responsible for demurrage, delays 
in unloading inbound cars, or for delays in obtaining cars for out- 
bound shipments. 

Delivery requirements. — No goods are to be delivered or transferred 
except upon receipt of complete instructions either in writing or by 
telephone and confinned in writing from the storer. 

When a negotiable receipt has been issued, no goods covered by it 
will be delivered or transferred unless the receipt properly indorsed is 
surrendered for cancellation, or for indorsement thereon of partial 
delivery. 

The warehouseman must be allowed a reasonable time to carry out 
instructions when goods are ordered out, and if he is unable, due to 
causes bej'^ond his control, to effect delivery before expiring storage 
dates, the goods will be subject to charges for another storage month. 

Bonded stores. — "V^^iere goods are placed in bonded storage there is 
usually an additional charge equal to 5 percent of the storage rate 
levied. 

Extra services. — All extra or special services such as weighing, re- 
pairing, coopering, sampling, repiling, inspection, physical warehouse 
checking, compiling stock statements, collections, revenue stamps, 
reporting market weights or numbers, drayages, special warehouse 
space, etc., are chargeable on a cost-plus basis. 

GRAIN ELEVATION AND STORAGE 

Handling rules 

The following rules, regulations and charges are in effect at the 
Girard Point elevator of the Pennsylvania Railroad Co., and are taken 



PORT AND TERMINAL SERVICES AND CHARGES 355 

from the local and joint freight tariff No. 1145-D; I. C. C. 1994. 
Tariff No. FX4, No. 2; I. C. C. 1897 of the Reading Co. governing 
its elevator at Port Riclimond is substantially similar: 

The freight charges are to be computed upon the elevator scale weights, subject 
however, to carload minimum weight per tariff of originating carrier, which must 
be shown on bill of lading in addition to the actual weight of the grain, malt, soya 
beans, or flaxseed covered by such bill of lading. 

No grain, malt, soya beans, or flaxseed Avill be received in store until it has been 
inspected and graded i)y ai!thorized inspectors, unless by special arrangement. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad will not receive or store at Girard Point elevator 
unsound, unmerchantable, or "sample grade" grain, malt, soya beans, or flax- 
seed except that an exception will be made in the case of "sample grade" which 
has been so graded solely because of moisture content. Nor will it receive these 
commodities in bags, unless special arrangements have been made. 

The liability of the company for loss by fire, explosion, heating, or weevil shall 
be that of warehousemen only. 

In lightering these commodities to vessels the Pennsylvania Railroad assumes 
no risk of such transfer either fire or marine. Orders for floating service will 
only be accepted with the understanding that same will be accomplished with as 
reasonable dispatch as conditions and the general business of the company will 
permit, but carrier does not agree to perform this service at any specified time, 
but will make all reasonable eflforts to provide such service with the least possible 
delaj-. 

Warehouse receipts will be issued only by the manager of the elevator, at his 
office, upon the payment of freight charges, and redeemed only at the same office. 

Elevator charges 

Cents 
per 
biiahel 
Receiving, weighing and deliver}^ in bulk to vessel either alongside or by 
lighter to steamship of regular line docking at piers within Philadelphia 
lighterage limits: 

Domestic shipments 1 

Export shipments yi 

Shelling cob corn (cobs to become property of Pennsylvania R. R.). The 
right is reserved to reject corn when it is out of condition, rendering it 
liable to damage the corn-shelling machinery. In such instances the 

corn will be held in cars subject to disposition orders from consignee 2% 

Receiving and weighing from lighters or vessels on which the Pennsylvania 

R. R. subsequently receives a rail haul ' 1 

Receiving and weighing from lighter or vessel and subsequently delivered 
to trucks or boats when the Pennsylvania R. R. does not receive rail 

haul ' 2% 

R,eceiving and weigliing from trucks or wagons on which Penns5dvania 

R. R. subsequently receives rail haul 1 

Receiving and weighing from trucks or wagons on v.hich Pennsylvania 

R. R. does not receive rail haul 2% 

Storage in elevator for first 20 days or part thereof No charge 

Storage in elevator for each succeeding day }^6 

Mixing in store Ys 

• It is necessary that special arrangements for tiandling in this manner be made with the raihroad company 
in advance of the arrival of the vessel. 



356 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Elevator charges — Continued 

Cents 

Mixing (not through storage bins) at time of delivery to cars or bvlhel 

vessels No charge 

Screening and blowing i,^ 

Mixing, screening and blowing in store when in one operation ^a 

Passing through disk separator i^ 

Turning in store y^ 

Desmutting and scouring grain and/or soya beans 2% 

Clipping oats J^ 

Cooling grain or soya beans of any grade i^ 

Cutting and dumping of malt H 

Delivering in bags, sewing or tying to be performed by elevator 1 

Reloading or trimming cars, per car 110 

Storage in cars. — Rates for storage of export grain or soya beans, 
held in cars are the same as in the elevator, but such grain or soya 
beans are subject to the following rules: 

Cars loaded with export grain or soya beans will not be delayed subsequent 
to the time of loading and prior to arrival at Philadelphia (Girard Point) or 
terminal yard serving the port, to avoid payment of storage charges. 

On such grain or soya beans not unloaded into railroad elevators within 72 
hours from the first 7 a. m. (exclusive of Sundays and full legal holidays) after 
date of arrival at the port or terminal yard serving the port, notice of arrival will 
at the expiration of such period be sent to consignee and the grain or soya beans 
will be held in cars without charge for storage at Girard Point yard for 20 days 
from the first 7 a. m. after date of notice of arrival. 

At the expiration of said 20 days the grain or soya beans will be subject to regular 
elevator storage charges. 

Grain or soya beans held in cars which is placed in railroad elevators before 
the expiration of free time will be allowed the balance of the period in the ele- 
vator, but only one period of 20 days will be allowed. 

Grain or soya beans placed in elevators after the expiration of the free time 
period will not be allowed any free time period in the railroad elevator. 

Drying charges 

Other than salvage grains and/or soya beans: Cents 

Corn: bwhel 

Extraction of moisture not to exceed 3 percent % 

Extraction of moisture over 3 percent but not over 6 percent ^ 

Extraction of moisture over 6 percent but not over 9 percent 1 

Extraction of moisture over 9 percent 1% 

Soya beans: 

Extraction of moisture not to exceed 3 percent 1% 

Extraction of moisture over 3 percent but not over 6 percent 2% 

Extraction of moisture over 6 percent but not over 9 percent 3% 

Extraction of moisture over 9 percent 5 

Wheat, malt and all other grains, except corn and/or soya beans: 

Extraction of moisture up to and including 1}^ percent % 

Extraction of moisture over 1}^ percent to and including 3 

percent 1 

Extraction of moisture over 3 percent 1% 



PORT AND TERMINAL. SERVICES AND CHARGES 357 

Drying charges — Continued 

CerUt 

Salvage grains and/or soj'a beans: bushel 

Salvage grains or soya beans may be accepted or rejected for drying and 
conditioning according to the discretion of the elevator manage- 
ment. If accepted it shall be at the following charges: 

Salvage grains or soya beans, when moisture taken out does not 

exceed 1 5 percent of the original weight 5% 

Salvage grains or soya beans, when moisture taken out exceeds 

15 percent but not more than 25 percent of the original weight 7% 
Salvage grains or soya beans, when moisture exceeds 25 percent 

of the original weight 10 

The charges for drying will be in addition to the elevator charges. 
All grain and/or soya beans to be dried is to be under the control and supervision 
of the inspection department of the commercial exchange. 

All loss of weight to be borne b}' owners of the grain and/or S03'a beans. 
Charges for drying to be based upon weight of grain and/or soya beans before 
being dried. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad does not guarantee to dry grain or soya beans within 
any specified time and will not be responsible for deterioration due to delay in 
passing through the drier. Grain ordered through the drier will be handled as 
promptly as possible, taking its regular turn according to the date the order for 
drying is received at the elevator office. 

It is understood that chartered or tramp steamers are expected to take grain 
or soya beans direct from the Girard Point elevator, but should such steamers 
desire to have the grain or soya beans lightered and delivered by floating elevator, 
the Pennsylvania Railroad will so deliver grain or soya beans to such steamer at 
their loading pier or dock within the lighterage limits by lighter and floating ele- 
vator, the charge for same to be 1% cents per bushel, minimum charge $220. 

ABSORPTIONS 

Intercoastal lines. — Where cargo consigned to intercoastal carriers 
named below for shipment to Pacific coast ports becomes subject 
to railroad car demurrage or car storage charges while awaiting arrival 
of a vessel, the accrued charges will be absorbed by the carrier pro- 
vided the cargo clears on a vessel of that carrier. 

American Hawaiian Steamship Co. 
California-Eastern Line. 
Isthmian Steamship Co. 
Luckenbach Steamship Co. 
McCormick Steamship Co. 
Pacific Coast Direct Line. 
Quaker Line. 

The Pacific Coast Direct Line and the Calmar Steamship Corpora- 
tion will absorb railroad or pier storage charges accruing subsequent 
to expiration of free time allowance of railroads and assessed on cargo 



78920—39 24 



358 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

on docks or in cars when consigned to them and while awaiting loading 
to the first available vessel as follows: 

CenU per 

too 

poundt 

First 10 days or fraction thereof 1 

Each succeeding 10 days or fraction thereof ^ 

Car unloading charges up to 55 cents por ton will be absorbed by 
the Calmar Steamship Corporation on all goods moving to its pier at 
Philadelpliia by rail when the railroad does not perform such service 
free. 

Delivery costs on less-carload sliipments except lumber and lumber 
products will be absorbed by the Calmar Steamship Corporation when 
the railroads do not deliver or pay the expense for delivery of less- 
carload shipments from their freight stations or terminals to the 
Calmar Steamship Corporation pier, provided such shipments are 
loaded into Calmar vessels. 

Railroad lighterage charges up to 77 cents per ton, as rated, will 
be absorbed by the Calmar Steamship Corporation when the delivering 
carrier does not perform lighterage free, except on lumber and lumber 
products. 

Transfer charges from local freight stations to pier 56 south, on 
less-carload shipments arriving at Philadelphia by other than the 
Pennsylvania Railroad will be absorbed by the McCormick Steamship 
Co. 

The actual cost of dray age up to 8 cents per 100 pounds on less-car- 
load shipments moving from local freight stations to pier 24 north, 
will be absorbed by the Quaker Line and the California Eastern 
Line. 

Drayage charges on less-carload shipments arriving in Philadelphia 
and moving from the local freight station of the carrier to the loading 
pier of the Pacific Coast Direct Line will be absorbed by this line when 
the loading pier is located on a railroad other than that via which 
said less-carload shipments arrived. 

The American Hawaiian Steamsliip Co. will receive west-bound 
less-carload freight ex rail at municipal pier 78 and transfer same at 
its own expense to Pennsylvania Railroad pier 48 south for loading 
to its vessels. 

Railroad lighterage charges incident to delivery of cargo at ship's 
side or loading piers will be absorbed by the intercoastal Unes sub- 
scribing to Agent Joseph A. Wells, Intercoastal East-bound Freight 
Tariff No. 2-C; S. B.-l No. 7. 

MISCELLANEOUS CHARGES 

Running lin£s. — The usual charge for running lines from ship to 
dock or reverse is $5. 



PORT AND TERMINAL SERVICES AND CHARGES 359 

Launch hire. — Rates are variable and subject to private agreement. 
The usual charge ranges between $3 and $5 for trips to points along 
the central water-front, and up to $10 for the longer trips in the harbor. 

Water. — Water for boilers and for drinking may be obtained at 

most of the piers and wharves. The charge for this service ranges from 

j 7 cents per ton at the municipal terminals to 20 cents per ton at some 

j of the private piers. The Pennsylvania Railroad and Reading Rail- 

I road Co. make no charge for water furnished but do make a connection 

charge of $10 and $20 respectively at their terminals which is assessed 

each time a connection is made. Water will be furnished vessels in 

stream or at piers by tugs at a rate of $37.50 for the first 30 tons and 

$1.3125 for each additional ton. 

Surveyors' fees. — Admiralty surveyors' fees are as follows: Inward 
cargo, survey in hatches and cargo, $15. Charge of surveyor for 
the Board of Underwriters of New York for outward cargo, vessels 
loading 150 tons or over, $18, if ship is loaded at one port only; 
$13.50 providing this is the first or second port of call; if the third 
or more port of call, the charge is $9. No charge is made on cargo 
of less than 150 tons. 

Agency fees. — The fees for handling steamers vary according to the 
nature of the cargoes and the services rendered. The usual fee 
averages about $100. 

Interpreters fees. — No fixed fees are charged by interpreters; charges 
for translating range from 50 cents to $1 per 100 words. 

Customhouse brokers fees. — Consumption entry, first invoice $5, 
additional invoices $1.50 each. 

Warehouse entry, first invoice $5, additional invoices $1.50 each. 

Warehouse bond, $1 per $1,000. 

Warehouse withdrawals, $2 each. 

Transportation and exportation entry, $5 each. 

Immediate transportation entry, $5 each. 

Freight brokers fees. — For making out bills of lading $3.75 per ship- 
ment. The forwarder obtains an additional revenue for services of 
1% percent oi the ocean freight charges paid to him by the steamship 
companies. 

Cooperage. — Cost of material plus labor charge of $1 per hour 
straight time and $1.50 per hour overtime plus insurance and social 
security charges amounting to approximately 15 percent of labor 
charge. 

Separation cloths. — For furnishing and sewing burlap for separating 
cloths, 10 cents per square yard; for laying separations the charge is 
$17.50 to $20 per car. 

Sew-ing bags. — 2}^ cents per bag. 



360 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Collection. — A charge of a quarter ot 1 percent of the amount col- 
lected is made at the municipal terminals for the collection of freight 
charges for the account ol steamsliip companies. 

Office space. — Ofl&ce space and other enclosed areas are available 
for use at the municipal terminals at a rate of 50 cents per room per 
day or fraction thereof, including Sundays and hohdays. Minimum 
charge $5 per room. 



STEAMSHIP SERVICES, RATES, AND RATE CONFERENCES 

STEAMSHIP SERVICES 

Regular scheduled sailings between Philadelphia and principal 
world trade areas, and from and to domestic ports on the Pacific, 
Atlantic, and Gulf coasts are offered by 66 steamship lines operating 
a total of 84 services. These lines maintain an average of 209 monthly 
sailings from Philadelphia. Transport facihties in foreign trade 
are maintained by 52 lines, 14 of which are American companies 
operating American flag vessels; 4 are American companies employing 
foreign flag vessels; the remaining 34 being foreign-owned and op- 
erated. Coastwise and intercoastal commerce is served by 14 lines, 
8 of which offer sailings to Pacific coast ports, 3 to Gulf ports, and 
3 to other Atlantic coast ports. 

There are few direct saiUngs from Philadelphia in either the foreign 
or domestic trades, since most vessels after leaving Philadelphia call 
at other Atlantic ports to complete loading. Likewise in-bound 
carriers usually discharge cargo at other ports before calling at 
Philadelphia. However, when sufficient or full cargoes are available 
some of the lines will adjust their regular routing to make Philadel- 
phia the first in-bound or last out-bound port. In addition to regu- 
lar services, a number of companies serve Delaware River ports 
whenever sufficient cargo offers, while many private and contract 
carriers are employed in transporting coastwise and foreign com- 
merce to and from various industries located on or in the vicinity 
of the Delaware River. 

Foreign trade. — Regular communication with the Far East is main- 
tained by 14 lines of which the American Pioneer Line, the Panama 
Far East line, and a joint service of the Isthmian and Matson Lines 
operate under the Am.erican flag. The American Pioneer and the 
Panama Far East Lines operate monthly services to China and the 
Philippines, wliile the Isthmian-Matson Line maintains fortnightly 
sailings to Hawaii. Foreign flag lines schedule sailings ranging from 
one to three a month to Japan, China, and the Philippines. 

Of the two services operating to ports in the Straits Settlements, 
India, Persian Gulf, Red Sea, and East Africa, the American Pioneer 
line which is American owned and operated offers nine sailings per 
year to Karachi, Bombay, Madras, Calcutta, and Rangoon. The 
other line which is foreign provides a montlily service to various 
points between Suez and the Straits Settlements. 

361 



362 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Monthly sailings to Australia and New Zealand are scheduled by 
three companies, two of which are American. The American Pioneer 
Line, operating American flag vessels, calls at Brisbane, Sydney, 
Freemantle, Melbourne, and Adelaide. The American & Austrahan 
Line, an American company operating foreign flag vessels, schedules 
the above ports and in addition calls at principal ports in New Zealand. 

The American South African Line operates American flag vessels 
to Cape Town, East London, Port Ehzabeth, Port Natal, Lourenco 
Marques, and Beira on a monthly schedule. The same region is 
also served by three foreign lines, while one foreign line serves points 
on the Red Sea and East Africa. 

The Mediterranean area which includes European Mediterranean, 
North African, and Portuguese ports, is served by four lines. The 
American Export Line provides regular monthly sailings to Casa- 
blanca, Tangiers, Ceuta, Melilla, Algiers, Malta, Piraeus, Salonika, 
Istanbul, Constanza, Alexandria, Jaffa, Beirut, and Haifa with 
American flag vessels. Foreign flag lines serving this region schedule 
montldy and semimonthly sailings to Italian, French, Portuguese, 
and North African ports. 

Six American lines operate regular services out of Philadelphia 
to ports in the United Kingdom and Atlantic and Baltic Europe. 
The America-France Line schedule calls for semimonthly sailings to 
Havre and Dunkirk and monthly sailings to Havre, St. Nazaire, and 
Bordeaux. The American Hampton Roads Line offers weekly sailings 
to London, and a monthly service to Hull, Leith, and Dundee. The 
American Scantic Line provides a weekly service to Copenhagen, 
Danzig, Helsingfors, Gdynia, Stockholm, and Gothenburg. This 
line in cooperation with the Mooremack Gulf Line provides a direct 
transshipment service at Philadelphia for cargo originating at or 
destined to Gulf ports. The Black Diamond Line offers a sailing 
every 10 days to Antwerp, Amsterdam, and Rotterdam while the 
Oriole Line operates on a semimonthly schedule to Manchester, 
Dublin, Glasgow, Belfast, and Liverpool. Hambui'g and Bremen 
are served by the Yankee Line which offers weekly sailings to the 
former and fortnightly to the latter. Of the eight foreign lines serving 
tliis area, the tlu-ee British lines serve principally the United Kingdom, 
while of the remainder, two serve Belgian and Netherlands ports, one 
German ports, and two various Baltic ports. No regular service is 
maintained to the Union of Soviet SociaUst Republics. 

Communication with South and Central America and Mexican 
ports is maintained by 12 steamship lines, of which 2, the American 
Republics Line and the Grace Line, are American owned and operated. 



STEAMSHIP SERVICES, RATES, AND RATE CONFERENCES 363 

The American Republics Line maintains monthly sailings via New 
York and Baltimore to the east coast ports of Rio de Janeiro, Santos, 
Montevideo, Buenos Aires, and Rosario, while the Grace Line main- 
tains a monthly service to Cristobal, Balboa, Buenaventura, Callao, 
Alollendo, Arica, Antofogasta, Valparaiso, and San Antonio direct 
from Pliiladelphia. Calls wUl be made at other ports if sufficient 
cargo is offered; other^vise small lot cargo will be transshipped at 
Cristobal. Three American companies operating American and 
foreign flag vessels are engaged in this trade, one of which operates 
to the east coast of South America, wliile the other two in addition to 
their regular passenger services limit themselves to the carriage of 
tropical fruits to Philadelpliia, taking only limited shipments from 
Pliiladelpliia. The remaining lines all are of foreign registry and 
operate on semimonthly or montlily schedule to ports on tlie east coast. 

One British line operating between Philadelpliia and Windsor, 
Nova Scotia, is engaged principally in carrying gypsum to Philadelphia, 
but it will also accept freight and passengers for Windsor. 

Domestic trade. — The eight lines engaged in the intercoastal trade 
provide a total of 28 sailings per month to the principal ports of 
California, Oregon, and Washington. Direct service to Pacific 
coast outports is also available under certain specified conditions as 
provided for in their tariffs, otherwise cargo destined for outports 
may be transsliipped to coastwise vessels for final delivery. One line 
offers a semiweekly sailing, tliree lines weekly sailings, one a semi- 
monthly service, one a monthly service, and one three sailings per 
month. 

Coastwise lines serving Philadelphia maintain a total of 88 sailings 
per month. Daily service is provided by the Ericsson Line to Balti- 
more, while the Philadelpliia and Norfolk Line maintains five sailings 
per week to Hampton Roads points. The Merchants & Miners 
Transportation Co. offers three vessels per week to Soutn Atlantic 
ports and three per week to Boston. The Mooremack Gulf Line 
provides a weekly service to New Orleans and Houston with calls 
at other Gulf ports every other voyage. The Pan-Atlantic Line 
has two sailings per week, one of which calls only at New Orleans, 
Mobile, and Panama City, while the other calls first at New York, 
Tampa, and then New Orleans, MobUe, and Panama City. The 
Southern Steamship Co. operates a semiweekly service direct to 
Houston. 

The following table contains detailed information on steamship 
lines maintaining regular sailing schedules from Philadelphia: 



364 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



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STEAMSHIP SERVICES, RATES, AND RATE CONFERENCES 369 
STEAMSHIP RATES AND RATE PRACTiCES 

The establislinient of rates, rules, regulations, and practices for or 
in connection with the transportation of cargo by carriers operating 
regular liner services in foreign trade usually is controlled by confer- 
ences or associations of the ocean carriers engaged in the particular 
trade. Carriers in the intercoastal trade and in some of the port- 
to-port coastwise trades are also associated in rate-fixing conferences. 
Export, import, and intercoastal ocean rates and coastwise port-to- 
port rates fixed under conference agreements may be obtained upon 
application to the officers of the respective conferences, or to the 
member lines. Section 15 of the Shipping Act of 1916 requires that 
agreements forming such conferences be submitted to the United 
States Maritime Commission for its approval before becoming law- 
fully effective. Copies of approved agreements setting forth the 
scope of the various conferences may be obtained from the United 
States Maritime Commission. 

Mos^i conference agreements are prefaced b.y statements similar 
to the following: 

The parties hereto associate themselves in this conference for the common 
good of shippers and carriers by providing just and economical cooperation be- 
tween the steamship lines operating in the trade as well as stabilization of freight 
rates in the interest of shippers and carriers alike. 

As a general rule, conferences operating from the port quote con- 
tract and noncontract rates. Contract rates are granted to all 
shippers who sign period contracts agreeing to forward all their sliip- 
ments in the trade covered by the conference on vessels of carriers 
who are conference members. Noncontract rates are assessed all 
shippers who do not avail themselves of the contract privilege and 
are slightly higher than the former. Time limits on such contracts 
differ mth the individual conference. All rates are exclusive of 
marine insurance. It is customary in all tariffs to quote rates for 
various commodities on a weight or measurement basis and in such 
instances the freight is computed in whichever manner produces the 
greater revenue to the vessel. In all cases the ocean carrier reserves 
the right to refuse cargo which may damage other cargo or the vessel, 
or prove offensive to passengers. 

All agreements name minimum bill of lading charges which also 
vary according to the conference, and which range between $5 and 
$12.50. When allowed, brokerage charge usually does not exceed 
2% percent of the total cargo booked. 

Export Ocean Rate Conditions 

Provisions of the North Atlantic/United Kingdom Freight Con- 
ference, the Far East Conference, the United States/River Plate and 
and Brazil Conference, the United States Atlantic and Gulf/Straits 



370 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Settlements/Malay States and Siam Conference are representative of 
conditions governing export trade from Pliiladelphia. 

The North Atlantic/United Ivingdom Freight Conference names 
contract and noncontract rates for sliipment on vessels scheduled to 
sail within 1 month alter the month in which quotation is made. All 
rates, unless otherwise stated, are in cents per 100 pounds, or per 
cubic foot, wliichever provides the greater revenue to the steamer 
and apply on pieces or packages up to 4,480 pounds, and 30 feet in 
length. Rates are port-to-port and, unless otherwise specifically 
stated, do not cover charges established by custom and/or port tariffs 
for account of the owner of the goods. Packages of miscellaneous 
articles are rated on the basis of the liighest rated article in package. 
Rates shown as open may be fixed by the individual carriers without 
consultation and without restriction as to rate or currency. 

Provisions of the Far East Conference are representative of those 
governing trade from Philadelphia to the Far East. Rates are quoted 
from North Atlantic ports to Yokohama, Kobe, Osaka, Shanghai, 
Hong Kong and ManUa (base ports), also to Dairen (Dalny), Cebu, 
and Iloilo (differential ports). 

All rates are on a United States currency basis and apply from 
place of rest on wharf at Philadelphia with ship's tackle delivery at 
destination except at Shanghai and Hong Kong. Tolls, wharfage, 
lighterage, cost of landing and all other expenses beyond ship's tackle 
are for the account of the owner, shipper, or consignee of the cargo 
except at Shanghai and Hong Kong. 

At Shanghai, in accordance with the custom of the port, the receiv- 
ing, sorting, and delivery charges are for the account of the vessel. 

At Hong Kong delivery is in accordance with the custom of the port 
which provides for the landing of all general cargo at an approved 
warehouse to be nominated by the shipping company with 7 days 
free storage. Any lighterage charges incurred in landing cargo at 
warehouse are for account of carrier. Shipside delivery may be 
granted at the discretion of the shipping companies, or their agents, 
but it is not permissible to absorb consignee's lighter hire or allow 
special lighterage facilities under any circumstances. 

The tariff provides contract and noncontract rates which apply on 
packages or pieces not exceeding 8,000 pounds or 45 lineal feet. 

All direct and transshipment charges must be prepaid, except on 
shipments of case oil, cotton, phosphate rock, and Government 
cargoes. 

All contracts must be at n:fes specified in tariff at time of booking 
and may not contain a fall clause. 

Unless otherwise specified no freight engagement or contract may 
be made at rates named in tariff for a period in excess of 90 days. 



STEAMSHIP SERVICES, RATES, AND RATE CONFERENCES 371 

Rates named in tariff apply on all cargo in transit originating^ 
outside United States Atlantic and Gulf ports. 

Provisions governing the United States Atlantic and Gulf/India 
and Ceylon Conference, the United States/River Plate and Brazil 
Conference and the Atlantic and Gulf/Straits Settlements, Malay 
States and Siam Conference are similar to those observed by the 
Far East Conference. However, rates listed by the two former apply 
on packages or pieces not exceeding 4,480 pounds or 40 lineal feet, 
while rates quoted by the latter apply on packages or pieces not 
exceeding 4,000 pounds or 40 lineal feet. 

Import Ocean Rate Conditions 

The rules and practices of the North Atlantic West-bound Freight 
Association, the Japan-Atlantic Coast Freight Conference, the New 
York Freight Bureau (Shanghai), and the Brazil-United States 
Freight Conference are representative of conditions governing the 
transportation of import cargo at Philadelphia. 

The North Atlantic West-bound Freight Association quotes con- 
tract and noncontract rates in English currency from United Kingdom 
ports on pieces or packages not weighing over 4,480 pounds, rates 
being on a weight-measurement basis, whichever gives greater revenue 
to the vessel. 

Rates apply on cargo for local delivery and also on traffic destined 
to all States in the United States east of a line drawn along the western 
boundary of North and South Dakota, Nebraska, Colorado, and 
Arizona. 

The tariff also quotes special ocean proportionate rates both con- 
tract and noncontract which are lower than those referred to above. 
Such rates apply only on specified traffic destined to interior points 
in North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, 
Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Colorado, Kansas, Missouri^ 
Kentucky, and Tennessee, and to points in the States of New York, 
Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and W^est Virginia, situated south 
of the international boundary and of a line drawn from Rochester, 
N. Y., to Syracuse, N. Y., both inclusive, and west of a line drawn 
from Syracuse through and including Danville, Va. 

Railway companies charge for labor and material for staking, 
blocking, or otherwise serving goods in cars, where incurred, are for 
account of consignees. 

Traffic from countries other than the United Kingdom carried at 
through rates from original port of shipment is exempt from pro- 
visions of tariff. Refrigerator rates are by special agreement only. 

The Brazil/United States Freight Conference governing trade from 
Brazilian ports lists rates in United States currency per 1,000 kiloa 
or 40 cubic feet, applicable on aU packages or pieces not weighing 



372 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

over two metric tons and not exceeding 40 feet on any dimension. 
Where packages contain more than one commodity, freight is assessed 
on the highest rated commodity in the package. In most instances 
freight and other charges are collected m United States currency on 
presentation of documents bj^ consignee or his agent to the owner or 
representative of the steamer. Unless otherwise provided, forward 
booking or freight contract is not made for shipments further in 
advance than the current and next succeeding 2 calendar months. 

Member lines agree not to solicit cargo for delivery to other than a 
definitely scheduled port. Wlien a vessel does not make a regular 
scheduled discharge port because of operating reasons, carriers may 
transship cargo to the particular port at their own expense. On 
cargo destined to United States Gulf ports, cargo may be transhipped 
from one Gulf port to another at carrier's expense. 

The Japan-Atlantic Coast Freight Conference names minimum 
rates via Panama Canal from ports in Japan (including Formosa) 
and Dairen based upon the 2,000-pound ton or 40 cubic feet which- 
ever provides the greater revenue to the steamer. Rates are quoted 
in United States currency and contract and noncontract rates are 
available to shippers. 

All cargo is weighed and/or measured only at official landing places 
(hatobas) by appointed sworn measurers except at Nagoya and 
Yokkaichi where weighing is permitted in godowns of the steamship 
companies receiving the cargo. 

The New York Freight Bureau (Shanghai) names minimum con- 
tract and noncontract rates based on the 2,000-pound ton or 40 
cubic feet. 

Rates apply from Shanghai, Yangtze River, and North China ports 
(excluding Tientsin) via the Suez or Panama Canals or Cape of Good 
Hope by direct steamers or with transsliipment on the Pacific coast 
to intercoastal carriers. Conference regulations are similar to those 
observed by the Japan-Atlantic Coast Freight Conference. 

Atlantic-Pacific Intercoastal Trade 

Commodity and class rates on general cargo named by carriers 
members of the Intercoastal Steamship Freight Association conference 
apply in the direction named between all United States ports served 
on the Atlantic coast and all United States ports served on the Pacific 
coast. With certain exceptions as provided in tariffs, the rates apply 
from or to designated place of rest on individual carrier's pier or, 
optionally, direct from or to open top cars or floating equipment 
alongside. They do not include marine insurance; and terminal 
charges for wharfage, tolls, loading or unloading of rail cars, floating 
equipment or trucks, storage, transfer, switching, rail car demurrage 
and other accessorial services when assessed are also in addition. 
Application of east-boimd lumber rates is given on page 373. 



STEAMSHIP SERVICES, RATES, AND RATE CONFERENCES 373 
Inter coastal class rates in cents per 100 -pounds 



Classes 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


Rates --- 


440 


380 


314 


270 


226 


226 


182 


143 


127 


99 







Above class rates apply to or from Atlantic ports and are subject to 
ratings and minimum weights provided in the western classification. 

Effective November 18, 193S; tariff authority: Alternate Agent Wells S. B.-I No. 6, west-bound; S. B.-I 
No. 7, east-bound. 

Selected west-bound intercoastal commodity rates from Atlantic ports 
[Conference lines including Calrnar Steamship Co.] 



Commodity 



Cents per 100 pounds 



Carload mini- 
mum, weight 
in pounds 



Carload 



Less than 
carload 



.Agricultural implements 

Bags, burlap, gunny, or jute- 
Boots and shoes 

Paints and paint compounds 

Canned goods 

MOl work, e. g., doors 

Machinery, e. g., generators.. 

Newsprint paper 

Roofing paper ' 



24, 000 
30,000 
20,000 
24,000 
36,000 
30,000 
24,000 
36,000 
40,000 



72 
94 
220 
50 
58 
165 
116 
62. 
45 



165 

160 

220 

110 

100 

230 

126 

142.5 

140 



' Owner's risk of damage. 

Effective November 18, 1938; tariff authority: Alternate Agent Wells, S. B.-I No. 6; Calmar S. S. Corp., 
S. B.-I No. 5. 

Selected east-hound intercoastal commodity rates to Atlantic ports 
[Conference lines and Calmar Steamship Co.] 



Commodity 



Cents per 100 pounds 



Carload mini- 
mum, weight 
in pounds 



Carload 



Less than 
carload 



Canned goods 

Dried beans and peas 

Dried fruits and vegetables: 

In boxes 

In bags 

Rolled oats, oatmeal, etc 

Flour - 



Wheat in bags, minimum 50,000 pounds 

Wheat in bulk or bags, minimum 500 tons of 2,000 pounds. 



36,000 
36, 000 

30,000 
30,000 
24,000 
24,000 



60 

69 
92 

58 
35 
41 
32.5 



100 
150 

110 

no 

165 
100 



Effective November 18. 1938; tariff authority: Alternate Agent Wells, S. B.-I No. 7; Calmar Steamship 
Corporation, S. B.-I, No. 6. 

Intercoastal lumber to Atlantic ports. — Alternate Agent Wells, in his 
S. B.-I, No. 1, publishes for the intercoastal lumber carriers, members 
of the Intercoastal Steamship Freight Association conference, trans- 
portation rates on east-bound intercoastal lumber on a "ship's hook" 
acceptance and delivery basis. The rates cover only the movement 



78920—39- 



-25 



374 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

of the lumber from within reach of ship's tackle at loading port to 
end of ship's tackle at port of discharge, and do not include any han- 
dling or services of any character either by manual or machine power 
preceding attachment of ship's hook or after release from hook. 
When handling (moving of lumber to ship's tackle from place of rest 
on terminal at loadmg port) or car unloading is performed, all charges 
for such services are for the account of the cargo and are in addition 
to the transportation rate. 

Transportation rates to Atlantic ports 

East-bound intercoastal lumber and lumber products, except shin- 
gles, wooden pickets, spars, poles, and piling: 

In minimum lots of not less than 12,000 feet net board measure; $14 per 1,000 

feet net board measure. 
When quantity covered by one bill-of-lading totals not less than 12,000 feet net 

board measure, $14 per 1,000 feet net board measure.' 
When quantity covered by one bill-of-lading totals less than 12,000 feet net 

board measure, $14.50 per 1,000 feet net board measure.' 
In minimum lots of not less than 12,000 feet net board measure or in minimum 
lots averaging not less than 7,000 feet net board measure when two or more 
lots are covered by one bill of lading, $14 per 1,000 feet net board measure.* 
Shingles, green or dry, in bundles, 70 cents per 100 pounds. 
Spars, poles and piling are taken entirely at ship's option, and subject to prior 
booking. Transportation rates are as follows: 
Pieces 60 feet and shorter, apply lumber rate. 
Pieces 61 feet to 100 feet, add 10 percent to lumber rate. 
Pieces 101 feet and longer, add 25 percent to lumber rate. 
Extra length scale applicable on spars, poles, and piling, and which is in addition 
to the transportation rate, is as follows: 

Pieces up to and including 42 feet, no additional charge. 

Pieces over 42 feet but not over 50 feet, add $1 per 1,000 feet net board 

measure. 
Pieces over 50 feet but not over 60 feet, add $2 per 1,000 feet net board 

measure. 
Pieces over 60 feet but not over 70 feet, add $3 per 1,000 feet net board 

measure. 
Pieces over 70 feet but not over 80 feet, add $4 per 1,000 feet net board 

measure. 
Pieces over 80 feet but not over 90 feet, add $6 per 1,000 feet net board 

measure. 
Pieces over 90 feet but not over 100 feet, add $9 per 1,000 feet net board 
measure. 
Tariff authority; Alternate Agent Wells, S. B.-I, No. 7, effective April 15, 1937. 

• Applicable only via Weyerhaeuser Steamship Co., Pacific-Atlantic Steamship Co. (Quaker Line), 
States Steamship Co. (California-Eastern Line), Luckenbach Steamship Co., McCormiek Steamship 
Co., Isthmian Steamship Co., American-Hawaiian Steamship Co., and Panama Pacific Line. 

' Applicable only via Arrow Line (Sudden & Christensen). 



STEAMSHIP SERVICES, RATES, AND RATE CONFERENCES 375 



STEAMSHIP CONFERENCES 

Following is a list of rate-fixing conferences operating between 
Philadelphia and principal world trade areas and between Philadel- 
phia and United States ports on the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific coasts. 

Key to nationality of members 

Am American, Ja Japanese. 

Be Belgian. No Norwegian. 

Bra Brazilian. Pa Panaman. 

Br British. Po Polish. 

Ch Chilean. Sp Spanish. 

Da Danish. Sw Swedish. 

Du Netherlands. AF American operating foreign ships. 

Fr French. AAF American operating American 

Ge German. and foreign ships. 

It Italian. 

UNITED KINGDOM, CONTINENTAL, EUROPE AND NORTH AFRICA 

North Atlantic United Kingdom Freight Conference, J. Sinclair, Chairman, 80 Broad 

Street, New York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic from United States and Canadian North Atlantic ports to 
United Kingdom ports. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Am 


American Line. 


Br 


Donaldson Atlantic Line Ltd. 


Br 


Anchor Line. 


Br 


The Donaldson Line, Ltd. 


Am 


The Baltimore Mail Steamship Co. 


Br 


Ellerman's Wilson Line. 


Oe 


Arnold Bernstein Line. 


Br 


Furness, Withy & Co. Ltd. 


Br 


Bristol City Line of Steamships, Ltd. 


Br 


Manchester Liners, Ltd. 


Br 


Cairn-Thomson Line. 


Ge 


Red Star Line. 


Br 


Canadian Pacific Steamships, Limited. 


Br 


Head Line. 


Br 


Cunard White Star Ltd. 


Am 


American Merchant Line. 


Br 


Dominion Line (Canadian/Bristol Channel 


Am 


United States Lines. 




joint service of Bristol City Line of Steam- 


Am 


American Hampton Roads-Yankee Line. 




ships, Ltd. and Donaldson Line, Ltd.). 


Am 


Oriole Lines. 



North Atlantic Baltic Freight Conference, c/o J. Sinclair, 80 Broad Street, New 

York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic from United States and Canadian North Atlantic ports to 
Danzig Free State, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, 
Norway, Poland, Sweden, and to Continental and Russian ports served via the 
Baltic. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Sw 


Swedish American Line. 


Br 


Ellerman's Wilson lyiue. 


Sw 


Swedish America Mexico Line. 


Po 


Gdynia-America Line. 


Am 


Black Diamond Lines. 


Oe 


Hamburg-American Line. 


Am 


American Scantic Line. 


Oe 


North German Lloyd. 


Am 


Baltimore Mail Line. 


Du 


Holland-America Line. 


Ge 


Arnold Bernstein Line. 


Sw 


Transatlantic Steamship Co. 


Be 


Lloyd Royal (S. A.). 


Ge 


Red Star Line. 


No 


Norwegian American Lino. 


Am 


United States Lines. 


Da 


The United Steamship Co., Ltd. 


Am 


American Hampton Roads-Yankee Line. 



376 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



North Atlantic Continental Freight Conference, J. Sinclair, Chairman, 80 Broad 

Street, New York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic from United States and Canadian North Atlantic ports — 
Hampton Roads/ Montreal Range — to ports in Belgium, Holland, and Germany 
(excluding German Baltic). 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Am 
Am 
Ge 
Br 
Be 
Br 
Br 


Black Diamond Lines. 
Baltimore Mail Line. 
Arnold Bernstein Line. 
Canadian Pacific Steamships, Ltd. 
Lloyd Royal (R. A.). 
Ellerman's Wilson Line. 
County Line. 


Oe 
Du 
Oe 
Oe 

Am 
Am 


Hamburg-Americnn Line. 

Hollvnd-America Line. 

North German Llovd. 

Red Star Line. 

American Hampton Roads- Yanl^ee Line. 

United States Lines. 



North Atlantic French Atlantic Freight Conference, c/o J. Sinclair, 80 Broad Street, 

New York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic from United States and Canadian North Atlantic porta to 
French Atlantic ports. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Am 
Fr 
Br 


Baltimore Mall JAne. 
French Line. 
County Line. 


Am 
Am 


United States Lines. 
America France Line. 



North Atlantic Portuguese Freight Conference, Harry Lane, Secretary, c/o James 
W. Elwell & Co., Inc., 17 State Street, New York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic from United States North Atlantic ports — Hampton Roads/Port- 
land range — to ports in Portugal. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Oe 
Fr 
No 


Arnold Bernstein Line. 
Fabre Line. 

Fern Line (joint service of Fearnley & Eger 
and A. F. Klaveness & Co., A/8). 


It 
AF 
AF 
FrF 


Italian Line. 
Gardlaz Lines. 
Phelps Line. 
Franco-Iberian Line. 



North Atlantic Spanish Conference, F. Rothe, Chairman, 17 Battery Place, New 

York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic from United States North Atlantic Ports to Atlantic and Medi- 
terranean ports of Spain. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Ge 
Sp 


Arnold Bernstein Line. 
Spanish Transatlantic Line. 


AF 
FrF 


Gardiaz Lines. 
Franco-Iberian Line. 



STEAMSHIP SERVICES, RATES, AND RATE CONFERENCES 377 

North Atlantic Morocco Algeria Tunisia Freight Conference, W. H. Dausey, Chair- 
man, c/o American Export Lines, Inc., 25 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic from United States North Atlantic ports — Hampton Roads/ 
Portland range — to ports in Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Am 
Ft 


American Export Lines, Inc. 
Fabre Line. 


AF 

FrF 


Oardiaz Lines. 
Franco-Iberian Line. 



North Atlantic French Mediterranean Freight Conference, W. H. Dausey, Secretary, 
c/o American Export Lines, Inc., 25 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic from United States North Atlantic ports — Hampton Roads/ 
Portland range — to French Mediterranean Sea ports, Monaco, and Corsica. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Am 
Fr 


American Export Lines, Inc. 
Fabre Lines. 


AF 
FrF 


Gardiaz Lines. 
Franco-Iberian Line. 



North Atlantic/ West Coast of Italy Conference, c/o J. Sinclair, 80 Broad Street, 

New York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic from United States North Atlantic ports to ports on the West 
Coast of Italy. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Am 
Fr 


American Export Lines, Inc. 
Fabre Line. 


No 
It 


Fern Line (joint service of Feamley & Eger 

and A. F. Klaveness & Co., A/S). 
Italian Line. 



United States North Atlantic/ Malta Freight Rate Agreement, c/o J. Sinclair, SO 
Broad Street, New York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic from United States North Atlantic ports to the Island of Malta. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Am 


American Export Lines, Inc. 


It 


Italian Line. 



Adriatic, Black Sea and Levant Conference, c/o J. Sinclair, 80 Broad St , New 

York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic from United States North Atlantic ports to Egyptian (Medi- 
terranean), Palestinian, Syrian, Grecian, Turkish, Russian (Black Sea), Bul- 
garian, Roumanian, and Adriatic ports. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Am 
Fr 

No 


American Export Lines, Inc. 
Fabre Line. 

Fern Line (joint service of Fearnley & Eger 
and A. F. Klaveness & Co., A/S). 


It 
AF 
Am 
AF 


Italian Line. 
Gardiaz Lines. 
Isthmian Line. 
Phelps Line. 



378 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



North Atlantic Westbound Freight Association, McDiarmid & Co., Secretaries, 
Cunard Bldg., Liverpool, England 

Governs traffic from United Kingdom ports to United States and Canadian 
Atlantic coast ports and to United States Gulf ports. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Br 


Anchor Line. 


Br 


Dominion Line (Canadian/Bristol Channel 


Am 


The Atlantic Transport Co. of West Vir- 




joint service of Bristol City Line of Steam- 




ginia.' 




ships Ltd. and Donaldson Line, Ltd.) 


Am 


Atlantic Transport Co. Ltd.' 


Br 


Donaldson Atlantic Line Ltd. 


Am 


The Baltimore Mail Steamship Co. 


Br 


The Donaldson Line, Ltd. 


Br 


Bristol City Line of Steamships, Ltd. 


Br 


E Herman's Wilson Line. 


Br 


Cairn-Thomson Line. 


Br 


Furness Line. 


Br 


Canadian Pacific Steamships, Ltd. 


Br 


Manchester Liners. Ltd. 


Br 


County Line. 


Am 


United States Lines Co. 


Br 


Cunard White Star Ltd. 







' Atlantic Transport Lines. 

Norway/North Atlantic Conference, c/o Wilh. Wilhelmsen, 20, Toldbodgaten, Oslo, 

Norway 

Governs traffic from Norway to United States North Atlantic ports. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


No 

No 


Den Norske Amerilcalinje A/S. 
Det Forenede Dampskibs-Selskab Aktiesel- 
skab. 


No 


Wilhelmsen Line. 



Continental North Atlantic Westbound Freight Conference, T. G. Alder, Secretary, 
26 V. Alsterdamm, Hamburg, Germany 

Governs traffic from Hamburg, Bremen, Rotterdam, and Antwerp to United 
States North Atlantic ports. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Am 
Am 
Oe 
Be 
Qe 


Black Diamond Lines. 
Baltimore Mail Line. 
Arnold Bernstein Line. 
Lloyd Royal (S. A.). 
Hamburg- American Line. 


Qe 
Du 
Qe 

Am 
Am 


North German Lloyd. 

Holland-America Line. 

Red Star Line. 

United States Lines. 

American Hampton Roads— Yankee Line. 



French North Atlantic Westbound Freight Conference, G. S. Durand, Secretary, 
9, Rue Lauriston, Paris 16e France 

Governs traffic of French origin or moving via French ports in the Bayonne/ 
Dunkirk range, or via ports in Great Britain, to United States North Atlantic 
ports. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Am 
Fr 


The Baltimore Mail Steamship Co. 
French Line. 


Br 

Am 


Cunard White Star Ltd. 
United States Lines Co. 



STEAMSHIP SERVICES, RATES, AND RATE CONFERENCES 379 



Spain-Portugal North Atlantic Range Conference, Rafael Garcia Vitros, Secretary, 
15 Rue Beauvau, Marseilles, France 

Governs traffic from all Spanish ports between Port Bou, included, and the 
River Guardania, and from Lisbon, to United States North Atlantic ports. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Am 
FrF 


American Export Lines, Inc. 

Societe Franco Iberique D'Armement. 


AF 


Qardiaz Lines. 



The West Coast of Italy and Sicilian PortsI North Atlantic Range Conference, P. M. 
Trucco, Secretary, Via S. S. Giacomo, Filippo, 19-4, Genoa, (2) Italy 

Governs traffic from West Coast of Italy ports — between Ventimiglia and 
Reggio Calabria — and Sicilian ports to United States North Atlantic ports. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Am 
Am 
No 


American Export Lines, Inc. 
Dollar Steamship Lines, Inc., Ltd. 
Fern Line (joint service of Fearnley & Eger 
and A. F. Klaveness & Co., A/S). 


It 

AF 


Italian Line. 
Qardiaz Lines. 



The Bari and Monopoli North Atlantic Range Conference, c/o J. Sinclair, 80 Broad 

Street, New York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic from Bari and Monopoli, Italy, to United States North Atlantic 
ports. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Am 


American Export Lines, Inc. 


It 


Italian Line. 



Levant/North Atlantic Range Conference, P. M. Trucco, Secretary, Via S. S. 
Giacomo, Filippo, 19-4, Genoa, (2) Italy 

Governs traffic from Greek ports and ports in the Smyrna district to United 
States North Atlantic ports. 



Flag 


Member Unes 


Flag 


Member lines 


Am 


American Export Lines, Inc. 


It 


Italian Line. 



Algerian/ North Atlantic Range Conference, c/o J. Sinclair, 80 Broad Street, New 

York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic from Algeria to United States North Atlantic ports. 



Flag 


Member Unes 


Flag 


Member lines 


Am 


American Export Lines, Inc. 


It 


Italian Line. 



380 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Casablanca/ North Atlantic Freight Pool Agreement, c/o J. Sinclair, Chairman, 
Trans-Atlantic Associated Freight Conferences, 80 Broad Street, New York, 
N. Y. 

Governs traffic from Casablanca, Morocco, to United States North Atlantic 
ports. (Includes a provision for the establishment and maintenance of uniform 
rates.) 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Am 


American Export Lines, Inc. 


FrF 


Societe Franco Iberique D'Armement. 



Marseilles/ North Atlantic U. S. A. Freight Conference, c/o Dollar Steamship Lines, 
Inc., Ltd., 716 Transportation Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Governs traffic from Marseilles, France, to United States Atlantic coast ports. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Am 


American Export Lines, Inc. 


Am 


Dollar S. S. Lines, Inc., Ltd. 



FAR EAST 

Far East Conference, Paul Albert, Secretary, 21 West Street, New York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic from United States Atlantic and Gulf ports to ports in Japan, 
Korea, Formosa, Siberia, Manchuria, China, Indochina, and the Philippine 
Islands. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 
Am 


Member lines 


Br 


The Bank Line. 


Isthmian Steamship Co. 


AF 


Barber Steamship Lines, Inc. 


JaF 


Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha, Ltd. 


Br 


The China Mutual Steam Navigation Co., 


AF 


Kerr Steamship Co., Inc. 




Ltd.i 


Ja 


Kokusai Kisen Kabushikl Kaisha. 


Du 


Nederlandsche Stoomvaart Maatschappij 


Ja 


Nippon Yusen Kaisha. 




"Oceaan." ' 


Ja 


Osaka Syosen Kaisya. 


Br 


The Ocean Steam Ship Co., Llmited.i 


Br 


Prince Line, Ltd. 


Am 


Dollar Steamship Lines, Inc., Ltd. 


Ja 


United Ocean Transport Co., Ltd. 


Br 


EUerman & Bucknall Steamship Co., Ltd. 


Am 


American Pioneer Line. 



1 Alfred Holt & Co., managers. 

Japan-Atlantic Coast Freight Conference, C. Kawara, Secretary, c/o Nippon Yusen 

Kaisha, Kobe, Japan 

Governs traffic from ports in Japan (including Formosa) and Dairen to Atlantic 
and Gulf ports of North America. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Am 
JaF 
Ja 
Da 
Ja 


Dollar Steamship Line.<!, Inc., Ltd. 
Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha, Ltd. 
Kokusai Kisen Kaisha. 
Maersk Line. 
Mitsui Bussan Kaisha, Ltd. 


Ja 
Ja 
Ja 
No 
JaF 


Nippon Yusen Kaisha. 

Osaka Syosen Kaisya. 

United Ocean Transport Co., Ltd. 

Barber-Wilhelmsen Line. 

Yamashita Kisen Kabushikl Kaisha. 



STEAMSHIP SERVICES, RATES, AND RATE CONFERENCES 381 

New York Freight Bureau 0/ Tientsin, D. D. McKay, Secretary, c/o The Robert 
Dollar Co., Tientsin, China 

Governs traffic from Tientsin, Hai-Ho River ports (to and including Taku Bar) 
and Chinwangtao to United States and Gulf ports. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Br 

Br 
Am 
JaF 
AF 

Ja 


The China Mutual Steam Navigation Co., 

Ltd.i 
The Ocean Steamship Co., Ltd.' 
Dollar Steamship Lines, Inc., Ltd. 
Kawasaki Risen Kaisha. 
Kerr Steamship Co., Inc. 
Kokusal Kisen Kaisha. 


Br 
Da 
Ja 
Ja 
Br 
Am 
No 


Dodwell-Castle Line. 
Maersk Line. 
Nippon Yusen Kaisha. 
Osaka Syosen Kaisya. 
Prince Line, Ltd. 
States Steamship Co. 
Barber-Wllhelmsen Line. 



' Blue Funnel Line. 



New York Freight Bureau (Shanghai), Wheelock & Company, Ltd., Secretaries, 
2 French Bund, Shanghai, China 

Governs traffic from Shanghai, Yangtze River and North China porta (excluding 
Tientsin) to United States Atlantic and Gulf ports. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Br 


American & Oriental Line. 


Ja 


Kokusai Kisen Kaisha. 


Br 


The China Mutual Steam Navigation Co., 


Br 


Dodwell-Castle Line. 




Ltd.i 


Da 


Maersk Line. 


Br 


The Ocean Steamship Co., Ltd.' 


Ja 


Nippon Yu.sen Kaisha. 


Am 


Dollar Steamship Lines, Inc., Ltd. 


Ja 


Osaka Syosen Kaisya. 


Br 


American & Manchurian Line. 


Br 


Prince Line, Ltd. 


JaF 


Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha. 


Am 


American Pioneer Line. 


AF 


Kerr Steamship Co., Inc. 


No 


Barber-Wilhelmsen Line. 



' Blue Funnel Line. 



Neiv York Freight Bureau (Hongkong), G. C. Black, Secretary, c/o Furness (Far 
East) Ltd., Hongkong, China 

Governs traffic from Hongkong, Canton, Amoy, Foochow and all other ports 
in China, south of and including Foochow, and Indochina to United States Atlantic 
and Gulf ports. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Br 


American & Oriental Line. 


Da 


Maersk Line. 


Br 


The China Mutual Steam Navigation Co., 


Ja 


Nippon Yusen Kaisha. 




Ltd. 


Br 


The Ocean Steam Ship Co., Ltd. 


Am 


Dollar Steamship Lines, Inc., Ltd. 


Ja 


Osaka Syosen Kaisya. 


Br 


American & Manchurian Line. 


Br 


Prince Line, Ltd. 


AF 


Kerr Steamship Co., Inc. 


Am 


American Pioneer Line. 


Ja 


Kokusai Kisen Kaisha. 


No 


Wilh. Wilhelmsen (Barber-Wilhelmsen 


Br 


Dodwell-Castle Line. 




Line). 


Ja 


Mitsui Bussan Kaisha. 







382 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Associated Steamship Lines, Chas. Kirkwood, Secretary, P. O. Box 1062, 

Manila. P. I. 

Governs traflSc from ports in the Philippine Islands to or via ports in Ceylou, 
India, Malay States, Straits Settlements, East Indies, Indochina, Burma, Siam, 
Hongkong, China, Japan, Siberia, United States, and Canada. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Am 


American Mall Line, Ltd. 


Am 


American Qulf Orient Line. 


Br 


Australian Oriental Line, Ltd. 


Ja 


Mitsui Line. 


Br 


Bank Line. 


Da 


Maersk Line. 


Br 


Ben Line. 


Ja 


Nakamura Steamship Company, Ltd. 


Br 


Burns, Piiilip & Co., Ltd. 


Ja 


Nanyo Kaiun Kaisha. 


Br 


Canadian Pacific Steamsliips, Ltd. 


Ja 


Nippon Yusen Kaisha. 


Br 


The Cliina Mutual Steam Navigation Co., 


Ge 


North German Lloyd.' 




Ltd.! 


Du 


N. V. Rotterdamsche Lloyd.' 


Br 


The Ocean Steam Ship Company, Ltd.i 


Du 


N. V. Stoomvaart Maatschappij "Neder- 


Am 


Dollar Steamship Lines, Inc., Ltd. 




land." s 


Da 


The East Asiatic Co., Ltd. 


Am 


Oceanic and Oriental Navigation Co. 


Br 


Eastern and Australia Steamship Co., Ltd. 


Ja 


Osaka Syosen Raisya. 


Br 


American & Manchurian Line (Ellerman 


Br 


Prince Line. 




Line). 


Oe 


Rickmers Line. 


No 


Fearnley & Eger.2 


Br 


Reardon Smith Line. 


No 


A. F. Klaveness & Co. (A/S).^ 


Am 


States Steamship Co. 


Qe 


HamburK-American Line. 


Sw 


Swedish East Asiatic Co., Ltd. 


Du 


Holland East Asia Line. 


Ja 


Tatsuuma Kisen Kabushiki Kaisha. 


Du 


Java-China-Japan Line. N. V. 


Ja 


United Ocean Transport Co., Ltd. 


JaF 


Kawasaki Kisen Kahushiki Kaisha, 


Am 


American Pioneer Line. 


Ara 


Kellogg Steamship Corporation. 


No 


Barber-Wilhelmsen Line & Norwegian 


AF 


Kerr Steamship Co., Inc. 




Africa and Australia Line. 


NoF 


Klaveness Line. 


JaF 


Yamashita Kisen Kabushiki Kaisha. 


Ja 


Kokusai Kisen Kabushiki Kaisha. 






Du 


Koninklijke Paketvaart Maatschappij. 




Asuociate member 


Br 


Dodwell-Castle Line. 






It 


Lloyd Triestino, Societa' Anonima Di Navi- 
gazione. 


Am 


Isthmian Steamship Co. 



1 Blue Funnel Line. • Fern Line. « Paciflc-Java-Bengal Line. 

INDIA, CEYLON, AND PERSIAN GULF 

U. S. Atlantic and Gulf/India and Ceylon Conference, c/o Norton, Lilly & Co., 26 
Beaver Street, New York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic from United States Atlantic and Gulf ports to ports in India 
and Ceylon. 



Flag 


Miember llnee 


Flag 


Member lines 


Br 

Am 


American and Indian Line. 
Isthman Steamship Co. 


Am 


American Pioneer Line. 



Calcutta/ United States Atlantic Conference, Ellerman & Bucknall Steamship Co., 
Ltd., Secretaries 104-106 Leadenhall Street, London, E. C. 3, England 

Governs traffic from Calcutta, India, to United States North Atlantic ports and 
imposes certain oV)ligations in respect to traffic to Canadian Atlantic ports and 
United States Gulf ports. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Br 
Br 


Andrew Weir Co. 

Ellerman & Bucknall Steamship Co., Ltd. 


Am 
Am 


Isthmian Steamship Co. 
American Pioneer Line. 



STEAMSHIP SERVICES, RATES, AND RATE CONFERENCES 383 

DUTCH BAST INDIES, STRAITS SETTLEMENTS, SIAM, AND MALAY STATES 

Atlantic and Gulf-Straits Settlements, Malay States, and Siam Conference, Funch, 
Edye & Co., Inc., Secretary, 25 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic from United States Atlantic and Gulf ports to ports in the 
Straits Settlements, Federated or Unfederated Malay States, or Siam. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Br 

Am 
Br 


The China Mutual Steam Navigation Co., 

Ltd. 
Dollar Steamship Lines, Inc., Ltd. 
Ellerman & Bucknall Steamship Co., Ltd. 


Du 
Br 


Nederlandsche Stoomvaart Maatschappi] 

"Oceaan." 
The Ocean Steam Ship Co., Ltd. 



Atlantic and Gulf/ Dutch East Indies Conference, c/o Java- New York Line, 25 
Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic from United States Atlantic and Gulf ports to ports in the 
Dutch East Indies. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Du 


Nederland Stoomvaart Maatschappy 


Br 


The Ocean Steam Ship Co., Ltd.i 




"Oceaan."! 


Br 


The China Mutual Steam Navigation Co., 


Du 


N. V. Stoomvaart Maatschappij ''Neder- 




Ltd.i 




land." 1 


AF 


Kerr Steamship Co., Inc.' 


Du 


N. V. Rotterdamsche Lloyd.i 






Du 


N. V. Nederlandsch-Amerikaansche Stoom- 
vaart Maatschappij (Holland-America 




Associate member 




Linel.i 


Am 


Isthmian Steamship Co. (Isthmian Line). 



> Java-New York Line. 

Straits/ New York Conference, Paterson, Simons & Co., Ltd., Secretaries, Singapore, 

Straits Settlements 

Governs traffic from the Straits Settlements to United States Atlantic and 
Gulf ports. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Br 


American & Oriental Line. 


Ja 


Nippon Yusen Kaisha. 


Br 


The China Mutual Steam Navigation Co.. 


Du 


Holland- America Line. 




Ltd. 


Du 


N. V. Stoomvaart Maatschappij "Neder- 


Am 


Dollar Steamship Lines, Inc., Ltd. 




land." 


Br 


American & Manchurian Line. 


Br 


The Ocean Steam Ship Company, Ltd. 


AF 


Kerr Steamship Co., Inc. 


Ja 


Osaka Shosen Kaisha. 


Ja 


Kokusai Kisen Kabushiki Kaisha. 


Br 


Prince Line, Ltd. 


Br 


Dodwell-Castle Line. 


Du 


Rotterdam Lloyd Royal Mail Line. 


Ja 


Mitsui Bussan Kaisha. 







Java-New York Rate Agreement, Chairman, Kali Besar, Oost No. 14, Bata via, Java, 

Netherland East India 

Governs traffic from Dutch East Indian ports (Medan excluded) to ports on the 
East Coast of North America. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Br 
Br 

Br 

Am 
AF 
Br 
Du 


The Bank Line, Ltd. 

The China Mutual Steam Navigation Co., 

Ltd. 
Ellerman & Bucknal! Steamship Co., Ltd. 
Isthmian Steamship Co. 
Kerr Steamship Co., Inc. 
Dodwell-Castle Line. 
"HoUand-Amerika Lijn." 


Du 
Du 

Du 

Br 
Br 


N. V. Rotterdamsche Lloyd. 

N. V. Stoomvaart Maatschappij "Neder- 
land." 

N. V. Nederlandsche Stoomvaart Maat- 
schappij "Oceaan." 

The Ocean Steam Ship Co., Ltd. 

Prince Line, Ltd. 



384 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Deli/New York Rate Agreement, Chairman, Esplanade, Medan, Sumatra, Nether- 
land East India 

Governs traffic from the east coast of Sumatra between Langsa and Indragiri, 
both ports included, to ports on east coast of North America. 



Flap 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Br 


The Bank Line, Ltd. 


Du 


N. V. Stoomvaart Maatschapplj "Neder- 


Br 


The China Mutual Steam Navigation Co., 




land." 




Ltd. 


Du 


N. V. Koninklijke Paketvaart Maat- 


Am 


Dollar Steamship Lines. Inc., Ltd. 




schapplj. 


Br 


Ellernian & Bucknall Steamship Co., Ltd. 


Du 


N. V. Nederlandsche Stoomvaart Maat- 


Am 


Isthmian Steamship Co. 




schapplj "Occaan." 


AF 


Kerr Steamship Co., Inc. 


Br 


The Ocean Steam Ship Co., Ltd. 


Br 


Dodwell-Castle Line. 


Ja 


Osaka Shosen Kaisha. 


Du 


Holland-America Line. 


Br 


Prince Line, Ltd. 


Du 


N. V. Rotterdamsche Lloyd. 







AUSTRALASIA 



North Atlantic/ Australia- New Zealand Conference, c/o Mr. Henry Jager, Norton, 
Lilly & Co., 26 Beaver Street, New York, N. Y.' 

Governs traffic from United States Atlantic ports to Australia and New Zealand. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


AF 


Norton, Lilly & Co. (Am. & Australian 
Steamship Line). 


Br 

Am 


Port liine Limited. 
American Pioneer Line. 



AFRICA (WEST, SOUTH, AND EAST) 

American West African Conference, c/o Barber Steamship Lines, Inc., 17 Battery 

Place, New York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic between United States and Canadian North Atlantic ports and 
Canary Islands, Cape Verde Islands, the islands of Fernando Po, Sao Thome, and 
Principe, and ports on the West Coast of Africa between Dakar and Mossamedes, 
inclusive. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 




Direct service lines 




Associate members—Transshipping service 
itnes— Continued 


Am 


American-West African Line, Inc. 






Br 


Elder Dempster Lines, Ltd. 


Du 


Holland West Afrika Lljn. 






Du 


N. V. Nederlandsch-Amerikaansche Stoom- 




Associate members— Transshipping service 




vaart-Maatschappij. 




lines 


Oe 


North German Lloyd. 






Am 


United States Lines Co. 


Br 


Canadian Pacific Steamships, Ltd. 


Ge 


Woormann Linie.' 


Be 


Lloyd Royal, S. A. 


Ge 


Deutsche Ost Afrika Linie.' 


Br 


Cunard White Star, Ltd. 


Ge 


Hamburg-Amerika Line.' 


Qe 


Hamburg-Amerikanische Packetfahrt Ak- 
tien-Oesellschaft. 


Oe 


Hamburg-Bremer Afrika Line.' 



' Joint service. 



STEAMSHIP SERVICES, RATES, AND RATE CONFERENCES 385 

U. S. A. /South Africa Conference, J. B. O'Reilly, Secretary, 26 Beaver Street, 

New York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic from United States Atlantic ports — Portland/Key West range — 
to West, Southwest, South, and East African ports from Lobito to Mombasa, both 
inclusive, and to the islands of St. Helena, Ascension, Madagascar, Reunion, 
and Mauritius. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Am 
Br 
Ge 
Br 


American South African Line, Inc. 

Ttie Clan Line Steamers Ltd. 

Ilansa Line. 

Ellerman & Bucknall Steamship Co., Ltd. 


Br 
Br 
Br 


Ilouston Line (London) Ltd. 

Prince Line, Ltd. 

The Union Castle Mail Steamship Co., Ltd. 



South Africa/ U. S. A. Conference, J. B. O'Reilly, Secretary, 26 Beaver Street, 

New York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic from ports in East, South, Southwest, and West Africa, from 
Mombasa to Lobito, both inclusive, and from the islands of Madagascar, Reunion, 
and Mauritius to United States Atlantic and Gulf ports. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Am 
Br 
Br 


American South African Line, Inc. 

The Clan Line Steamers Ltd. 

Ellerman & Bucknall Steamship Co., Ltd. 


Br 
Br 
Br 


Houston Line (London) Ltd. 

Prince Line, Ltd. 

The Union Castle Mail Steamship Co., Ltd. 



SOUTH AMERICA 

United States/River Plate and Brazil Conferences, George F. Foley, Chairman, 8 
Bridge Street, New York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic, except refrigerated cargo, from United States and Canadian 
Atlantic Coast ports and from United States Gulf ports to ports in Uruguay, 
Argentina, Paraguay, and Brazil. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Br 


The Booth Steamship Co., Ltd. 


Am 


Munson Steamship Line, Edward P. Farley 


Br 


Houston Line (London) Ltd. 




& Morton L. Fearey, Trustees. 


AF 


International Freighting Corporation, Inc. 


Ge 


North German Lloyd. 


JaF 


"K" Line. 


AF 


Norton Line. 


Br 


Lamport & Holt Line, Ltd. 


Br 


Prince Line, Ltd. 


AF 


Linea Sud Americana, Inc. 


Sw 


Essco-Brodin Line. 


Bra 


Lloyd Brasileiro. 


Am 


American Republics Line. 


Am 


Mississippi Shipping Co., Inc. 


No 


Wilhelmsen Line. 


AF 


Mooremack Lines, Inc. 


JaF 


Yamashita Line. 



New York-East Coast South America Conference (Refrigerated Cargo), c/o Munson 
Steamship Line, 67 Wall Street, New York, N. Y. 

Governs refrigerated cargo from United States Atlantic Coast ports to Brazil, 
Uruguay, and Argentina. 



Flag 


Member line 


Flag 


Member line 


Am 


Munson Steamship Line, Edward P. Farley 
& Morton L. Fearey, Trustees. 


Br 


Prince Line, Ltd. 



386 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Windward and Leeward Islands Conference, W. H. Griffin, Secretary, care of 
Ocean Dominion Steamship Corporation, 17 Battery Place, New York, N. Y. 

Governs freight and passenger traffic from United States North Atlantic ports 
to the Virgin Islands, Leeward and Windward Islands, Trinidad, British Guiana, 
and Ciudad Bolivar. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member line 


Am 
Br 


American Caribhean Line, Inc. 
Bermuda & West Indies Steamship Co., 
Ltd. 


AAF 


Ocean Dominion Steamship Corporation. 



U. S. Atlantic and Gulf-Netherlands West Indies and Venezuela Conference, J. P. 
DuVinage, Secretary, 80 Broad Street, New York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic between United States Atlantic and Gulf ports and the Dutch 
West Indies and Venezuela. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member line 


Am 
AAF 


Grace Line, Inc. 

Ocean Dominion Steamship Corporation. 


Du 


Royal Netherlands Steamship Co. 



East Coast Colombian Steamship Lines Conference, J. P. DuVinage, Secretary, 
80 Broad Street, New York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic between United States North Atlantic ports — Boston-Norfolk 
range — and Cartagena and Puerto Colombia, Colombia. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member line 


Am 

Am 


Grac« Line. 

Associate member 
Panama R. R. Steamship Line. 


AAF 


United Fruit Co. 



Atlantic and Gulf -West Coast of South America Conference, J. P. DuVinage, Secre- 
tary, 80 Broad Street, New York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic from United States Atlantic and Gulf ports to ports on the west 
coast of Colombia, and to Ecuador, Peru, and Chile. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Am 
Da 
Am 
Am 


Grace Line. 

J. Lauritzon. 

Lykes Bros.-Ripley Steamship Co., Inc. 

Grace Line. 


Am 
AAF 
AAF 

AF 


Panama R. R. Steamship Line. 
United Fruit Co. 
Standard Fruit & Steamship Co. 
Wessel, Duval & Co., Inc. 



STEAMSHIP SERVICES, RATES, AND RATE CONFERElSrCES 387 

Brazil-United States Freight Conference, George F. Foley, Chairman, 8 Bridge 

Street, New York, N. Y. 

Governs freight traffic, except passenger's baggage and refrigerated cargo, from 
Brazilian ports to United States Atlantic and Gulf ports. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Br 


The Booth Steamship Co., Ltd. 


Am 


Munson Steamship Line, Edward P. 


AF 


International Freighting Corporation, Inc. 




Farley and Morton L. Fearey, trustees. 


JaF 


"K" Line. 


Ja 


Osaka Syosen Kaisya. 


Br 


Lamport & Holt Line, Ltd. 


Br 


Prince Line, Ltd. 


AF 


Linea Sud-Americana, Inc. 


Sw 


Essco-Brodin Line. 


Bra 


Lloyd Brasileiro. 


Am 


American Republics Line. 


Am 


Mississippi Shipping Co., Inc. 


No 


Wilh. Wilhelmsen. 


AF 


Mooremack Lines, Inc. 







Brazil North Coast Ports- United States Atlantic Coast Ports Conference, care of Joseph 
J. Halloran, Traffic Manager, American Republics Line; C. H. Sprague & Son, 
Inc., Managing Agent, 44 Whitehall Street, New York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic from North Brazil coast ports, Maranham to Ceara, inclusive, 
to United States Atlantic coast ports in the Boston-Norfolk range. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member line 


Br 
Br 


The Booth Steamship Co., Ltd. 
Lamport & Holt Line, Ltd. 


Am 


American Republics Line. 



Amazon River Ports-United States Atlantic C '•ast Ports Conference, care of Joseph J. 
Halloran, Traffic Manager, American Republics Line; C. H. Sprague & Son, Inc., 
Managing Agent, 44 Whitehall Street, New York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic from Amazon River ports in Brazil, Para to Manaos, inclusive, 
to United States Atlantic coast ports in the Boston-Norfolk range. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member line 


Br 
Br 


The Booth Steamship Co. ,Ltd. 
Lamport & Holt Line, Ltd. 


Am 


American Republics Line. 



Pernambuco Range-United States Atlantic Coast Ports Conference, care of Joseph J. 
Halloran, Traffic Manager, American Republics Line; C. H. Sprague & Son, Inc., 
Managing Agent, 44 Whitehall Street, New York, N. Y. 



Governs traffic from east coast of Brazil ports. Natal to Maceio, inclusive, to 
United States Atlantic coast ports in the Boston-Norfolk range. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member line 


Br 
Br 


The Booth Steamship Co., Ltd. 
Lamport & Holt Line, Ltd. 


Am 


American Republics Line. 



388 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA 



CENTRAL AMERICA, MEXICO, AND CANAL ZONE 

Atlantic and Gulf-Panama Canal Zone, Colon and Panama City Conference, 
J. P. DuVinage, Secretary, 80 Broad Street, New York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic from United States Atlantic and Gulf ports to Colon, Panama 
City, and all points in the Canal Zone. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Am 
Am 

Am 

Am 
Am 


Grace Line. 

Lykes Bros. -Ripley Steamship Co., Inc. 
Panama Mail Steamship Co. 
(Grace Line) 

Associate members 

Quaker Line. 
California-Eastern Line. 


Am 
AAF 

AAF 


Panama R. R. Steamship Line. 
Standard Fruit and Steamship Co. 
United Fruit Co. 



Atlantic and Gulf-West Coast of Central America and Mexico Conference, 
J. P. DuVinage, Secretary, 80 Broad Street, New York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic from United States Atlantic and Gulf ports to ports on the 
west coast of Panama, except Panama City, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, 
Salvador, Guatemala, and Mexico. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Am 
Am 
Am 


Grace Line. 

Lykes Bros. -Ripley Steamship Co., Inc. 
Grace Line (Panama Mail Steamship 
Co.). 


Am 
AAF 
AAF 


Panama R. R. Steamship Line. 
Standard Fruit and Steamship Co. 
United Fruit Co. 




WEST 


INDIES 





Havana Steamship Conference, J. P. DuVinage, Secretary, 80 Broad Street, 

New York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic from United States North Atlantic ports — Maine/Virginia 
range — and from Port Everglades, Fla., to Havana, Cuba. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Am 
Am 


Florida East Coast Car Ferry Co. 

Munargo Steamship Corporation, Ed- 
ward P. Farley & Morton L. Fearey, 
trustees. 


Am 
Am 
AAF 


New York and Cuba Mail Steamship Co. 
Seatrain Lines, Inc. 
United Fruit Co. 



North Atlantic Ports to Santiago de Cuba, Cuba Conference, J. P. DuVinage, 
Secretary, 80 Broad Street, New York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic from United States North Atlantic ports — Portland- Norfolk 
range — to Santiago de Cuba. 



Flag 


Member line 


Flag 


Member line 


AAF 


Standard Fruit and Steamship Co. 


AAF 


United Fruit Co. 



STEAMSHIP SERVICES, RATES, AISTD RATE CONFERENCES 389 

United States Atlantic & Gulf- Netherlands, West Indies & Venezuela Conference, 
J. P. DuVinage, Secretary, 80 Broad Street, New York, N. Y. 

(See South America.) 

United States Atlantic and Gulf-Haiti Conference, Hendrik S. MuUer, Secretary^ 
25 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic between United States Atlantic and Gulf ports and Haiti. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member line 


Am 
Am 


Lykes Bros. -Ripley Steamsliip Co., Inc. 
Panama Rail Road Steamship Line. 


Du 


Royal Netherlands Steamship Co. 



United States Atlantic and Gulf-Santo Domingo Conference, T. J. Lennon, Secre- 
tary, 115 Broad Street, New York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic between United States Atlantic and Gulf ports and the Domini- 
can Republic. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Am 
AF 


Baltimore Insular Line, Inc. 
Bull Insular Line, Inc. 


Am 
Am 


Lykes Bros. -Ripley Steamship Co., Inc. 
The New York and Porto Rico Steamship 



United States Atlantic and Gulf Ports- Jamaica {B. W. I.) Steamship Conference, 
J. P. DuVinage, Secretary, 80 Broad Street, New York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic from United States Atlantic and Gulf ports — Portland-Houston 
range — to Kingston, Jamaica, and to Jamaican outports. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member line 


AAF 
AAF 
AAF 


Aluminum Line. 

Standard Fruit and Steamship Co. 

United Fruit Co. 


Br 


Associate member as respects lumber from 
Gulf ports 

J. S. W^ebster & Sons. 



Windward and Leewards Island Conference, W. H. Griffin, Secretary, care of Ocean 
Dominion Steamship Corporation, 17 Battery Place, New York, N. Y. 

(See South America.) 

INTERCOASTAIi 

Intercoastal Steamship Freight Association, Harry S. Brown, Chairman, 80 Broad 

Street. New York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic between United States Atlantic coast ports and United States 
Pacific coast ports. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Am 


American-Hawaiian Steamship Co. 


Am 


McCormick Steamship Co. 


Am 


American Line Steamship Corp.' 


Am 


Quaker Line. 


Am 


The Atlantic Transport Co. of West 


Am 


California-Eastern Line. 




Virginia.' 


Am 


Arrow Line. 


Am 


Calmar Steamship Corporation. 


Am 


Pacific Coast Direct Line, Inc. 


Am 


Dollar Steamship Lines, Inc., Ltd. 






Am 


Isthmian Steamship Co. 






Am 


Luckenbach Steamship Co., Inc. 




Associate member 






Am 


Northland Transportation Co. 



1 Panama Pacific Line. 
78920—39 26 



390 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



COASTWISE 



Atlantic Coastwise Steamship Conference, care of T. N. Cook, Freight TraflRc 
Manager, Ocean Steamship Co. of Savannah, Pier 46, North River, New York, 
N. Y. 

Governs traffic between ports in the range Portland, Maine, to Tampa, Florida. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Am 

Am 


The Bull Steamship Line. 
Clyde-Mallory Lines 


Am 
Am 


Eastern Steamship Lines, Inc. 
Merchants & Miners Transportation Co. 



North Atlantic Gulf Steamship Association, C. B. Kellogg, Counsellor, 270 Broad- 
way, New York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic between United States North Atlantic ports — Boston/Norfolk 
range — and New Orleans, Galveston, and Houston. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Am 
Am 
Am 
Am 


Clyde-Mallory Lines. 
Lykes Coastwise Line, Inc. 
Mooremack Gulf Lines, Inc. 
Pan-Atlantic Steamship Corp. 


Am 
Am 

Am 


Seatrain Lines, Inc. 

Southern Pacific Steamship Lines, "Mor- 
gan Line." 
Southern Steamship Co. 



UNITED STATES POSSESSIONS 



United States Atlantic and Gulf-Puerto Rico Conference, T. J. Lennon, Secretary, 
115 Broad Street, New York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic between United States Atlantic and Gulf ports and Puerto Rico. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Am 
Am 
Am 


Baltimore Insular Line, Inc. 
Bull Insular Line, Inc. 
Grace Line, Inc. 


Am 
Am 

Am 


Lykes Bros. -Ripley Steamship Co., Inc. 
The New York and Porto Rico Steamship 

Co. 
Waterman Steamship Corporation. 



Atlantic and Gulf-Haivaii Conference, J. J. McCabe, Acting Secretary, care of 
Isthmian Steamship Co., 25 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

Governs traffic from United States Atlantic and Gulf and Canadian Atlantic 
ports to ports in the Hav.aiian Islands. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Am 
Am 


Dollar Steamship Lines, Inc., Ltd. 
Isthmian Steamship Co. 


Am 
Am 


American Gulf Orient Line. 
American Pioneer Line. 



STEAMSHIP SERVICES, RATES, AND RATE CONFERENCES 391 
PASSENGER CONFERENCES 

UNITED KINGDOM, CONTINENTAL EUROPE, AND NORTH AFRICA 

Atlantic Conference, W. H. Roper, Secretary, P. O. Box 101, Brussels, Belgium 

Governs first-class, cabin, and second-class transatlantic passenger traffic 
between Canadian Atlantic and United States Atlantic and Gulf ports and United 
Kingdom, Continental European ports — Leningrad/ Cadiz Range — Scandinavian, 
and Finnish ports; also covers third-class and tourist-class transatlantic passenger 
traffic between Canadian Atlantic and United States Atlantic and Gulf ports and 
Continental European ports — Leningrad/Cadiz range — Scandinavia, Finland, 
and Iceland. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Sw 


Swedish American Line. 


Oe 


Hamburg- American Line. 


Br 


Anciior Line. 


Br 


Furness Line. 


Oe 


Arnold Bernstein Line. 


Du 


Holland- America Line. 


Br 


Canadian Pacific Steamships. 


Qe 


North German Lloyd. 


Fr 


French Line. 


Ge 


Red Star Line. 


Br 


Cunard White Star, Ltd. 


Am 


United States Lines. 


No 


Norwegian America Line. 






Da 


Scandinavian-American Line. 




Associate member 


Br 


Donaldson Atlantic Line, Ltd. 






Po 


Qdj'nia-America Line 


Am 


American Scantic Line, Inc. 



North Atlantic Passenger Conference, S. G. Ashford, Acting Secretary, 18 James 
Street, Liverpool, England 

Governs third-class and tourist-class transatlantic passenger traffic between 
Canadian Atlantic and United States Atlantic and Gulf ports and British and 
Irish ports. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Br 
Ge 
Br 
Fr 
Br 
Br 


Anchor Line. 

Arnold Bernstein Line. 

Canadian Pacific Steamships. 

French Line. 

Cunard White Star, Ltd. 

Donaldson Atlantic Line, Ltd. 


Ge 
Du 
Ge 
Ge 
Am 


Hamburg- American Line. 
Holland-America Line. 
North German Lloyd. 
Red Star Line. 
United States Lines. 



Mediterranean Passenger Conference, P. M. Trucco, Secretaiy, Via S. S. Giacomo, 
Filippo, 19-4, Genoa, (2), Italy. 
Governs passenger traffic between United States Atlantic and Gulf and Canadian 
Atlantic ports and Mediterranean ports. 



Flag 


Member lines 


Flag 


Member lines 


Am 
Br 


American Export Lines, Inc. 
Cunard White Star Ltd. 


It 


Italian Line. 



SOUTH AMERICA, CENTRAL AMERICA, CANAL ZONE, AND WEST INDIES 

Windward and Leeward Islands Conference, W. H. Griffin, Secretary, c/o Ocean 
Dominion Steamship Corporation, 17 Battery Place, New York, N. Y. 

(See South America.) 



TERRITORY TRIBUTARY 

Although complete data regarding inland points of origin and 
destination of the water-borne commerce of Philadelphia are not 
available, information obtainable indicates that the greater part of 
Philadelphia's commerce is destined to or received from eastern 
Pennsylvania, the southern half of New Jersey, Delaware, and the 
Eastern Shore of Maryland. The port enjoys rail rate advantages 
over those of New York and Baltimore in this highly industrialized 
and thicldy populated area in which reside over 6 milhon inhabitants, 
or about 5 percent of our total population. 

This region is reputed to support more than 10,000 manufacturing 
establishments, the annual production of which approximates 
$3,000,000,000. Its retail sales amount to approximately $1,750,000,- 
000 per year. 

The compactness of the local area lends itself readily to the move- 
ment of commodities by motor truck. This transportation medium 
has become an important factor in recent years in the movement of 
traffic between the water-front and points within a radius of about 150 
miles. It has been estimated that approximately 75 percent of the 
port's total general merchandise movement is transported by motor 
truck. 

The territory outside the local area extending westward to Buffala 
from the Syracuse-Binghamton line, and from Lake Ontario south 
to a short distance below the Pennsylvania-New York State line is 
competitive and import and export rates are on a parity to Phila- 
delphia, New York, and Baltimore. In a small area which includes a 
portion of New York State west of Buffalo and the northwest comer of 
Pennsylvania, export and import rail rates to Philadelphia and 
Baltimore are on a parity, while those to New York are higher. From 
points in Pennsylvania west of the Susquehanna River and in the 
States of West Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wis- 
consin, Baltimore enjoys export and import rail rate differentials 
under Philadelphia, which in turn has a differential in its favor under 
New York. 

The port also handles some Canadian traffic, movements to and 
from Southern States and the territory west of the Mississippi. 
392 



TERRITORY TRIBUTARY 



393 



Some representative commodities that move through Philadelphia 
from the Midwest area outlined are as follows: 



Agricultural implements, Coldwater, 

Ohio, Parkersburg, W. Va. 
Automobiles, Detroit, Mich. 
Bottles, Zanesville, Ohio, Alton, 111. 
Chemicals, North Fhnt, Mich. 
Chlorinated lime, Wyandotte, Mich. 
Flour, Brantford, Ontario, Canada. 
Glassware, Lancaster, Ohio, Corning, 

N. Y. 
Grass seed, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Hog hair, Austin, Minn. 
Iron pipe, Columbus, Ohio. 
Leather waste and fertilizer, Milwaukee, 

Wis. 
Machinery and parts, North Warren, 

Ohio. 



Rolling mill rollers. Canton, and 

Youngstown, Ohio. 
Sheet iron, Weirton, W. Va. 
Sheet steel, Youngstown, Ohio. 
Soda ash, Wyandotte, Mich. 
Solder dross, St. Helens, Md. 
Steel bars. East St. Louis, 111., Massillon, 

Ohio. 
Steel plates, Indiana Harbor, Ind. 
Tinplate, Indiana Harbor, Ind., Martins 

Ferry, Steubenville, Ohio, Weirton, 

W. Va. 
Tractors, Peoria, 111. 
Twine, Brantford, Canada. 



The following partial list of commodities and their points of destina- 
tion is representative of the distribution of the import trade through 
Philadelphia to territory other than the local distribution area. 



Ball clay, Chicago, 111. 

Bananas, points in Pennsylvania, New 
York, Virginia, West Virginia, Michi- 
gan, and Connecticut. 

Burlap, Black Rock, N. Y., Toledo, 
Ohio, Kansas City, Mo. 

Canned goods, Pittsburgh, Pa., Cleve- 
land, Ohio, Buffalo, N. Y., and also 
points in lUinois, Indiana, Michigan 
and West Virginia. 

China clay, Liverpool, Ohio, Wheeling, 
W. Va., Nev/ York, Maryland, and 
Pennsylvania. 

Chrome ore, Buffalo, N. Y., Cleveland, 
Ohio. 



Clover seed and tankage, Baltimore, Md. 

Coffee, Chicago, 111. 

Corned beef, Lynchburg, Va. 

Cotton seed oil, Louisville, Ky. 

Ferrochrome, Canton, Ohio. 

Hides, Pittsburg, Pa., West Virginia. 

Mahogany, North Carolina. 

Molasses, Akron, Ohio. 

Phosphate rock, Ontario, Canada. 

Rice, Chicago, 111. 

Sisal, Detroit, Mich. 

Straw rugs, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Woodpulp, Red Bank, Penroyd, and 

Middletown, Ohio, Indianapolis and 

Muncie, Ind. 



Import trade. — A comparison of the commercial statistics of 1921 
with those of 1936 reveals that Philadelphia's import trade has 
changed considerably both in regard to the relative importance of 
many of its component commodities and as to ranking of countries of 
origin. 

Since 1921 the import trade has nearly doubled in tonnage with 
increases noted in practically all commodity classes. A few com- 
modities declined in tonnage, but these losses were generally offset 
by the addition of commodities such as grain, gypsum, silk, and silk 
manufactures to the import trade. In 1921 nine principal commodi- 
ties — petroleum, sugar, iron and manganese ores, clays, molasses, 
bananas, woodpulp, miscellaneous metals, and chemicals — accounted 



394 THE POET OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

for 88.5 percent of the import trade, while in 1936 these same com- 
modities accounted for only 74.4 percent. The 10 principal commodi- 
ties for the latter year were petroleum, sugar, molasses, iron and 
manganese ores, woodpulp, bananas, iron and steel manufactures, 
grains, gypsum, logs, and lumber which comprised 81.8 percent of the 
total imports. 

Petroleum maintained its position as the principal commodity 
imported although the point of origin shifted from Mexico, which in 
1921 was the source of all but an insignificant amount of this com- 
modity, to Venezuela which in 1936 shipped 97 percent of the total. 
Sugar, the second ranking commodity from a tonnage standpoint, was 
formerly received principally from Cuba, with the Philippine Islands 
contributing only 2.2 percent. In 1936, however, Cuba and the Philip- 
pine Islands were practically on a parity as to sugar shipments. 
Molasses imports increased greatly in importance during the 15-year 
period. It is still obtained principally from Cuba, although Haiti is 
now shipping a small percentage of the total. Bananas which for- 
merly originated principally in Jamaica, Colombia, and Cuba have 
also greatly increased in tonnage but are now received from Guate- 
mala, Mexico, and Honduras. 

Imports of pulp wood and woodpulp have increased considerably 
from all countries of origin since 1921. There has been no marked 
change in points of origin other than that a greater proportion of the 
total now originates in Sweden and shipments from Germany and 
Canadian points are nearly equal in tonnage. Both Poland and the 
Netherlands are on record as contributing small amounts to this 
traffic. Iron ore and manganese were formerly imported from Brit- 
ish India, Cuba, Brazil, Norway, Portuguese East Africa, Sierra 
Leone, Belgium, and Gold Coast, while in 1936 the principal sources 
of iron ore were Cuba, New Caledonia, Brazil, and Algeria. Man- 
ganese was received principally from Gold Coast, Germany, and 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Shipments of manganese re- 
corded as originating in Germany were probably transshipped at 
some German port. In 1921, iron, steel, and manufactures originating 
principally in Morocco, Cuba, England, and Germany comprised only 
0.4 percent of the total imports, while in 1936 this commodity classi- 
fication ranked seventh in importance, comprising 2.5 percent of the 
total imports. Principal sources of this traffic were India, Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics, the Netherlands, Belgium, England, and 
Germany in the order named. 

Two commodities, grain and gypsum, which were not recorded as 
entering into the import trade in 1921, were an important part of this 
traJSic in 1936 with respective movements of 87,823 and 84,470 cargo 
tons. 



TERRITORY TRIBUTARY 395 

Imports of commodities under the classification of logs and lumber 
amounted to only 8,834 cargo tons in 1921 while in 1936 they ranked 
as one of the principal items with a total movement of 78,148 cargo 
tons. These products formerly originated principally in Atlantic 
Canada, Nicaragua, and the West Indies, that from the last two 
consisting largely of mahogany and cabinet woods. Chief contrib- 
utors in 1936 however were Portugal, Pacific Canada, Algeria, Spain 
and Brazil. 

The statistics included herein show that Philadelphia entered into 
trade with 69 countries during 1936. Approximately 42 percent of 
the total imports originated in South America. Venezuela and Brit- 
ish Guiana on the north coast of that continent contributed the 
greater part of this movement even though it consisted of only two 
commodities, petroleum and miscellaneous metals (bauxite). The 
east coast however was more important in regard to general com- 
merce because of a greater diversity of commodities. 

Cuba retained its leadership in the West Indies although shipments 
from this region were under those of 1921. Sugar which was for- 
merly the leading export from Cuba declined nearly 50 percent in 
volume and was superseded by molasses as the principal commodity 
of this trade. 

Mexico, which formerly had been the principal source of petroleum, 
shipped only 35,736 cargo tons of that commodity during 1936. Ba- 
nanas comprised the remainder of the imports from Mexico and the 
principal shipments from Guatemala and Honduras. 

While imports during 1936 from the Latin American countries 
showed an increase in tonnage of 354,484 cargo tons over the imports 
of 1921 from this same area, the proportion this trade bore to the 
total imports showed a decline from 77.6 percent to 63.4 percent. 

Imports from countries bordering on the Mediterranean and Black 
Sea totaled 89,550 cargo tons during 1936 whereas in 1921 imports 
from the same trade area amounted to only 42,404 tons. The west- 
ern Mediterranean district, which includes Spain, France, Italy, Yugo- 
slavia, Malta, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco, contributed 66 percent 
of this movement ; while the remainder originated at Black Sea ports, 
Turkey, Greece, Egypt, and Syria. 

Receipts from the United Kingdom were considerably less than in 
1921. The decline in the imports of clays accounted for the greater 
part of the drop from 134,936 tons to 83,783 tons, even though this 
commodity maintained its position as the leading item of trade. 

Continental Europe, which includes the region from Portugal to the 
Baltic Sea countries, was the principal source of the general import 
trade of the port with a total movement of 415,046 cargo tons or 
11.8 percent of the total, of which 209,828 tons originated in the 
North Atlantic and Baltic region, 163,734 tons in the Havre-Ham- 



396 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

burg range, and 41,484 in South Atlantic Europe. In 1921 this same 
region contributed only 8.1 percent of the imports. The principal 
commodities received from the Baltic countries were woodpulp, paper, 
grain, iron, and steel manufactures and miscellaneous nonmetallic 
minerals. The Havre-Hamburg range contributed a variety of com- 
modities to PhOadelphia's import trade of which the most important 
from a tonnage standpoint were iron and steel manufactures, wood- 
pulp, chemicals, nonmetallic minerals, barley, and cotton manufactures. 
Receipts from South Atlantic Europe consisted principally of 33,491 
cargo tons of logs and lumber, most of which was cork and cork 
products from Portugal and Spain. 

The Gold Coast and Nigeria were the source of 88.9 percent of the 
receipts from West Africa. The Gold Coast shipped 48,340 tons of 
manganese and 14,639 tons of cocoa which accounted for the entire 
movement from this country. Nigeria, the Ivory Coast and Sierra 
Leone exports consisted principally of cocoa. Morocco's chief exports 
were logs and lumber and vegetable fibers. Total imports from 
Morocco, Sierra Leone, and Gold Coast in 1921 amounted to 16,205 
tons whereas in 1936 the total reached 81,393 cargo tons. 

There has been little change in the trade with South and East 
Africa. Iron ore originating in Mozambique comprised 89.5 percent 
of the total receipts from South and East Africa. The Union of 
South Africa was the second largest contributor with a total move- 
ment of 1,282 tons of which 758 tons were dyeing and tanning materials 
and 427 nonmetallic minerals. Kenya's principal export to Phila- 
delphia was dyeing and tanning materials. 

Imports from Australasia totaling 24,445 cargo tons consisted en- 
tirely of iron ore from New Caledonia and chemicals from Australia. 
No direct movement from this region was recorded during 1921. 

India as the source of 72.8 percent of the imports from the region 
extending from the Persian Gulf and Red Sea to the East Indies, held 
its position as the principal contributor to the import trade of Phila- 
delphia from this area with a total movement of 90,378 cargo tons, 
while Java ranked second with a total movement of 10,834 cargo 
tons. Principal imports from these countries were iron and steel 
manufactures, jute and jute manufactures, vegetable products, rub- 
ber, iron ore, dyeing and tanning materials, hides and skins, oil seeds, 
and wool. 

East Asia which includes the Philippine Islands, Japan, and China 
contributed a total of 288,290 cargo tons to the import trade during 
1936, as compared with 23,033 tons m 1921, of which 250,151 tons 
originated in the Philippines, 31,824 tons in Japan, and 6,315 tons in 
China. The principal commodity in this trade was sugar from the 
Philippines, while the second ranking commodity consisted of vege- 



TERRITORY TRIBUTARY 397 

table oils from all three countries with Japan contributing 66 percent 
of the movement. Cotton manufactures from Japan and China 
ranked third in importance. 

Imports from Canada totalled 151,232 cargo tons, of which 122,980 
tons were received from Atlantic Canada. Gypsum was the principal 
commodity originatmg in Atlantic Canada, with a total movement of 
84,325 tons. Other commodities entering into this trade were paper, 
woodpulp, iron and steel manufactures, and nonmetallic minerals. 
Shipments from Pacific Canada consisted entirely of logs and lumber 
and wood pulp. 

Export trade. — Export trade like the unport trade has undergone 
significant changes as to volume and importance of commodities and 
trade areas since the publication of the original report in 1921. Dur- 
ing the former year the export trade amounted to 2,549,350 cargo tons 
while during 1936 this movement amounted to only 919,220 cargo 
tons, a decline of 64 percent over the 15-year period. 

In 1921 exports of grain, coal and coke, petroleum products, refined 
sugar, chemicals, wheat flour, and iron, steel, and manufactures ac- 
counted for 87.5 percent of the total, whereas in 1936 the principal 
export commodities were petroleum, iron, steel, and manufactures^ 
chemicals, coal and coke, oil cake and meal, grain, and vehicles. 
These commodities comprised 92.2 percent of the exports during 1936. 
Marked changes in commodity tonnage occurrmg during this period 
were the drastic reductions in shipments of grain, coal and coke, wheat 
flour, and sugar, the iacreases recorded for petroleum products, ve- 
hicles, chemicals, iron, steel and manufactures, and the importance 
attained by oil cake and meal in 1936. This latter commodity was 
not recorded as entering into the export trade m 1921. 

The principal export trade area as determined from the statistics 
presented herein is continental Europe extending from Portugal north 
and east to the Baltic countries. To this region Philadelphia shipped 
a total of 337,949 cargo tons, or approximately 36.7 percent, of the 
export trade of 1936. In 1921 this same region received 788,612 cargo 
tons which was 30.9 percent of the total exports during that year. 
Reduction of grain and coal and coke shipments was largely responsi- 
ble for the decUne in tonnage from 1921 to 1936. As in the past the 
Havre-Ham.burg section which includes the countries of Germany, 
Netherlands, Belgium, and France absorbed the greater part of this 
movement. 

The Mediterranean and Black Sea trade area ranked first in im- 
portance in 1921 when total receipts of 862,584 cargo tons were re- 
corded which constituted 33.8 percent of the total exports. Of the 
total exports to this region in 1921, 719,493 tons were destined to 
western Mediterranean ports. Italy was the principal market, while 
France and Spain also received important quantities. Greece and 



398 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Egypt were the principal markets in the eastern Mediterranean. In 
1936, though this area ranked second in importance, the receipts from 
Philadelphia totalled only 159,642 cargo tons, or 17.4 percent of the 
total export trade of the port. Shipments were destined principally 
to Spain, Italy, and France in the western Mediterranean section and 
to Greece and Turkey in the eastern Mediterranean. 

Trade with the Latin American countries showed a considerable 
decline in tonnage from that to the same region in 1921. During 1921 
exports to this region totalled 366,262 cargo tons of which 56.1 percent 
were destined to the east coast of South America and 38.3 percent to 
the West Indies, the remainder being distributed to the west and north 
coasts of South America, Mexico, and Central America, while in 1936 
the total movement amounted to 113,375 cargo tons. Shipments to 
the east coast of South America maintained the lead over all other 
sections with a movement of 101,109 cargo tons, or 91.8 percent of the 
total. Coal, which formerly comprised the bulk of this trade, did not 
enter into the trade to the east coast of South America in 1936. In 
its stead petroleum became the principal export commodity with a 
total movement of 83,562 tons, while iron, steel and manufactures, 
vehicles, cement, and chemicals comprised the bulk of the remainder. 

Shipments to the north coast of South America were reduced con- 
siderably by the stoppage of coal exports. Machinery destined to 
Venezuela comprised 90 percent of the movement in 1936. 

Shipments of coal and miscellaneous merchandise to the Lesser 
Antilles totalling 3,202 cargo tons accounted for the entire export 
movement to the West Indies in 1936 whereas in 1921 exports total- 
ling 140,338 cargo tons were distributed to Cuba, Jamaica, Dominican 
Republic and the Lesser Antilles. 

Exports to Mexico declined from 5,659 tons in 1921 to 477 tons of 
iron, steel, and manufactures in 1936. This trade formerly included 
coal and coke, machinery, iron, steel, and manufactures, chemicals, 
and miscellaneous merchandise. 

Chile was the destination of the 7,598 cargo tons of coal and 
machinery shipped to the West Coast of South America during 1921. 
In 1936 the movement to this trade area consisted of petroleum, 
vehicles, chemicals, coal, and iron and steel manufactures, which was 
distributed to Chili, Peru, Ecuador and Colombia. 

The Canal Zone was the destination for 96 percent of the exports 
to Central America whereas in 1921 the principal movement was to 
Salvador. 

Exports to the United Kingdom in 1936 amounted to less than 10 
percent of those in 1921, when a movement of 474,447 tons were re- 
corded. Complete cessation of grain shipments and a drastic re- 
duction in exports of petroleum, flour, coal and coke, and chemicals 
were responsible for the change. 



TERRITORY TRIBUTARY 399 

Exports to Africa showed an increase over 1921 due to the entry 
of petroleum into this trade. In 1921 the total trade with Africa con- 
sisted of 3,135 tons of miscellaneous merchandise and 1,000 tons of 
sugar while in 1936 exports totalled 104,819 cargo tons and were 
destined to points in South, East, and West Africa. Petroleum com- 
prised 96.9 percent of the total. 

Shipments to Australia, the East Indies, India, Persian Gulf, and 
Red Sea were considerably expanded over the 5,174 tons recorded for 
1921, due principally to the movement of petroleum in large quantities. 

East Asia unproved considerably as a market for exports from 
Philadelphia. In 1921 the total movement to China, Japan, and the 
Philippme Islands amounted to 28,962 cargo tons which consisted 
principally of petroleum, iron, steel and manufactures, machinery, 
and miscellaneous merchandise. In 1936, however, this traffic had 
increased to 80,310 cargo tons, which was composed of a much greater 
variety of commodities than formerly. Prmcipal items in this trade 
during 1936 were iron, steel, and manufactures, petroleum, vehicles, 
chemicals, and miscellaneous merchandise. 

Trade with Canada was destined entirely to the Atlantic coast in 
1936 and consisted of coal, phosphates, petroleum, nonmetallic min- 
erals, and chemicals. In 1921 trade with Canada amounted to only 
19,174 cargo tons of which 18,678 tons were destined to Atlantic 
Canada. Coal, petroleum and machinery accounted for the entire 
movement during 1921. 

Inter coastal trade. — The movement of water-borne commerce be- 
tween Philadelphia and Pacific coast ports is an important phase of 
this port's business. 

From a comparison of the annual intercoastal traffic statistics 
compiled by the Division of Research, United States Maritime Com- 
mission, during the period 1930-1936 it appears that while the entire 
trade has shown a definite downward trend, the decrease is accounted 
for in the decline in receipts from the west coast. Shipments have 
shown a definite upward trend since the early part of the period. Pre- 
liminary totals for the 1937 trade indicate that the in-bound movement 
will be still lower and that the out-bound movement will show an in- 
crease over 1936. 

In-bound (east-bound) traffic. — A comparison of the movement 
during 1936 with that of 1930 when the previous report on Phila- 
delphia was released, shows that the declme in the various classes of 
tonnage was general, and that only a few items such as canned fish, 
flour, miscellaneous nonmetallic minerals, miscellaneous ores, metals, 
and manufactures and fertilizers showed an appreciable increase. 
Sugar entered into the trade since 1930 and durmg 1936 receipts 
totalled 13,324 cargo tons. The prmcipal losses m tonnage were at- 
tributable to the declme in the movement of petroleum, logs, and lum- 



400 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

ber, paper stock, canned and dried fruits and vegetables and vegetable 
products. The relative importance of the principal commodities 
showed few changes. 

Receipts from California ports were considerably under those of 1930 
with a movement of 447,186 cargo tons as compared with the former 
movement of 693,984 cargo tons. The decline in petroleum shipments 
was largely responsible for the loss of approximately 200,000 tons of 
cargo from Los Angeles, while the decline of 46,000 tons in the move- 
ment from San Francisco may be attributed largely to the decreased 
shipments of petroleum, canned and dried fruits and vegetables and 
vegetable products. 

Receipts from Oregon showed an increase over 1930 of 14,636 cargo 
tons, principally due to increased shipments of logs and lumber from 
Portland, Astoria, Bradwood, and Warrenton. Portland was the 
principal point of origin as formerly while Westport which ranked 
second in tonnage shipments m 1930 was superseded by Astoria and 
Bradwood. Important commodities in this trade from the Columbia 
River were logs and lumber, canned fruits, flour, vegetables, and 
vegetable products, and paper stock and manufactures. 

The State of Washington was the source of 64.3 percent of the 
receipts of logs and lumber during 1936, which comprised 73.3 percent 
of the total movement from that State to Philadelphia. The decline 
in shipments during 1936 compared to 1930 amounted to 125,152 
cargo tons, and may be traced to the falling off of the lumber trade 
which dropped from 207,036 tons to 102,844 tons, and paper stock 
and manufactures which dropped from 28,575 tons to 12,291 tons. 
Salmon shipments also declined considerably. Seattle was the prin- 
cipal port of origin with a total movement of 31,828 tons while Tacoma 
ranked second with 24,786 tons. Other important contributors to 
this traffic were Grays Harbor, Everett, Olympia, and Longview. 

Out-hound {west-hound) traffic. — Compared with the movement dur- 
ing 1930, shipments destined to California, Oregon, and Washington 
ports showed a decline of 16.5 percent, California received 349,654 
cargo tons in 1936, while in 1930 this movement accounted for 390,323 
cargo tons. Shipments to Los Angeles showed a decline of 53,849 
cargo tons, which loss was due principally to a smaller movement of 
iron, steel, and manufactures, vehicles, paper stock and manufac- 
tures, and petroleum. Gains were made by vegetables and vegetable 
products and pigments, chemicals, and manufactures, San Francisco 
outranked Los Angeles in 1936 with a total movement of 177,589 
cargo tons, a gain of 12,991 tons over 1930. 

As in 1930 Portland was the destmation of practically all shipments 
to Oregon, although the tonnage declined from 48,156 cargo tons to 
29,118 tons. Principal commodities in 1930 were iron, steel, and 



TERRITORY TRIBUTARY 401 

manufactures, vegetables and vegetable products, vehicles, pigments, 
chemicals and manufactures, and petroleum. In 1936 the same 
commodities were the most prominent except that the movement of 
vehicles decreased in importance and was supplanted by miscellaneous 
textiles. 

In 1930 shipments destined to the State of Washington totalled 
78,715 cargo tons, and were distributed to Seattle, Tacoma, Long- 
view, and Bellingham, while in 1936 shipments totalling 53,174 tons 
were distributed not only to these but also to Bremerton, Everett, 
and Port Angeles. As at other west coast ports iron, steel, and 
manufactures accounted for the bulk of the tonnage. Miscellaneous 
merchandise, paper stock and manufactures, chemicals, and vegetable 
products were also important items in this trade. 



402 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



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Barley 

Oil si>eds _ _ 


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Bananas 

Coconuts and copra 

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TERRITORY TRIBUTARY 



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cow 
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85 
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3,332 

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259 

13 

16 

16 

2,150 

2,564 

691 

94 

35 

""957 
6,098 


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wco 


C^ (30 1 1 CO O 1 ICO t -^ti 1 l»-H 1 1 ICO 

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pnBinij[ 








lO 
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2 ! I I : I : ■ ' 'J2 » 

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t^ llll rHl U> 

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t^ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

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a 

o 

3 
M 

'a 


I^iox 


O Ci u^ CO c^ 
-^ CO M CO ^ 

cd'im" 


83, 783 

""27 

105 

2,643 

868 

189 

256 

1 

20 

180 

123 

28 

615 

15 

611 

i7,'203 


K9IBAV 










i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i2 


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poBi3na 


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75, 809 

""27 

48 

1,699 

775 

189 

235 

1 

20 

180 

107 

28 

245 

15 

654 

i6,"465 


s 
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1 

a 
o 


l^50X 


CO 




i'^ 


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EXPORTS 

Wheat 

Corn 

Wheat flour 

Vegetables and vegetable products, n. e. s 

Fruits and nuts.. 

Sugar 

Naval stores 

Cotton 

Cotton manufactures... 

Wool and wool manufactures 

Textiles and manufactures, n. e. s 

Rubber and manufactures 

Paper stock and manufactures... 

Coal and coke. 

Petroleum and products 



TERRITORY TRIBUTARY 



407 



693 

18 

149 

'"2^669 
1,221 
2,419 

187 
3 
81 

258 
1,789 


IN 


a 

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1 c5 ^ ioai ^ <o coo I 00 r^ 


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329 
152 

1, 553 
601 

4,838 

5 

461 

404 

3 

1,281 
1,880 




418 

... 

175 


16 

99 

1,168 
759 


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90nBJj[ 


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! i i 1 ! i 1 i i 1 ! i ! I ! 


Sulphur 

Nonmetallic minerals and manufactures, 

n. e. s 

Iron ore 

Iron, steel, and manufactures 

Machinery 

Copper and manufactures 

Ores, metals, and manufactures, n. e. s 

Logs and lumber 

Phosphates. 

Other fertilizers 

Pigments, chemicals, and manufactures, 

n. e. s.- 

Miscellaneous 


3 

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1 1 j j 1 1 BJ ] j 1 J 1 [ j [ 

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1 1 1 j 1 1 d j 1 i 1 i 1 ; I 

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1 1 1 1 1 l^-o" 1 igS Is 
I : ! ! 1 '-Z Ota I ; 2 S ;2 

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S CTUja " Mtic~;ja'a 0x1 -u § § 

g 003*ja®icO*JOOOO^[r 

^upQOO>><;oooeu^^ 



408 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



"M liC M 



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' 1 1 1 1 i iw i i i 12' i i i i 


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2 

95 

971 

158 

600 

850 

49 

23, 275 

1, 609 

1,725 

5,063 

540 

1,964 

125 

14, 524 

4,559 

2.529 

26, 607 

40 

42 

25 

""4,"769 
1,505 
1,140 


GOUBJJ 


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spuBiJaqja^i 


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1,513 

1,100 

1,640 

15, 844 

40 

"""i,"409 
661 


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57 

552 
75 
12C 
130 

'"22,"i68 

103 

1,684 

4,433 

252 

184 

125 

8,340 

3,336 

3,404 

"12 

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95 

245 




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IMPORTS— continued 

Sillc manufactures 

Jute 

Jute manufactures 


OS 3 3 

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Paper and manufactures 

Clays 

Clay manufactures 

Gypsum 


Nonmetallic minerals, n. e. s 

Iron ore 

Manganese and manganese ore 

Copper and manufactures 

Miscellaneous metals and manufactures.. _.. 

Logs and lumber 

Dyeing and tanning materials... 

Potash 

Nitrates 

Other fertilizers 



TERRITORY TRIBUTARY 



409 



>o to 





651 
10 

274 

78 

108 

1,425 

51 

83 

98 

148 

12,072 

88, 349 

179 

1,497 

18, 708 

1,847 

127 

162 

25 

250 

"""9," 423 
1,487 


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410 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



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EXPORTS 

Wheat 

Hides, skins, and manufactures 

Paper stock and manufactures 



TERRITORY TRIBUTARY 



411 



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THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



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TERRITORY TRIBUTARY 



413 




414 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 





Atlantic 
Canada 
and New- 
found- 
land 


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1,149 

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EXPORTS 

Vegetables and vegetable products, n. e. s. 

Animal, fish, and dairy products... 

Fruits and nuts 

Naval stores.. 

Cotton manufactures... 

Wool and wool manufactures 

Textiles and manufactures, n. e. s 

Bides, skins, and manufactures 

Rubber and manufactures. 

Paper stock and manufactures 

Coal and coke. 

Petroleum and products.. 

Sulphur 

Noimietallic minerals and manufactures, 

n. e. s 

Iron ore 

Iron, steel, and manufactures 

Machinery 

Vehicles 

Copper and manufactures 

Ores, metals, and manufactures, n. e. s 

Logs and lumber 

Phosphates 

Other fertilizers 

Pigments, chemicals, and manufactures, 

n. e. s 

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o 
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TERRITORY TRIBUTARY 



415 



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416 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



13 






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Animal and dairy products 

Hides, skins, and manufactures... 

Corn 

Oats - 

Wheat flour 

Other grain 

Canned fruits — 

Rubber and manufactures 

Tobacco and manufactures 

Wool and wool manufactures 

Textiles and manufactures, n. e. s. 
Logs and lumber -. 

Coal and coke 

Cement -.. 

Sulphur 

Nonmetallic minerals and manufa 










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TERRITORY TRIBUTARY 



417 



7,775 

346 

244 

984 

69 

11 

771 

1,652 

6,865 


CO 


3 
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3 
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17 

8,237 

619 

538 

242 

180 

2,355 

78 

25 

1,340 

23 

2,570 

24 

67 

13 

102, 844 

12, 291 

2,353 

27 

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17 

7,778 
619 

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242 

180 

1,151 

78 

25 

1,117 

23 

1,438 

24 

67 

13 

14, 376 

412 

2,353 

27 

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1 1 1 1 1 1 i i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 leo 1 1 1 1 


7,758 

346 

244 

984 

69 

11 

771 

1,652 

6,865 


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133,977 

1,419 

3.583 

26, 236 

1,023 

202 

860 

27, 800 

47, 245 




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pa 


1 1 1 It^ 1 1 lr~co 1 1 1 

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69,099 

713 

2,108 

16,279 

287 

55 

815 

11, 588 

24, 651 


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63, 777 

706 

1,475 

9,907 

736 

147 

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16, 058 

21,928 


1 

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1° 

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153, 428 

1,890 

6,160 

28,573 

1,186 

213 

1,767 

34, 555 

63, 530 


CO 
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Iron, steel, and manufactures 

Copper and manufactures 

Machinery... 

Vehicles... 

Ores, metals, and manufactures, n. e. s 

Phosphates 

Other fertilizers 

Pigments, chemicals, and manufactures, n. e. s 

Miscellaneous 


"3 
o 
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IN-BOUND (east-bound) 

Canned milk 

Canned salmon 

Canned fish 

Fish and products, n. e. s... 

Animal and dairy products 

Hides, skins, and manufactures 

Oats 

Wheat flour 

Other grain 

Oil cake and meal 

Vegetables and vegetable products, n. e. s. 

Dried fruits 

Canned fruits 

Nuts 

Wool and wool manufactures 

Textiles and manufactures, n. e. s... 

Logs and lumber.. 

Paper stock and manufactures... 

Nonmetallic minerals and manufactures, n. e. s... 

Iron, steel, and manufactures. 

Vehicles 



418 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 






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1 



THE PORT OF CAMDEN, N. J. 

PORT CUSTOMS AND REGULATIONS 

FEDERAL SERVICES AND REGULATIONS 

Information relative to Federal services and regulations applicable 
at Camden is contained in the report on Philadelphia, see page 303. 

LOCAL REGULATIONS 

The following rules and regulations governing the Camden Marine 
Terminals are published by the South Jersey Port Commission: 

The commission does not obligate itself to provide dockage, wharfage, storage, 
equipment, labor, or other form of service beyond the reasonable capacity of ita 
facilities. 

Charges shall become due and payable upon presentation of invoice except as 
hereinafter specified. 

All dockage, wharfage, and other charges must be paid before departure of 
vessel, except in instances where a credit account has been opened or established 
by consent of the general manager. 

The right is reserved to withhold delivery of any goods on which storage, 
handling, or other charges have been assessed until such time as these charges are 
paid in full. 

All invoices rendered in any one month to steamship companies and/or agents 
on credit list must be paid on or before the twenty-fifth day of the succeeding 
month. If not paid by that date further extension of credit shall be discon- 
tinued. 

Dockage, wharfage, and receiving and delivering charges are assessed against 
vessels and not against the cargo. 

Vessels, their owners or agents desiring a berth at these terminals, shall apply 
to either the dock superintendent or general manager for reservations. 

If application for berthing is approved and a berth assigned, confirmation shall 
be made of the reservation to the applicant. No change in berth assigned shall 
be made without the approval of the general manager. 

When for reasons over which applicant has no control it is desired to cancel 
berthing assignments, due notice shall be given sufficiently in advance to preclude 
any loss of dockage charges; otherwise the commission reserves the right to bill 
against the master, vessel, shipowners or agents, to the extent of the minimum 
dockage charge of $35, and to use such unoccupied berth for other purposes. 

The right is reserved to measure all vessels when deemed necessary for the 
purpose of ascertaining dock charges. 

Vessels shall be moved or leave docks controlled by the commission at the direc- 
tion of the general manager. Any vessel which is not moved promptly upon notice 
to so move may be shifted, and any expenses involved, damage to vessel or to other 
vessels or to the wharves or piers during such removal shall be charged to said 
vessel. 

419 



420 THE PORT OF CAMDEN, N. J. 

All vessels berthed at wharves or piers operated by the commission shall at 
all times have sufficient crew to comply with all rules and regulations of the com- 
mission. 

The master of any vessel docked at these terminals shall, upon demand, before 
departure of such vessel, exhibit the enrollment or license of such vessel showing 
tonnage and the owner, agent, manager, consignee, master, or person in command 
of any vessel upon demand shall furnish a copy of the manifest or bills of lading 
for cargo discharged. 

The right is reserved, without question, to audit all manifests and to use such 
audits as a basis for charges. 

AU stevedoring work performed will be subject to the rules and regulations of 
the commission and the handling of cargo to and from the terminals must be 
performed in a manner satisfactory to the general manager, but the commission 
assumes no responsibility for such work. 

The port commission assumes no liability for loss or damage to freight or cargo 
handled or transhipped through the terminals, except property in storage after 
the expiration of the free-time storage period, and upon which storage charges 
have been assessed. 

The responsibility for loss or damage to goods in storage shall not include loss 
caused by fire, frost, heating, leakage, evaporation, natural shrinkage, wastage 
or decay, animals, insects, leakage or discharge from fire protection systems or the 
elements; nor will the commission be liable for any delay, loss, or damage arising 
from combination or strikes of any persons in their own employ or in the service 
of others, nor for any consequences arising therefrom, nor any causes unavoidable 
or beyond its control. 

The commission accepts no responsibility for damages or accidents occurring 
when its equipment and/or operators are furnished on a rental or time basis. 

In case any damage is done to a pier, wharf, or any of the property owned and 
controlled by the commission or to any cargo on the commission's property, the 
extent of damage, together with the name of vessel or person causing it, must be 
reported in writing promptly to the general manager, giving the date and hour and 
the names and addresses of the person or persons witnessing the accident. 

The expense of the repair of such damage shall be paid by said vessel or person. 

Settlement of claims for loss and/or damage to property, while in the com- 
mission's possession and for which liability is admitted, shall have the full benefit 
of any insurance that may have been effected upon or on account of said property, 
so far as this shall not void the policies or contracts of insurance. 

In such claims and adjustments due credit shall be made for the paid insurance 
premium thereon, to the extent and proportion of the amount involved. 

Except where such service is required as the result of the commission's negli- 
gence, all necessary cooperage, baling, and/or bagging shall be at owner's expense. 

Dangerous articles, including liquid petroleum products and other commodities 
deemed extra hazardous, "Rill be received only between the hours of 8 a. m. and 
5 p. m., and only upon written consent by the general manager, and must be 
immediately removed from the premises. 

Shippers of dangerous articles must present permit from the proper authorities 
before explosives shall be received on or transferred over these terminals. 

The right is reserved to reject all freight not packed in containers suitable to 
withstand the ordinary handling incident to its transportation and/or storage or 
be repacked at the expense of shipper. 

Glass, liquids, and fragile articles will be accepted only at owner's risk of break- 
age, leaking, and chafing. 

The assignment of berth privilege includes only the right of the person or firm 
making application therefor to dock vessels owned or operated by said person 



PORT CUSTOMS AND REGULATIONS 421 

or firm at such berth, subject to provision that when such berth be unoccupied 
the Commission may dock other vessels thereat. 

Vessels shall be moved or leave docks controlled by the Commission at the 
direction of the General Manager. Any vessel which is not moved promptly 
upon notice to so move may be shifted and any expenses involved, damage to 
vessel or to other vessels or to the wharves or piers during such removal shall be 
charged to said vessel. 

Rubbish, refuse, or other materials must be removed from the pier, transit shed, 
bulkhead, or other area within the confines of the terminal property by the person 
or persons placing it there upon demand; otherwise it will be removed at the 
expense of the party responsible. 

The commission's right is reserved to move freight or other material which in 
its judgment is likely to damage other property to another location within the 
terminal or to private facilities at the risk and expense of the owner. 

No person shall make fast any rope or mooring to any wharf or dock (except to 
the mooring bollards, posts, or bitts provided for that purpose) or to any shed or 
fender piles supporting same. 

When ballast, sand, gravel, coal, bricks, cinders, rubbish, or other loose matter or 
material that will sink is being discharged or loaded to a vessel alongside docks or 
wharves, or is being transferred from one vessel to another, a canvas chute or other 
contrivance to the satisfaction of the dock superintendent must be used to 
prevent any part of such substance from falling into the water. 

The roadways and platforms on the terminal's property shall be kept clear for 
traffic and no materials, cars, or trucks shall be allowed to remain or be stored 
thereon. 

The charges provided do not include insurance of any character. 

The terminal's property is not public thoroughfare and all persons entering 
thereon do so at their own risk. 

Orders to rail carriers for the placing, shifting, and removal of empty and loaded 
equipment shall be issued by the yardmaster under the direction of the dock 
superintendent. 

No responsibility will be assumed for delays or demurrage on railroad cars or 
detention on vessels arising from any cause whatsoever. 

No person shall smoke or light any matches or use or carry any open flame or 
lighted lantern, or permit any smoking or the lighting of any match or the use or 
carrying of any open flame or lighted lantern in the transit sheds, warehouses, or 
in the lumber storage yards. 

No person shall use any donkey engine, or other steam engine, on any wharf, 
dock, pier, or vessel, within the confines of the terminal's property in loading or 
unloading vessels or otherwise, without a bonnet or spark arrester attached to the 
smokestack of such engine to prevent sparks from flying upon the transit shed, 
storage yards, wharf, dock, or vessel. 

PORT ADMINISTRATION 

The port of Camden is under the jurisdiction and direct control of 
the South Jersey Port Commission which also exercises jurisdiction 
over the South Jersey Port District, embracing the counties of Mercer, 
Burlington, Camden, Gloucester, Salem, Cumberland, and Cape May, 
and all the lands and waters in the Delaware River, contiguous thereto, 
subject to the right, title and interest of the State in and to the lands 
under the waters of the Delaware River. 

78920—39 28 



422 THE PORT OF CAMDEN, N. J. 

South Jersey Port Commission 

The South Jersey Port Commission, consisting of three members 
appointed for 5-year terms by the Governor with the advice and con- 
sent of the Senate, is an agency of the State and as such is responsible 
to the Governor and the legislature. 

The chairman of the commission is selected by the commissioners 
from among themselves and they also appoint and fix the compensa- 
tion of a secretary, treasurer, and an attorney. The commissioners 
receive no compensation for their services, but are reimbursed for all 
expenses incurred in the performance of their duties. 

The port commission is a public corporation and body politic which 
has the power to acquire such real estate and other property as may be 
necessary for its purposes; sue and be sued; incur debts, liabilities 
and obligations; have a seal, issue bonds and other evidence of indebt- 
edness; borrow money and secure the same by bonds or mortgages 
upon any property held or to be held by it, and to do all acts and exer- 
cise all powers authorized. 

This commission was created in 1926 and was given power and 
authority, subject to the approval of the Board of Commerce and 
Navigation of the State of New Jersey, over the survey, development, 
control, and operation of port facilities in the port district, and coor- 
dination of the same with existing or future agencies of transportation 
with a view to the increase and efficiency of all such facilities and the 
furtherance of commerce and industries in the district. 

The Camden Marine Terminal operates under the provisions of the 
law which permits any municipality to set aside and devote any prop- 
erty owned by it and which is suitable for port facilities to the uses and 
control of the South Jersey Port Commission upon such terms and 
conditions as may be prescribed by the legislative body, and which 
allows municipalities to enter into contracts for financing projects 
with the commission whereby the commission will construct, main- 
tain, operate, equip, and repair a marine terminal with all the necessary 
wharves, docks, buildings, roadways, railroad tracks, and all other 
construction for the proper operation of a marine terminal. 

The Camden Marine Terminal under an agreement between the 
city of Camden and the South Jersey Port Commission, dated June 6, 
1928, has been developed and is now operated by the commission. 

To administer the terminal the commission has placed it under the 
direct charge of a general manager who is responsible to it for all 
activities concerned with the operation, maintenance, and improve- 
ment of the terminal. He does not exercise supervision or jurisdiction 
over any other port facilities at Camden. 

While nominal jurisdiction of the water areas of the Delaware 
River and Bay rests with the Board of Commerce and Navigation and 



PORT CUSTOMS AND REGULATIONS 423 

the South Jersey Port Commission, the Navigation Commission for the 
Delaware River and its navigable tributaries of the State of Pennsyl- 
vania has assumed jurisdiction as far as police power is concerned 
over the water areas along the New Jersey shore. 

The Board of Commerce and Navigation 

The Board of Commerce and Navigation exercises jurisdiction 
over and has full control and direction of all State projects and work 
relating in any way whatsoever to commerce and navigation, except 
such work as is conferred upon other boards, commissions, ofl&cers, or 
agencies. 



PORT LABOR AND METHODS EMPLOYED IN HANDLING 

CARGO 

LABOR 

Stevedore contractors located in Philadelphia handle practically all 
loading and discharging of vessels at the Camden Marine Terminals 
and private docks in Camden. It is their practice to form their gangs 
in Philadelphia, and either allow them 25 cents transportation or 
transport them by truck or bus between assembly points and Camden 
or other Jersey points. Men residing in Camden are not excluded 
from any gang working either in Philadelphia or Camden. 

For information concerning wage scales and working conditions for 
longshore labor at Camden see the section on labor in the Philadelphia 
section of this report, page 316, which also is applicable at Camden and 
other South Jersey points. 

METHODS EMPLOYED IN HANDLING CARGO 

The Camden Marine Terminals are open to all freight carriers on 
equal terms. Vessels using either the Spruce Street or Beckett Street 
wharves have no berthing priority and may be assigned to any berth 
available. However, lines calling regularly at the terminal are gen- 
erally assigned the same berth and space for assembling cargo. 

There are three berths available at the Spruce Street terminal and 
two at Beckett Street. At the Spruce Street pier cargo may be 
handled direct to or from cars placed on a single track on the apron 
along the south side. A semiportal gantry crane is also located along 
this side. On the north side cargo is handled direct between ship and 
transit shed either by ship's tackle alone or in conjunction with cargo 
masts on the roof of the transit shed. Along the bulkhead a crane is 
available for handling cargo. 

Lumber is handled from the end of ship's taclde by terminal labor 
and placed into the large open storage area in the rear, while other 
commodities are usually placed in the transit shed by the stevedore. 

At the Beckett Street terminal cargo may be handled by crane, by 
ship's tackle alone, or in conjunction with cargo masts located on the 
transit sheds. Double tracks on the wharf facilitate direct move- 
ments between car and ship. Two transit sheds paralleling the wharf 
aid materially in the rapid despatch of cargo. Cargo may be handled 
between car and ship through the transit shed. A platform in the 
424 



PORT LABOR AND METHODS EMPLOYED IN HANDLING CARGO 425 

rear makes possible direct trucking to or from box cars. This plat- 
form is also used by trucks although trucks are permitted direct 
access to cargo piled in the transit shed. 

Stevedores handle all cargo between ship and place of rest in sheds 
with the exception of lumber, nitrates, and potash, which are handled 
from ship's taclde to the storage area in the rear and to storage in 
warehouses by terminal labor. In some cases the stevedore by ar- 
rangement with the terminal will handle the latter commodities to 
storage warehouses. 

Lumber carriers are used to back pile lumber and are also utilized 
in handling other commodities that are usually loaded or discharged 
on skids or loading boards. 

Railroad connections with this terminal are furnished by the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad and the Pennsylvania-Reading Seashore Railroad 
Belt Line which operates along Front Street paralleling the water- 
front. 



PORT AND TERMINAL SERVICES AND CHARGES 

PILOTAGE 

The rates for pilotage into and out of the port of Camden are the 
same as those applicable to Philadelphia, see page 332. 

TOWAGE 

Towage rates are the same as those applying at Philadelphia, see 
page 334. 

CHARGES AT CAMDEN MARINE TERMINALS 

The South Jersey Port Commission, in its tarifT No. 2 of rates, 
rules and regulations governing the Beckett Street Terminal and 
Spruce Street Pier (Camden Marine Terminals), reserves the right at 
its discretion to make special rates for dockage, wharfage, use of 
facilities and other services on a monthly or annual basis. The 
charges in the tariff are exclusive of insurance of any character. 

DOCKAGE 

Dockage is charged against vessels for the privilege of berthing or 
making fast to wharf, pier, or dock. The following charges are appli- 
cable at the Camden Marine Terminals. 

Cents 
per net 

Vessels over 220 feet in length: ''"fon"^ 

Vessels operated on regular sailing schedules to and/or from Camden 

Marine Terminals, per 24 hours or fraction 1 

Other vessels, for first 3500 net registered tons per 24 hours or fraction. 2 

For each additional net registered ton, per 24 hours or fraction }i 

Minimum charge for any vessel over 220 feet in length, per 24 hours 

or fraction $35 

Exceptions. — (o) On vessels docking between the hours of 5 p. m. and 7 a. m. 
and on Sundays and holidays, when not working cargo during the period, charges 
will be assessed from 7 a. m. following the day of berthing. 

(&) When freight is loaded or unloaded from vessel at more than one pier or 
dock of the Camden Terminals in any one day, due to operating conditions over 
which the steamship company has no control, one dockage charge only shall be 
assessed. 

426 



POKT AND TERMINAL SERVICES AND CHARGES 427 

Vessels under 220 feet in length: 

Lighters, barges, and boats: per day 

60 feet in length $1.00 

51 feet to 75 feet in length 1. 50 

76 feet to 100 feet in length 2. 50 

101 feet to 150 feet in length 4. 00 

151 feet to 220 feet in length 8. 00 

Erceptions. — Exception (b) above also applies to vessels under 220 feet in length. 

The maximum combination dockage and wharfage charges billed against 
vessels 220 feet or less in length shall not exceed $60 per day of 24 hours or fraction 
thereof. 

Offshore lighters and boats. — No dockage or wharfage charges are assessed against 
vessels engaged in offshore work when alongside of vessel with which they are 
working at dock. This applies only from 24 hours before arrival to 24 hours 
after departure of vessels with which they are working. 

Berthing alongside of dock is allowed only when space is available, and any 
vessel so berthed must depart immediately upon notice from the dock superin- 
tendent. 

No dockage charge is made against vessels operated by Federal, State or muni- 
cipal government, not receiving or discharging cargo. 

All other piers and wharves at Camden are owned and utilized 
exclusively by private enterprises and are not open to public use. 
No dockage charges are assessed vessels carrying cargo for the oper- 
ators of these facilities. 

WHARFAGE 

Wharfage is a charge assessed against vessels for cargo passing over 
the wharves or docks. The Camden Marine Terminals assesses such 
a charge only in the case of vessels of 220 feet or less in length. It is 
in addition to the regular dockage charge. 

Wharfage charges: net ton 

On cargo discharged into or loaded from docks or transit sheds 15 

On cargo discharged or loaded from or into open storage 10 

On cargo discharged into or received from railroad cars or other 

vehicles 10 

Ship's stores handled over wharf, and fuel over ship's side of vessels loading or 
unloading cargo at wharves or docks is not subject to wharfage charges unless 
receipted for by terminal employees. 

No wharfage is assessed against offshore lighters and boats working with other 
vessels, see page 426 under Dockage. 

The maximum combined dockage and wharfage charges billed against vessels 
220 feet and less in length shall not exceed $60 per day of 24 hours or fraction 
thereof. 

LOADING AND UNLOADING 

Loading and unloading is the service of loading freight from plat- 
forms, transit sheds, or storage yards into vehicles or railroad cars, 



428 THE PORT OF CAMDEN, N. J. 

and for unloading the same. At this terminal loading and unloading 
of cars is performed for the railroad companies in accordance with their 
tariff provisions, see page 339. 

Except for intercoastal lumber, this terminal does not publish a 
charge for loading and unloading but bases the charge upon labor 
cost. Current rates will be quoted upon request. Loading inter- 
coastal lumber to trucks or teams is performed when requested at a 
rate of 65 cents per 1,000 feet. 

Carloading charges do not include cost of car stakes, lumber, or 
other material that may be necessary for the bracing of loads on or in 
cars. When such material and labor are necessary, the cost of same 
plus 15 percent will be charged against the shipment, except on ship- 
ments of lumber and timber, logs, poles, and piling which are subject 
to charges for blocking, staking, or otherwise securing freight as pro- 
vided for by railroad tariffs, see page 342 of Philadelphia report. 

HANDLING CHARGES 

Handling is the service of moving freight between storage and the 
point of rest on the dock where it has been deposited or will be picked 
up by the stevedore working the vessel. It includes ordinary sort- 
ing, piling, and trucking. The Camden Marine Terminal does not 
publish handling charges, but bases such charges upon labor costs. 
Current rates will be quoted upon request. 

Back-handling charges on lumber, lath, and shingles applying from 
end of ship's tackle to place of rest for truck delivery or storage at 
Camden Terminals are given under Philadelphia, page 341. Other 
handling and transporting charges applicable to lumber only at Cam- 
den are as follows: 

T-r „. Per 1,000 

Handling: feet 

From open storage to dock for vessels.. $1. 50 

From covered storage to dock for vessels 1. 75 

Transporting from storage: 

For loading to gondola cars from open storage .50 

For loading to box cars from open storage . 50 

For loading to gondola cars from covered storage .50 

For loading to box cars from covered storage .50 

Tallying when requested: 

For piling to storage . 40 

For loading to box cars , . 40 

For loading to open cars . 40 

For loading to trucks or teams . 40 

Sorting when requested: 

For piling to storage . 75 

For loading to box cars . 75 

For loading to open cars . 75 

For loading to trucks or teams . 75 

After piling to storage has been performed 2. 00 



PORT AND TERIMINAL SERVICES AND CHARGES 429 

STEVEDORING CHARGES 

The stevedore charges shown on page 343, Philadelphia report 
are also applicable at Camden. 

FREE TIME AND STORAGE 

Free time. — Free time is the period immediately preceding a ves- 
sel's loading or immediately following a vessel's discharge during which 
cargo may remain on the docks free of demurrage or storage charges. 
Free-time periods are exclusive of Sundays and full legal holidays. 
The days vessels are unloading or loading cargo are not counted as 
storage days. 

The following free-time periods are allowed by the Camden Marine 
Terminal. 

Days 
Coastwise, intercoastal and foreign traflac inbound except woodpulp, crude 

rubber and coffee ° 

Woodpulp and crude rubber ^5 

Imported coffee ^^ 

Coastwise, intercoastal and foreign traffic outbound 10 

The Commission reserves the right at its discretion to make an 
extension of free time when deemed necessary. 

Pier storage. — Cargo allowed to remain on a pier or wharf after the 
expiration of free time is subject to a penalty storage charge of 8 
cents per ton per day, unless arrangements have been made for stor- 
age, until removed by the shipper or consignee. 

The terminal reserves the right to remove any such cargo to another 
shed or place, repile on wharf, or remove to its warehouse. Any 
expense incurred in removing or handling such cargo is chargeable to 
the cargo, except when such removal is made for terminal's conven- 
ience and to conserve space. 

Storage charges will not be assessed in instances where delay in 
delivery of freight is clearly due to error on the part of the terminal's 
employees, or on account of delays for which customs officials may be 
responsible. In the latter case, certificates must be obtained from 
customs officials giving reasons for delay. 

Demurrage will be assessed against lumber on piers after expiration 
of free time at the rate of 10 cents per 1,000 feet per day. 

The following storage charges on lumber are published by the 
Camden Marine Terminal. Charges on all other commodities will 
be furnished upon request. 




Covered 

storage 



Lumber, per 1,000 feet per month - $0.25 $0.50 

Shingles, per bundle per month -015 .0-2 



Lath, per bundle of 100 per month. 



.02 



430 THE PORT OF CAMDEN, N. J. 

Warehouse storage. — The Camden Marine Terminal reserves the 
right to remove cargo to its warehouse upon expiration of free time, 
at which time regular warehouse storage charges become applicable. 
All cargo moved to warehouse either by terminal or under order of 
shipper or consignee is assessed a handling charge in addition to the 
storage charge. Upon removal of cargo from warehouse an additional 
handling charge is assessed. 

There are no published tariffs applicable to storage warehouses at 
Camden. The Camden Marine Terminal, the Camden Rail & 
Harbor Terminal Corporation, and the South Jersey Warehouse Co., 
however, will quote rates on request. 

LABOR RATES 

Labor rates are based on the current rates of wages for work and 
regular working days between the hours of 8 a. m. and 5 p. m., and 
on Saturdays, from 8 a. m. until 12 noon. 

Rates named for loading or unloading, handling, and other labor 
are based on current wages for straight time; when such services are 
performed during overtime periods and on Sundays and holidays, the 
difference in wages paid between straight time and overtime, plus 
15 percent, unless otherwise specified, will be charged to those respon- 
sible for authorizing such overtime. 

Labor for special services not otherwise provided will be at cost 
plus 15 percent. 

SERVICE CHARGE 

A service charge will be assessed on freight moving through the 
terminals, except when any one of the following services are performed 
and/or a charge applied therefor, receiving and/or delivery, wharfage, 
storage, handling, loading and unloading (including loading and un- 
loading of rail traffic when provided for in railroad tariflFs). 

A service charge of 20 cents per net ton weight or measurement as 
rated will be assessed against all freight, except commodities handled 
to or from open cars directly into or from vessels, including ore, sand, 
gravel, trap rock, crushed stone, pig iron, and scrap metals. A service 
charge of 10 cents per net ton will be assessed against commodities 
handled to or from open cars directly into or from vessels, including 
ore, sand, gravel, trap rock, crushed stone, pig iron and scrap metals. 

Service charges cover any one or more of the following services 
furnished by the terminals: 

1. Terminal facilities (other than handling equipment) for use of 
outside parties in performance of handling or loading or unloading. 

2. Care of cargo while on terminal premises. 

3. Arranging space for cargo. 



PORT AND TERMINAL SERVICES AND CHARGES 431 

4. Giving receipts or checking deliveries of cargo handled, loaded or 
unloaded by outside parties. 

5. Supervision, including the directing and placing of rail and truck 
equipment. 

•WEIGHING 

Weighing on truck scale, bulk commodities in trucks 7^ cents per 
net ton. Minimum charge 25 cents per truck. Where an even 
weight is required on any shipment of less than 10 tons, a rate of 15 
cents per net ton will apply. 

Weighing on platform scales, bulk commodities and/or package 
freight, 15 cents per net ton. Minimum charge 50 cents. 

Weighing will be done by certified weighmasters appointed by the 
State of New Jersey Department of Weights and Measures, and 
weight certificates furnished when requested. 

Weighing vehicles will be done at Commission's option and con- 
venience only, and will not include any other service. 

For each empty vehicle — 25 cents. 

For each vehicle under load — 25 cents. 

MINIMUM CHARGES 

Minirdum charge for any single shipment shall be — 

Wharfage $0. 50 

Handling . 50 

Loading .50 

Unloading .50 

Storage _ 50 

Note — No invoice will be issued for less than 50 cents. 

MISCELLANEOUS CHARGES 

Electric lights and power. — Electric lights will be supplied at $1 per 
light, per night or fraction thereof. 

Electric current for power purposes will be supplied at the rate of 
10 cents per kilowatt-hour. 

Fresh water. — Fresh water will be supplied to vessels at the rate of 
30 cents per 100 cubic feet, 32.06 cubic feet to the ton, minimum 
charge $1. 

When water is furnished before or after the regular working hours, 
an extra charge of $1.00 per hour will be made for the attendant. 

Receiving and delivery charges. — Receiving and delivering charges 
are assessed for the service of acting as agents for vessels in the 
receipt and delivery of cargo. These charges are assessed against 
vessels and include the use of dock and/or transit shed space for the 
assembly and delivery of cargo, prior to and after departure of vessels, 
in accordance with the provisions governing free time storage. 



432 THE PORT OF CAMDEN, N. J. 

A charge of 20 cents per net ton will be made lor receiving and 
delivering cargo. 

When freight is received or delivered during other than regular 
working hours, which are 8 a. m. to 5 p. m., Saturdays from 8 a. m. 
imtil 12 noon, excepting Sundays and holidaj^s, arrangements must 
be made with the dock superintendent and expense involved will be 
for the account of companies or individuals responsible therefor. 

Handling lines. — When lines are handled in and out for ships, a 
charge of t$6 will be made. 

Charges for mechanical equipment. — Mechanical equipment will be 
furnished by the terminals when available at the following rates: 

Per hour 

Electric crane with operator (1) $5. 00 

Gantry cranes with operator (1) ; 5. 00 

Gasoline tractor crane with operator (1) 5. 00 

Lumber carriers with operator 4. 00 

Electric lift trucks with operator 2. 60 

Conveyor, power 2. 00 

Cargo truck, 4-wheeled . 10 

Hand-lift truck . 75 

Hand-lift truck skids . 10 

The minimum charge on mechanical equipment shall be based on 
1 hour's work except for items marked (1) when it is $8. 

Telephone. — Upon application, ships berthing will be provided with 
free telephone service connections. The regular charges will be made 
for long distance and toll calls. 

Sorting. — When consignees or shippers require to be furnished with 
particulars of serial number, special stenciled marks, weights of 
packages, etc., charges will be assessed in accordance with labor rates. 



STEAMSHIP SERVICES, RATES, AND RATE CONFERENCES 

STEAMSHIP SERVICES 

Foreign. — Lines operating in foreign trade to and from Philadelphia 
will call at Camden when suflBcient cargo offers. 

Intercodstal. — The American Hawaiian Line and the Luckenbach 
Line offer weekly services between Pacific coast ports and Camden 
with transhipment at the former for cargo destined to the Hawaiian 
Islands and the Far East. 

The Isthmian-Matson Line schedules frequent direct saihngs to 
ports of the Hawaiian Islands. 

Coastwise. — In coastwise trade the Moore-Mack Gulf Line offers 
weekly sailings to New Orleans, Houston, Corpus Christi, and Port 
Isabelle ; the Pan-Atlantic Line sailings of the same frequency to New 
Orleans, Mobile, and Panama City while the Ericsson Line schedules 
a ship daily to Baltimore via the Delaware and Chesapeake Canal. 

For more detailed information regarding these lines and of steam- 
ship companies operating in the foreign trade from Philadelphia, see 
page 36 L 

RATES AND RATE PRACTICES 

(See p. 369.) 

STEAMSHIP CONFERENCES 

(See p. 375.) 

TERRITORY TRIBUTARY 

A discussion of the area served by the Delaware River ports in 
foreign and intercoastal trade is given under the above heading in the 
Philadelphia section of this report. The traffic figures compiled in the 
Division of Research, United States Maritime Commission, as 
giveu therein include the trade of Philadelpliia, Camden, Chester, and 
Gloucester City. Separate figures for Camden are not compiled. 

Shipments by water from Camden, intercoastal and foreign, prac- 
tically all originate in the immediate neighborhood of the port and 
consist of products of local manufacture. Imports are principally 
fertilizer materials from Germany, Chile, and Norway and woodpulp 
from the Scandinavian peninsula. Intercoastal receipts are made 
up for the most part of lumber and products from Wasliington and 
Oregon destined to South Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania points, 
by far the greater share of which moves to the interior by motor truck. 

433 



INDEX 



Page Page Page 
No. No. No. 



Absorptions: 

Intercoastal lines 

Switching: 

Baltimore & Ohio Rail- 
road 

Pennsylvania Railway 

System 

Reading Railway System. 
Adriatic, Black Sea, and Levant 

Conference 

Agency fees, handling steamers... 
Airlines: 

Description of 

List of 

Air^iorts: 

Description of -.- 

List of 

Algerian/North Atlantic Range 

Conference 

Amazon River Ports— United 
States Atlantic Coast Ports 

Conference.- 

American Airlines 

American Commercial Alcohol 
Corporation pier No. 72}^, 

south wharves - 

American Dredging Co. pier 

American Hawaiian Steamship 

Co., absorptions of— 

American Oil Co. wharf 

American West African Confer- 
ence.. 

Anchorages, description of 

Anchoring and mooring, regula- 
tions regarding 

Arbitration of disputes of long- 
shoremen 

Armstrong Cork Co. pier 

Ash Wharf 

Associated Steamship lines 

Atlantic and Gulf/Dutch East 

Indies Conference 

Atlantic and Gulf-Hawaii Con- 
ference. - 

Atlantic and Gulf-Panama Canal 
Zone, Colon and Panama City 

Conference 

Atlantic and Gulf-Straits Settle- 
ments, Malay States, and Siam 

Conference 

Atlantic and Gulf- West Coast of 
Central America and Mexico 
Conference 



357-8. 



130 



131 
132 



377 
359 



273 



125 



125 
379 



387 

125 273 



47 



250 



357 
35 



384 
6-8 



306 
323 



254 



32 
382 

383 

390 

388 

383 

388 



Page Page Page 
No. No. No. 
Atlantic and Gulf- West Coast of 

South America Conference 386 

Atlantic Coastwise Steamship 

Conference -. 390 

Atlantic Conference 391 

Atlantic-Pacific Intercoastal trade 372 

Atlantic Refining Co. wharf 28,37 

American Radiator Co. bulkhead 295 

Armstrong Cork Co 291, 

297 

Pier A 293 

Pier B 294 

Baird pier 245 

Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Co.: 

Carfloat bridge 49,66 

Free lighterage and car float- 
age, limits of- - 129 



Lines of 127 

Pier No. 12, north wharves... 60 

Pier No. 40, north wharves... 66 

Pier No. 22, south wharves... 55 

Pier No. 24, south wharves... 65 

Pier No. 62, south wharves... 49 

Pier No. 63, south wharves... 49 

Switching facilities, rates 129-30 



Barges and lighters, description 
of. 119-21 270-71. 

The Bari and Monopoli North 
Atlantic Conference 379 

The Barrett Co. bulkhead 36 

Basic wages per hour, longshore- 
men (table) 318 

Baugh & Sons Co.: 

Pier No. 70, south wharves... 47 

Pier No. 72, south wharves... 47 

Beans and peas, dried, railroad 
transit privileges regarding 139 

Beckett Street terminal 250, . 

424 

Blocking, staking, import freight, 
charge for 342 

Board of Commerce and Naviga- 
tion 423 . 

Bookmyer, Edwin A., pier No. 
52, north wharves 69 

Boulevard Airport - 125 

Brazil North Coast Ports— United 
States Atlantic Coast Ports 
Conference 387 

Brazil-United States Freight Con- 
ference 387 

Bridge pier (estate of Charles 
Stockham) 246 . 

435 



436 



INDEX 





Page Page Page 




No. 


No. No. 


List ot - 


11 


226 


Rules and regulations regard- 






ing 


12,13. 




Bulk freight storage - . 


110- 


265 




111 




Coal, facilities for 


20-22 


229 


Oil, facilities for 


17-19 


229 


Bureau of Marine Inspection and 






Navigation, Department of 






Commerce 


305. 




Cadwaladcr, Thomas F., pier No. 






3, south wharves - 


58. 




Calcutta/United States Atlantic 








382. 




California Eastern Line, absorp- 






tions of 


357. 




Calmar Steamship Corporation, 








350. 




Camden Lime Co. wharf: 










2.37 






236. 


Camden coke plant bulkhead and 










252 






424 




352. 




Campbell Soup Co. bulkhead and 










2-16. 


Canned foodstuffs, railroad transit 






privileges regarding -.. 


141. 






133-. 






34 




Car floatage, and lighterage regu- 






lations regarding, charges for — 


134-. 
37 




Car floats, operating companies, 






description of 


123- 




Cargo handling, speed per hatch 








324. 




Carloaders, working conditions... 


321. 




Cartage and drayage, charges for.. 


137. 




Casablanca/North Atlantic 






Freight Pool Agreement 


380. 




Central Airport, description of — 




273 


Channels: 






Entrance 


3-5. 






3-5. 




Controlling depths 


3-5. 






3-5. 




Regulations regarding obstruc- 








307. 




Chargcs: 






359. 




Allowances and charges, mis- 








142. 




Blocking, staking, import 








342. 




Camden Marine Terminals... 




426 



429. 
426. 



428. 



432. 



Page Page Page 
No. No. No. 

Charges— Continued. 

Car loading and unloading at 

storage warehouses 354... 

Cooperage 359 

Customs brokers' fees 359 

Demurrage: 

Car 133-34... 

Lumber 

Dockage 337 

Drayage and cartage.. 137 

Drying grain 356-7 

Electric current 229 

Export grain, storage in cars. 356 

Freight brokers' fees 359 

Freight service charge 430 

Grain elevator 355-6. 

Handling- 341 

At storage warehouses 354 

Ship's lines 358 

Pennsylvania Railroad... 349 

Interpreters' fees 359 

Launch hire.. 359. 

Loading and unloading 339 

Mechanical equipment... 432 

Minimum, for any single ship- 
ment 431 

Miscellaneous 358-60 431 

OlTice space 360. 

Oils, heating and thawing 343 

Pilotage 333 

Running lines, ship's 358 

Separation cloths 359 

Sewing bags.. 359 

Sorting goods 432 

Stevedoring 343 429 

Storage 345 429 

Coastwise terminals 351 

Lumber handling termi- 
nals 352 

Railroad piers 346. 

Surveyors' fees 359 

Terminal storage, inbound in- 

tercoastal traffic. 350 

Towage 334 

Warehouse storage. 352-3 

Water 17,359 



426. 
432. 



430.. 

229 

431,. 



427 



Weighing 343. 

Wharfage 338 

Checkers, receiving and delivery 

clerks, working conditions 321 

Cities Service Oil Co. barrel dock 

and bulkhead 233. 

City of Philadelphia: 

Bridge Street pier 87 

Bulkhead.. 27 

Gas works pier 85 

House of Correction wharf — 89 



INDEX 



437 



Page Page Page 
No. No. No. 
City of Philadelphia— Continued. 
Piers: 

Nos. 3 and 5, north 

wharves 59 

Nos. 9 and 11, north 

wharves 60 

No. 17, north wharves 61 

No. 19, north wharves 62 

No. 32, north wharves 63 

No. 35, north wharves 64... 

No. 57, north wharves 71 

No. 70, north wharves 73 

No. 127, north wharves. . . 84 

No. 217, north wharves... 86 

No. 4, south wharves 58 

No. 16, south wharves 56 

No. 30, south wharves 54 

No. 38, south wharves 53 

Nos. 78, 80, and 82, south 

wharves.- -- 46 

No. 84, south wharves 45 

No. 106, south wharves... 42 

Nos. 107 and 108, south 

wharves 41. 

Pumping station.. 88 

Tioga Street pier... 85. 

City pier 294 

Class rates: 

Intercoastal to or from Atlantic 

ports 373 

EaUroad... 144-50 

Coal and coke: 

Demurrage on 134 

Switching 132-33 

Coastwise terminals, storage at... 351 

Coles wharf - 253. _... 

Columbia Avenue Pier Co., Inc., 

pier No. 56, north wharves 70 

Commerce, Water-borne: 
Coastwise receipts: 

General description 276-77 

Delaware River, Phil- 
adelphia to the sea 
and Schuylkill 

River 167 

Philadelphia.- 193. 

Schuylkill River 209. 

Statistical Tables 281-82 

Delaware River, Phil- 
adelphia to the sea 
an d Schuylkill 

River, 1927-36 177-80 

Philadelphia, 1932-36. 199- 

201 
Schuylkill River, 

1927-36 213-14 

Coastwise shipments: 

General description 277 

Delaware River, Phila- 
delphia to the sea and 
Schuylkill River... 168 

78920—39 29 



« ^1 o O 

Page Page Page 
No. No. No. 
Commerce, Water-borne— Contd. 
Coastwise shipments— Contd. 
General description — Contd. 

Philadelphia 193 

Schuylkill River 209 

Statistical tables 282- 

283 
Delaware River, Phila- 
delphia to the sea 
and Schuylkill 

River, 1927-36 182-84. 

PhUadelphia, 1932-36. 201- 

203 
Schuylkill River, 1927- 
36 215-16 



Exports: 

General description 276-77.. 

Delaware River, Phila- 
delphia to the sea 
and Schuylkill 

River 167 

Philadelphia 193 

Schuylkill River 209 

Statistical tables. 280-.. 

281 
Delaware River, PhDa- 
delphia to the sea 
and Schuylkill 

River, 1927-36 174-77 

Philadelphia, 1932-36.197-99 

Schuylkill River, 1927- 

36. 212-13, 

220 
Foreign, by foreign coun- 
tries of origin and des- 
tination 402-14 

Imports: 

General desoriotion 276. 

Delaw^rpRiver, Phila- 
delphia to the sea 
and Schuylkill 

River... 167 

Philadelphia 193 

Schuylkill River 209.. 

Statistical tables 279-80. 

Delaware River, Phila- 
delphia to the sea 
and Schuylkill 

River, 1927-36 170-73 

Philadelphia, 1932-36 . 195-97 

Schuylkill River, 1927- 

36.. 211- 

212 
Foreign, by foreign coun- 
tries of origin and des- 
tination 402-14 

Intercoastal, by ports of origin 
and destination, statistical 
table ..415-18 



438 



IITOEX 



Ph 



o 



No. No. No. 
Commerce, Water-borne— Contd. 
Internal receipts: 

General description 277 

Delaware River, Phil- 
adelphia to the sea 
and Schuylkill 

River 168.... 

Philadelphia... 193 

Schuylkill River 210 

Statistical tables... 2S4 

Delav^are River, Phil- 
adelphia to the sea 
and Schuylkill 

River, 1927-36 184-85 

Philadelphia, 1932-36. 203-.. 

204 
Schuylkill River, 1927- 

36 - 216 

Internal shipments: 

General description 277 

Delaware River, Phil- 
adelphia to the sea 
and Schuylkill 

River 168 

Philadelphia 193 

Schuylkill River 210 

Statistical tables 284-85 

Delaware River, Phil- 
adelphia to the sea 
and Schuylkill 

River, 1927-36 185-88 

Philadelphia, 1932-36. 204-. 

205 
Schuylkill River, 1927- 

36 .216-17 

Intraport: 

General description 278 

Delaware River, Phil- 
adelphia to the sea 
and Schuylkill 

River 168 

Philadelphia 194... 

Schuylkill River 210 

Statistical tables: 

Delaware River. Phil- 
adelphia to the sea 
and Schuylkill 

River, 1927-36 .188-89 

Philadelphia, 1932-36 . 205- 

206 
Schuylkill River, 1927- 

36 217-18- 

Intraport receipts and ship- 
ment?, statistical table, 1927- 
36 



286. 



Oh O O 

Page Page Page 
No. No. No. 
Commerce, Water-borne— Contd. 
Local : 

Statistical tables: 

Delaware River, 
Philadelphia to the 
sea and Schuylkill 

River. 1927-36 189-91 

Philadelphia, 1927-36. 20fr- 

207 
SchuylkiU River,1927- 

36 218-19 

Summary of all trades 287, 

Statistical tables: ^^ 

Delaware River, 
Philadelphia to the 
sea and Schuylkill 
River: 

1927-36 

1937 

Philadelphia: 

1932-36 

1937... 

Schuylkill River: 

1927-36 

1937 

Commodity rates, rail. 



Continental North Atlantic West- 
bound Freight Conference 

Cooper River, description of, 

range of tides 

Cooper Street wharf 

Cotton, railroad transit privileges 

regarding 

Cramp, William, Ship & Engine 
Building Co.: 
Pier No. 77, north wharves.. 
Pier No. 80, north wharves.. 
Pier No. 86, north wharves.. 
Pier No. 20, Port Richmond. 

Grossman Field airport 

Customhouse brokers' fees 

Deakin, Elsie Malone, pier No. 

44, north wharves 

Delaware breakwater pilotage 

Delaware River: 

Berthing capacity of. 

Depths of water alongside 

Description of.. 

Improvement, history of 

Number of piers, wharves, 

and bulkheads on 

Delaware River Ferry Co.: 

Chestnut Street ferry 

South Street ferry 



191. 
191- 

207. 
207. 

219. 
220. 
150-. 
164 

378. 



225. 
247. 



139. 



75. 

75. 

75- 

76. 
125. 
359. 

67. 
333. 

23. 

23- 

3. 

13-14- 

23- 

58- 
65- 



INDEX 



439 



o 



o 



Page Page Pa?e 
No. No. No. 

Deli/New York Rate Agreement. 384 

Demurrage: 

Car - 133-34 

Coal and coke 134 

Department of Commerce, Bureau 
of Marine Inspection and Navi- 
gation 305.. 

Department of Labor, Immigra- 
tion Service 304 

Department of wharves, docks, and 
ferries: 

Organization of 311 

Powers and duties of 312 

Terminals of 309 

Derrick boats, description of 121-22 272. 

Disposal of refuse, regulations re- 
garding 307 

Diversion and reconsignment, rail, 
charges for and regulations re- 
garding 137-38.. 

Disston's bulkhead 89 

Dockage: 

Charges and definition 426. 

Municipal terminals 337 

Philadelphia Piers, Inc 338 

Private wharves and piers 338 

Railroad terminals 337. 

Domestic, all-rail traffic, car de- 
murrage 133 

Domestic traffic: 

Charges for, floatage and light- 
erage 135-36 

Free time on 349 

Drayage and cartage, charges for. 137... 

Drydocks, description 113 206-7 

Dupont Schuylkill River wharf.. 35 

Eastern Airlines 125. 

Services of 273. 

East Coast Colombian Steamship 

Lines Conference 386 

Electric current 17 

Description of and charges for.. 229, 

431 

Elevation and storage, gi-ain 354-7. 

Elevators: 

Charges at 355-6.. 

Floating 123 

Grain 263 

Pennsylvania Railroad Co 96. 

Port Richmond 96 

Equipment, floating, tables show- 
ing 116- 269-. 

123 272 

Elm Street wharf. 244 

Engineer Corps, United States 

Army 305 

Explosives, regulations regarding 
handling of 308 



P^ o o 

Page Page Page 
No. No. No. 
Export and import freight, charges 
for and regulations regarding 

within lighterage limits 136-37. 

Export ocean rate conditions 369 

Export trade, see commerce, wa- 
ter-borne. 
Facilities: 

Interchange between rail and 

water.... 128 275. 

Port and harbor 23-126 231- 

275 

Wrecking and salvage 124 273. 

Far East Conference 380 .• 

Federal services and regulations.. 303 419 

Fire protection... 25 292 

Floating equipment, tables show- 116- 269- 297 

ing. 123 272 
Floating grain elevators, descrip- 
tion of. 123 

Fogs 9 

Foodstuffs, canned and preserved, 
railroad transit privileges re- 
garding 141. 

Franklin Sugar Refining Co. pier 

No. 28, south wharves 64 

Free lighterage and car floatage 

limits 129 

Free time: 

Camden Marine Terminal. 429 

Carload shipments 348 

Coastwise terminals 351 

Definition 429 

Domestic traffic, Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad 349 

Intercoastal lines' terminals.. 349 

Philadelphia Piers, Inc 349 

Freight brokers fee 359. 

Freight, domestic, charges for 

floatage and lighterage 135-36 

Freight, export and import, 
charges for and regulations re- 
garding within lighterage limits. 136-37 

French North Atlantic West- 
bound Freight conference 378 

Fruits, citrus, railroad transit priv- 
ileges regarding 139-40... 

Fuel and supplies 17-22 229 291 

Garbage wharf 32... 

Garbage reduction plant bulk- 
head 30 

General Chemical Co. wharf 235 

General Contracting Co. wharf 238 

Girard Point elevator: 

Pennsylvania Railroad Co 354-5 

Piers Nos. 1, 2, and 3 39 

Grain: 

Rules for loading 327 

Storage 354-7 



440 



INDEX 



^ a 



o 



No. No. No. 

Grain elevation and storage 354 

Grain elevators 263 

Floating 123 

Charges at 355-6. 

Pennsylvania Railroad Co 96 

Port Richmond- — 98 

Grease and oil, lubricating petrole- 
um, railroad transit privileges re- 
garding.. 141 

Greenwich coal pier bulkhead 40.. 

Gulf Oil Corporation docks Nos. 1 

and 2 38 

Haenn's wharf. 38. 

Handling; 

Charges and definitions 428 

Lumber, lath and shingles 

(table) 341 

Pennsylvania Railroad... 349 

Storage warehouses 354 

Lines, ship's 358 432 

Rules, grain 354-5 

Harbor, general description. 3 225 291 

Harbor improvements — 

By the United States 13-15 227 

By local interests 227 

By State of Pennsylvania and 

City of Philadelphia 15 

Harbor of refuge 5 

Havana Steamship Conference 388 

Heating or thawing oils, charge for 343... 

Heavy lift facilities 90-96 258-62 

Holidays, longshoremen 318 

Hours of work, longshoremen 317 

Ice, interference with navigation.. 9... 

Immigration pier 294 

Immigration Service, Department 

of Labor.. 304 

Import and export freight within 
lighterage limits, regulations re- 
garding and charges for 136-37 

Import ocean rate conditions 371-72 

Import trade. (See Commerce, 

water-borne.) 
Improvements, harbor: 

By the United States 13-15 227. 

By local interests 227 

By State of Pennsylvania and 

City of Philadelphia 15 

Improvements, terminal 15 227-28 

Inflammables, regulations regard- 
ing handling of 307 

Interchange between rail and wa- 
ter, facilities for 128 275 

Intercoastal class rates, to or from 

Atlantic ports 373 

Intercoastal lines, absorption prac- 
tices of 357 

Intercoastal terminals, storage, and 

free time 349 

Intercoastal Steamship Freight 
Association 389 



No. No. No. 
Intercoastal trade. (See Com- 
merce, water-borne.) 

Interpreters' fees 359 

Iron and steel articles, railroad 

transit privileges regarding 139... 

Isthmian Steamship Co., absorp- 
tion practices of.. 357... 

Japan-Atlantic Coast Freight Con- 
ference... 380 

Java-New York Rate Agreement. 383 

The Jayne Trust pier No. 15, north 

wharves 61 

Kensington Shipyard & Dry Dock 
Co.: 

Center pier 239 

Lower pier 239. 

Pier No. 62, north wharves... 71... 

Pier No. 65, north wharves... 72 

Upper pier 238 

Labor: 

Port 316 424 

Rates 318-323 430. 

Lang Mills pier 295 

Launch hire 359 

Lehigh Coal & Navigation Co., 
piers Nos. 75 and 76, north 

wharves 74 

Levant/North Atlantic Range 

Conference 379. 

Liberty Corporation wharf 86 

Lighterage and car floatage, regu- 
lations regarding and charges for. 134-.. 

37 
Lighters and barges, description 

of 119- 270- 

21 71 
Lights, regulations regarding dis- 
play of by vessels 307. 

Loading and unloading, charges 

for 339. 

Definition of 427 

Import and export trafiBc 340. 

Intercoastal traSic 340 

Lumber 340 

Local regulations 305 419 

Luckenbach Steamship Co., ab- 
sorption practices 357 

Lumber: 

Railroad transit privileges re- 
garding 138 

Rules for loading and unload- 
ing 332... 

MacAndrews & Forbes Co. pier 254 

McCormick Steamship Co., ab- 
sorption practices 357 

Marine railways and dry docks, 

description of 113 265- 

67 
Marine repair plants, description 
of 115 268 



INDEX 



441 



Ph o o 

Page Page Page 
No. No. No. 
Wm. J. McCahan Sugar Refining 
& Molasses Co. piers Nos. 67 

and 68,south wharves 48 

Marseilles/North Atlantic U. S. A. 
Freight Conference - 380 

Mathis pier No. 1 -. 241 

Mathis pier Nos. 2, 3, and 4 240 

Meal hours, longshoremen 318... 

Meats, dressed and packing-house 
products, railroad transit priv- 
ileges regarding 140 

Mechanical equipment, charges 
for 432 

Mechling Bros, wharf 236 

Mediterranean Passenger Confer- 
ence 391 

Merchants & Miners Transporta- 
tion Co. piers Nos. 18 and 20, 
south whrtrves 56 

Frank Merrihew & Son pier No. 
53, north wharves 69. 

Methods employed in handling 
cargo.. 324 424 

Mingo Creek Station wharf 27 

Miscellaneous charges and allow- 
ances, railroad 142. 

Mohair and wool, railroad transit 
privileges regarding 140 

Municipal piers, number and lo- 
cation of 23-24 

Municipal wharf 237 

Mustin Field, airport 125 

Navigation commission, member- 
ship of and powers and duties. ..314-15 

Navigation season... 8. 

Newton Creet 291 

New York-East Coast South 
America Conference 385 

New York Freight Bureau (Hong 
Kong, Shanghai and Tientsin). 381. 

New York Shipbuilding Corpo- 
ration 291 

Pier No. 1... 255 

Piers Nos. 2, 3, and 4 256 

Piers Nos. 5 and 6 257 

Piers Nos. 7 and 8 293 

Nichols Co., Clayton W., pier No. 
39, north wharves 65 

Noecker Shipbuilding Co. pier 234 

North Atlantic/Australia-NewZea- 
land Conference 384 

North Atlantic/Baltic Freight 
Conference 375.. 

North Atlantic/Continental 
Freight Conference 376 

North Atlantic/French Freight 
Conference 376 

North Atlantic/French Mediter- 
ranean Freight Conference 377 



Page Page Page 
No. No. No. 



390. 



North Atlantic/Qulf Steamship 

Association 

North Atlantic/Morocco Tunisia 

Freight Conference 377 

North Atlantic Passenger Con- 
ference 391 

North Atlantic Ports to Santiago 

de Cuba, Cuba Conference 388. 

North Atlantic/Portuguese Freight 

Conference 376 

North Atlantic/Spanish Confer- 
ence 376 

North Atlantic/United Kingdom 

Freight Conference 375 

North Atlantic Westbound Freight 

Association 378 

North Atlantic/ West Coast of 

Italy Conference 377 

Northeast Piiiladelphia Airport .. 125 

Norway/North Atlantic Confer- 
ence 378. 

Obstruction, channels, regulations 

regarding 307.. 

Ocean rate conditions: 

Export... 369-71 

Import 371-72 

Oil, lubricating and grease petro- 
leum railroad transit privileges 

regarding 141 

Oils, vegetable, railroad transit 

privileges regarding 140 

Ontario Land Co.: 

Free time on lumber 352 

Pier No. 179, north wharves.. 84 

Pier No. 181, north wharves.. 85 

Pacific Coast Direct Line, absorp- 
tion practices of 357 

Packing house products and 
dressed meats, railroad transit 

privileges regarding. 140. 

Peas and beans, dried, railroad 

transit privileges regarding 139. 

Peerless Kid Co. wharf 239. 

Pennsylvania car ferry terminal.. 42. 

Pennsylvania Lumbermen's Mu- 
tual Fire Insurance Co., pier 

No. 51, north wharves. 69 

Pennsylvania Railroad Co.: 

Bulkhead. ....247-48. 

Car float bridge 249. 

Ferries 248. 

Free lighterage and car float- 
age limits of 129 

Girard Point elevator 354-55 

Piers Nos. 1, 2, and 3 39 

Grain elevators 96 

Lines of 127 

Pier No. 13, north wharves... 61 

Pier No. 14, south wharves... 56 



442 



INDEX 



Page Page Page 
No. No. No. 

Pennsylvania Railroad Co.— Con. 

Pier No. 57, south wharves..- 50 

Piers Nos. 49 and 50, north 

wharves 68 

Piers Nos. 10 and 11, south 

wharves 57 

Piers Nos. 40, 46, and 48, 

south wharves 52 

Piers Nos. 53, 55, and 5G, 

south wharves 51 

Storage yard bulkhead 249 

Switching facilities, rates 130-31 

Pennsylvania-Reading Seashore 

Lines, car float bridges and pier 255 

Pennsylvania Salt Manufacturing 
Co.: 
Piers Nos. 92 and 93, south 

wharves 45. 

Pier No. 94, south wharves.- 44 

Pennsylvania Sugar Co.; 

Pier No. 45, north wharves..- 67 

Piers Nos. 46 and 48, north 

wharves 68 

Penrose pier, petrol corporation.. 27 

Pernambuco Range-United States 

Atlantic Coast Ports Conference 387 

Petroleum, rules for loading 330 

Petrol Corporation wharf 31 

Philadelphia & Camden Ferry 

Co., Market Street ferries 59... 

Philadelphia Beltline railroad 127-28 

Switching 133 

Philadelphia Coke Co. pier 87 

Philadelphia Cordage Works pier. 88 

Philadelphia Harbor, limitsof 3 

Philadelphia Company for Insur- 
ance on Lives, piers Nos. 37 and 

38, north wharves 65 

Philadelphia Electric Co.: 

Bulkhead 34... 

Pier No. 61, north wharves 71 

Pier No. 225, north wharves. . . 86_ 

Wharf 88... 

Wharf...-. 233 

Philadelphia Gas Works wharf 37 

Philadelphia Maritime Exchange 

Station. 124 

Philadelphia Navy Yard pier 40 i 

Philadelphia Piers, Inc.: 

Dockage 338_... 

Free time on lumber 352 

PierNo. 100, south wharves... 43. 

Piers Nos. 96 and 98, south 

wharves 44 

Storage and free time at 349. 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co.: 

Pier No. 41, north wharves 66. . _ 

Piers Nos. 33 and 34, north 
wharves 64 



o 



o 



Page Page Page 
No. No. No. 
Philadelphia Sugar Refining Co., 
piers Nos. 60 and 61, south 

wharves... 60 

Pier storage charges 346, 429 

351-2 
Piers, wharves, and docks: 

Detailed description of 26-89 233- 291- 

258 296 

List of 297- 

300 

Number of 23 231- 

232 

PUotage 332 42fi. 

Delaware Breakwater 333 

Detention 333.. ., 

Fees 333 

Rates on the Delaware Bay 

and River (table) 334... 

Pitcairn Field, airport 125. 

Port administration 310 421 

Port and harbor conditions 3-17 225- 

228 
Port and terminal services and 

charges. 332 426 

Port customs and regulations 303 419 

Port differentials, rates, railroad, 

discussion of 142-43 

Port facilities 23-127 231- 291- 

275 300 
Port labor and methods employed 

in handling cargo 316 424 

Port Richmond, grain elevators . - 96 

Piers: 

A, Reading Railway Sys- 
tem 81 

B, C, and D, Reading 

Railway System 82 

E, G, and H, Reading 

Railway System 83 

J, Reading Railway Sys- 
tem 84. 

No. 20, William Cramp 

Ship & Engine Building 

Co 76 

Nos. 1 and 2, Reading 

Railway System 81.. 

Nos. 3, 4, and 5, Reading 

Railway System 80 

Nos 6, 7, and 8, Reading 

Railway System 79 

Nos. 9, 10, and 11, Reading 

Railway System 78 

Nos. 12, 13, and 14, Reading 

Railway System 77 

Nos. 16 and 18, Reading 

Railway System. 76 

Practices and rules, terminal 309. ... 

Precipitation 9 

Preserved foodstuffs, railroad 
transit privileges regarding 141 



INDEX 



443 



^ o o 

Page Page Page 
No. No. No. 

Public Health Service -. 303 

Public Service Co. wharf 235 

Publicker Commercial Alcohol 
Co.: 

Pier No. 105. south wharves.. 42 

Piers Nos. 103 and 104, south 

wharves 43 

Pure Oil Co. wharf 34 

Pusey & Jones bulkhead 296 

Quaker Line, absorption practices 

of. 357 

Quigley Shipyard pier 241-43. 

Radio stations 124 273 

Rail car demurrage charges, ab- 
sorptions by intercoastal carriers 357-38 

Railroad rates 142- 

164 

Railroad services and rates 127- 275 

164 
Railroad terminals: 

Pennsylvania Railroad 24 

Reading Railroad 24 

Railroads, serving port 127 275 

Rates: 

All-rail export commodity 
from Central Freight Asso- 
ciation territory 152 

All-rail import commodity to 
Central Freight Associa- 
tion territory 151 

And rate practices, steamship. 369 433 

Rail 142- 

164 

Class 144- 

150 
Domestic class, be- 
tween PhUadelphia 
and eastern Penn- 
sylvania 148-49 

Export, intercoastal 
and coastwise, all 

rail 146-47 

Export, lake and rail.. 147-48 

Import, intercoastal 
and coast-wise, all- 
rail 144-45 

Water and rail, Phila- 
delphia to southern 

territory 150. 

Water and rail, Phila- 
delphia to New 

England points 149 

Commodity 150- 

164 

Coal, anthracite from 
Pennsylvania to 

Port Richmond 158 

Coal, anthracite to 
Greenwich coal pier. 157 



o 



No. No. No. 
Rates— Continued. 
Rail— Continued. 

Commodity— Continued. 

Coal, bituminous or 
cannel from produc- 
ing regions 156... 

Coal, bituminous, to 
Atlantic ports for 
track delivery 157 

Coflee, to interstate 
points 163 

Domestic and export, 
iron and steel ar- 
ticles from Central 
Freight Association 
territory 153-54. 

Domestic, iron and 
steel from Penn- 
sylvania 155 

Domestic, molasses to 
trunk-line territory. 163 

Domestic, woo! 164 

Export, iron and steel 
rails and cross ties, 
new 155 

Export, iron and steel 
articles 154 

Fertilizer and mate- 
rials to interstate 
points 161 

Grain, export ex-lake . 153 

Import, bananas, to 
trunkline and New 
England territories . 163 

Import-intercoastal- 
coastwise molasses 
to Central Freight 
Association and 
Canadian terri- 
tories 162 

Import, cocoa beans 
to Central Freight 
Association terri- 
tory.. 164 

Import, sugar, to in- 
terstate points 162 

Import, woodpulp to 
western points 161 

Import, woodpulp to 
points in trunkline 
territory 161 

Import, woodpulp 
from Philadelphia 
to points in New 
England.. 160 

Lumber, Philadelphia 
to interstate points. 160 

Limiber, from Port 
Richmond to Phila- 
delphia local points. 160 



444 



IISDEX 



£ o 5 

Page Page Page 
No. No. No. 
Rates— Continued. 
Rail— Continued. 

Commodity— Continued. 
Ore from Philadel- 
phia 156 

Petroleum and prod- 
ucts Philadelphia to 

interstate points 159 

Petroleum and prod- 
ucts from Port Rich- 
mond to Philadel- 
phia local points 159 

Pig iron from Phila- 
delphia 155 

Port differentials, discus- 
sion of 142-43 

Proportional class, Phila- 
delphia and southern 

ports 150 

Proportional export and 
domestic, reshipping on 
grain and flour from 
Central Freight Associa- 
tion territory 152 

Switching 129- 

133 
Steamship: 

Intercoastal, class, to or 

from Atlantic ports 373 _ 

Intercoastal, commodity, 
east-bound to Atlantic 

ports 373 

Intercoastal, commodity, 
west-bound from Atlan- 
tic ports 373 

Intercoastal, east-bound 
lumber and lumber 

products 374 

Intercoastal, lumber to 

Atlantic ports 373 

Transportation to Atlan- 
tic ports 374 

Reading Co.: 

Bulkhead 253... . 

Car float bridge. 246.... 

Ferry 253.... 

Wharf. 32 245.... 

Reading Railway System 127 

Free lighterage and car float- 
age, limits of 129 

Piers: 

No. 43, north wharves 67 

Nos. 24 and 25, north 

wharves 62 

Nos. 27 and 31, north 

wharves 63 

Nos. 1 and 2, Port Rich- 
mond 81 

Nos. 3, 4, and 6, Port 
Richmond 80 



Page Page Page 
No. No. No. 
Reading Railway System— Contd. 
Piers— Continued . 

Nos. 6, 7, and 8, Port 

Richmond 79. 

Nos. 9, 10, and 11, Port 

Richmond 78 

Nos. 12, 13, and 14, Port 

Richmond 77 

Nos. 16 and 18, Port Rich- 
mond 76 

A, Port Richmond 81 

B, C, and D, Port Rich- 
mond 82 

E, Q, and H, Port Rich- 
mond 83 

J, Port Richmond 84 

Nos. 8 and 9, south 

wharves 57 

No. 34, south wharves 54 

Nos. 35 and 36, south 

wharves 53... 

No. 64, south wharves 48 

Switching facilities, rates 131-32 

Receiving and delivery of cargo, 

charge for 431 

Reconsignment and diversion, rail, 
regulations regarding, charges 

for ....137-38... 

Refuse, regulations regarding dis- 
posal of 307 

Regulations and rules, local 305 

Repair plants, marine, description 

of 115 268 

Reporting station, display of sig- 
nals for 305... 

Reporting vessels, regulations re- 
garding 306. 

Richfield Oil Corp. pier 29. 

Rules and practices, terminal 309 

Rules for: 

Loading grain _ 327 

Loading petroleum 330.. 

Loading and unloading lum- 
ber 332 

Unloading sugar 328 

Salvage and wrecking facilities 124 273 

Sanitarium wharf 296 

Schuylkill River: 

Berthing capacity of 23 

General description of 3 

Improvement, history of 14-15 

Number of piers on 23 

Oil terminal 36... 



Scows and barges, description of... 270-71. 

Service charge on freight 430. 

Serv ices and rates, railroad 127- 



164 



Shell Union Oil Wharf. 



INDEX 



445 



= 6 



o 



Page Page Page 
No. No. No. 
Shepard Steamship Co., east- 
bound intercoastal tariff 350..- 

Signal stations 124 

Signals, display of for reporting 

station 305 

Smith, George W.: 

Bulkhead 30... 

Wharf 31. 

Socony-Vacuum Oil Co. wharf. .- 29 

Sorting goods, charges for... 432 

South Africa/U. S. A. Conference. 385 

South Jersey Port Commission 422 

South Philadelphia terminal, car- 
float bridge 41 

Southwark pier — 254 

Spain-Portugal/North .Atlantic 

Range Conference... - 379. 

Speed of vessels, regulations re- 
garding 305 

Spruce Street municipal pier 252 

Spruce Street terminal 424 

Standard Ice Co. bulkhead 33 

Standard Oil Co.: 

Barge pier No. 2... .- 28 

Steamer pier No. 1 28 

Wharf. - 235. 

Steamship conferences 375- 433 

391 

Steamship rates and rate practices. 369 

Steamship services: 

Coastwise -— 363 433 

Foreign.. --- 361 433 

Intercoastal - 363 433 

Table of.. — - 364- 

368 
Steamship services, rates and rate 

conferences 361 433. 

Stevedoring charges 343 

List of commodities with 

charge - — 344 

Stevedoring contractors, list of— 323 .- 

Stockham pier. 244 

Stockyards wharf. 35 

Storage: 

Bonded 354 

Coastwise terminals.. 351 

Domestic traffic, wood pulp— 349 

Export traffic - 347 

Grain 354-7 

Import traffic -- 346 

In-bound intercoastal traffic. 350. 

Intercoastal lines' terminals.. 349 

Lumber handling terminals.. 352 

Municipal wharves 345 

Philadelphia Piers, Inc 349 

Railroad piers 346 

Warehouse 352 

Bulk freight, faculties for 110- 265 

11 



fe o o 

Page Page Page 
No. No. No. 
Storage charges: 

Pier.. 429. 

Rules and regulations 345. 

Storage warehouses, description oL 97- 263, 

109 264 

Straits/New York Conference 383... 

Sugar: 

Beet and cane, railroad trans- 
it, privileges regarding 141 

Rules for unloading 328 

Summerton, airport... - 125 

Sun Oil Co.: 

Bulkhead 33 

Wharf 237 

Surveyors' fees, cargo 359... 

Switching: 

Coal and coke... 132-. 

133 

Facilities and rates 129- 

133 
Philadelphia Beltline Rail- 
road 133 

Taylor White wharf 236 

Temperature 9- 

Terminal improvements 15-16 227- 

228 

Terminal rules and practices 309 

Terminal Warehouse Co. 
Terminal Pier No. 25H, north 

wharves 64 

Terminal Pier No. 36, north 

wharves 65 

Terminals: 

Municipal 23 

Railroad.... - 24. 

Territory tributary 392 433 

Texas Co. pier .- 234 

Tidal currents... 6... 

Tide Water Oil Co. wharf 31. 

Tides. 5. 

Towage, schedule of rates, terms 

and conditions. 334- 

335 

Towboats, description of 117- 269. 

119 
Trade. (See Commerce, water- 
borne.) 
Transcontinental and Western 

Air 125 

services of -- 273 

Transit privileges, railroad 139- 

142 
Treasury Department, Customs 

Service.. 303 

Tucker's Yard pier 234 

Union Paving Co.: 

Pier No. 71, north wharves... 73 

Pier No. 72, north wharves... 74 



446 



INDEX 



Cm O O 

Page Page Page 
No. No. No. 

United Airlines 125 

Services of. 273 

United States Army, Engineer 

Corps - - 305- 

United States Atlantic and Qulf- 

Haiti Conference... 389. 

United States Atlantic and Gulf/ 

India and Ceylon Conference... 382 

United States Atlantic and Gulf- 
Netherlands West Indies and 

Venezuela Conference 386 

United States Atlantic and Gulf- 
Puerto Rico Conference 390 

United States Atlantic and Gulf 
Ports-Jamaica (B. W. I.) Steam- 
ship Conference 389 

United States Atlantic and Gulf- 
Santo Domingo Conference 389 

United States Engineers, Pier No. 

1 and 2 26 

United States Gypsum Co. wharf. 29 

United States Navy, pier No. 3.. 26 

United States North Atlantic/ 

Malta Freight Rate agreement . 377 

United States Quartermaster 

Corps bulkhead 34 

United States/River Plate and 

Brazil Conference 385... 

United States/South Africa Con- 
ference 385 

Vaughan's wharf 244 

Vessels, regulations regarding: 

Reporting of 306 _. 

Speed of- 305 

Victor wharf 247 

Vine Street yard bulkhead 243 

Warehouse storage charges 430 

Warehouses, storage: 

Detailed description of.. 97, 109 264 

General description of 263. 

Warner Co.: 

Bulkhead 30,89 

Christian St. bulkhead 33 

Pier No. 69, north wharves... 73 



a B 



Page Page Page 
No. No. No. 



Warner Co. — Continued. 

Piers Nos. 54 and 55, north 

wharves 

Piers Nos. 66 and 67, north 

wharves 

Wharf... 

Watchmen, hours and duties of... 

Water, supply and cost of. 

Waterborne commerce. (See Com- 
merce, Water-borne.) 
Waterfront: 

Length of 

Ownership of 

Weighing: 

Bulk commodities.. 

Charge for 

Wells, Joseph A., Intercoastal 

freight tariff 

Welsbach wharf 

West Coast of Italy and Sicilian 
Ports/North Atlantic Range 

Conference 

Wharfage 

Charges 

Definition.. 

Top wharfage. 

Wharves: 

Docks and ferries, department 

oL.... 

Organization 

Powers and duties... 

Winds, prevailing 

Windward and Leeward Islands 
Conference 



Wings Field, airport 

Wool and mohair, railroad transit 
privileges regarding... 

Working conditions, longshore- 
men, foreign and intercoastal 
cargoes... 

Worsted Co. wharf.- 

Wrecking and salvage facilities... 



70. 



72 

87 

322 

17 229. 



23 

16 228. 



343- 
350. 



293 



379. 
338. 



427. 
427. 



338. 



311. 
311. 
312. 



386,. 

389, 
391 
125. 

140. 



318 

-.-. 238. 
124 273. 



o 



1 1 
3